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Author Miller, R.; Lamb, R.
Title The Revolution in Horsemanship: And What It Means to Mankind Type Book Whole
Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Synopsis

Beginning with equine evolution and domestication, Dr. Miller and Rick Lamb focus on the contributions of such classical horsemen as Xenophon, Pluvinel, nineteenth-century “whisperers, tamers, and professors,” and modern masters like the Dorrances, Buck Brannaman, Pat Parelli, John Lyons, and their disciples, and the connection between rodeo and natural horsemanship. The authors describe how the horse's mind works, how horses learn, and how the revolution has used those principles, especially with regard to a training regimen for newborn foals developed by Dr. Miller that produces positive results to last a lifetime. These training methods include new techniques in riding, such as preliminary groundwork and the independent seat, as well as visualization and other aspects of sport psychology, yoga, and allied disciplines. Appendices assess innovations in hoof care, nutrition, and veterinary treatment, including so-called “alternative therapies.”
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Lyons Press Place of Publication Guilford,Connecticut Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-1592283873 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2169
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Author Nicol, C.J.; Potzsch, C.; Lewis, K.; Green, L.E.
Title Matched concurrent case-control study of risk factors for feather pecking in hens on free-range commercial farms in the UK Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci
Volume 44 Issue 4 Pages 515-523
Keywords *Aggression; Analysis of Variance; Animal Husbandry/methods; Animals; Case-Control Studies; Chickens/*physiology; Feathers; Female; Multivariate Analysis; Odds Ratio; Regression Analysis; Species Specificity
Abstract 1. The aim of the study was to compare the management and husbandry of free-range flocks in the UK where feather pecking was either present (case) or absent (control). 2. One hundred flocks were enrolled into a concurrent case-control study: 50 where birds had recently started feather pecking, and 50 matched control flocks where birds of the same age had not started feather pecking. 3. Information was obtained from a detailed interview with the flock manager, and by direct inspection of the flock, house and range. 4. Initial univariate analyses revealed that case flocks were more likely to comprise ISA Brown than Lohmann, were more likely to be restricted from litter areas to prevent floor eggs, and were less likely to use the outside range. 5. Cluster analysis indicated that feather pecking was not associated with any particular husbandry system. 6. The only influential risk factor significant in the multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis was use of the outdoor range. The risk of feather pecking was reduced 9-fold in flocks where more than 20% of birds used the range on sunny days (odds ratio = 0.12). Use of the range was positively associated with the presence of trees and/or hedges on the range.
Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, England. c.j.nicol@bris.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:14584840 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 79
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Author Albentosa, M.J.; Kjaer, J.B.; Nicol, C.J.
Title Strain and age differences in behaviour, fear response and pecking tendency in laying hens Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci
Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 333-344
Keywords Age Factors; Aggression/*physiology; Animal Husbandry; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Breeding; Chickens/genetics/*physiology; Fear/*physiology; Feathers/*injuries; Female; Housing, Animal; Population Density; Social Behavior
Abstract 1. Behaviours associated with a high or low tendency to feather peck could be used as predictors of feather pecking behaviour in selective breeding programmes. This study investigated how strain and age at testing influenced responses in behavioural tests. 2. Four layer-type strains (ISA Brown, Columbian Blacktail, Ixworth and a high feather pecking (HP) and a low feather pecking (LP) line of White Leghorn) were reared in 6 same-strain/line pens of 8 birds from one day old. Birds in half the pens were given an open field test, a novel object test and a test with loose feather bundles between 4 and 12 weeks of age and a tonic immobility (TI) test at 13 weeks of age. All pens were tested with fixed feather bundles at 26 weeks, and undisturbed behaviour in the home pens was videoed at 1 and 27 weeks of age. Daily records of plumage damage were used as an indicator of feather pecking activity in the home pens. 3. Strain did not influence novel object test, open field test or loose feather test behaviour, although age effects in all three tests indicated a reduction in fearfulness and/or an increase in exploratory behaviour with increasing age. 4. White Leghorns showed longer TI durations than the other strains but less pecking at fixed feather bundles than ISA Browns and Columbian Blacktails. 5. There were few associations between behaviour in the 5 different tests, indicating that birds did not have overall behavioural traits that were consistent across different contexts. This suggests hens cannot easily be categorised into different behavioural 'types', based on their test responses and casts doubt on the usefulness of tests as predictors of feather pecking.
Address Centre for Behavioural Biology, Division of Farm Animal Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, England. MAlbentosa@lincoln.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:13677322 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 80
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Author Gavrilova, O.; Haluzik, M.; Matsusue, K.; Cutson, J.J.; Johnson, L.; Dietz, K.R.; Nicol, C.J.; Vinson, C.; Gonzalez, F.J.; Reitman, M.L.
Title Liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma contributes to hepatic steatosis, triglyceride clearance, and regulation of body fat mass Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication The Journal of biological chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem
Volume 278 Issue 36 Pages 34268-34276
Keywords Adipose Tissue/*metabolism; Animals; Blotting, Southern; Blotting, Western; Female; Hypoglycemia/genetics; Insulin Resistance/genetics; Lipid Metabolism; Liver/*metabolism; Liver Diseases/genetics/*metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; RNA/metabolism; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/*genetics/*physiology; Recombination, Genetic; Thiazoles/pharmacology; *Thiazolidinediones; Time Factors; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*physiology; Triglycerides/*metabolism
Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that mediates the antidiabetic effects of thiazolidinediones. PPAR gamma is present in adipose tissue and becomes elevated in fatty livers, but the roles of specific tissues in thiazolidinedione actions are unclear. We studied the function of liver PPAR gamma in both lipoatrophic A-ZIP/F-1 (AZIP) and wild type mice. In AZIP mice, ablation of liver PPAR gamma reduced the hepatic steatosis but worsened the hyperlipidemia, triglyceride clearance, and muscle insulin resistance. Inactivation of AZIP liver PPAR gamma also abolished the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of rosiglitazone, demonstrating that, in the absence of adipose tissue, the liver is a primary and major site of thiazolidinedione action. In contrast, rosiglitazone remained effective in non-lipoatrophic mice lacking liver PPAR gamma, suggesting that adipose tissue is the major site of thiazolidinedione action in typical mice with adipose tissue. Interestingly, mice without liver PPAR gamma, but with adipose tissue, developed relative fat intolerance, increased adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Thus, liver PPAR gamma regulates triglyceride homeostasis, contributing to hepatic steatosis, but protecting other tissues from triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance.
Address Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. oksanag@bdg10.niddk.nih.gov
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-9258 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12805374 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 81
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Author Freire, R.; Wilkins, L.J.; Short, F.; Nicol, C.J.
Title Behaviour and welfare of individual laying hens in a non-cage system Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci
Volume 44 Issue 1 Pages 22-29
Keywords *Animal Welfare; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Chickens; Female; Housing, Animal/*standards; Oviposition
Abstract 1. A leg band containing a transponder was fitted to 80 birds in a perchery containing 1,000 birds. 2. The transponder emitted a unique identification number when a bird walked on one of 8 flat antennae on the floor. The recording apparatus was used to measure the amount of time that each of the tagged birds spent on the slatted and littered areas in a 6-week period. 3. Some birds spent long periods of time on the slats, possibly as a means of avoiding repeated attacks. Duration on the slats was greatest in birds with the worst (as opposed to better) feather scores of the head, back and tail regions. 4. Birds that spent long periods on the slats were lighter than other birds at both 39 weeks of age and 72 weeks of age and had greater back, head and tail feather damage, consistent with these birds being victims of pecking. 5. Tagged birds received a social avoidance test outside the perchery at 39 weeks of age, which suggested that birds retreated to the slats in response to pecks rather than just to close proximity to other birds. 6. The failure to find that duration on the slats was related to anatomical indicators of stress (liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius) suggests that retreating to the slats following pecking attenuates physiological stress responses. 7. We conclude that the provision of areas where birds in a large group can avoid pecking may improve the welfare of a minority of victimised birds.
Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, England. rkfreire@hotmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12737221 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 82
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Author Nicol, C.J.; Davidson, H.P.D.; Harris, P.A.; Waters, A.J.; Wilson, A.D.
Title Study of crib-biting and gastric inflammation and ulceration in young horses Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication The Veterinary record Abbreviated Journal Vet. Rec.
Volume 151 Issue 22 Pages 658-662
Keywords Animal Husbandry/methods; Animals; Antacids/therapeutic use; *Behavior, Animal; Diet/veterinary; Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/veterinary; Feces/chemistry; Female; Gastritis/diet therapy/physiopathology/*veterinary; Horse Diseases/diet therapy/*physiopathology/psychology; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Male; Random Allocation; Stereotyped Behavior/*physiology; Stomach Ulcer/diet therapy/physiopathology/*veterinary; Treatment Outcome; Weaning
Abstract Nineteen young horses that had recently started to perform the stereotypy of crib-biting were compared with 16 non-stereotypic horses for 14 weeks. After initial observations of their behaviour and an endoscopic examination of the condition of their stomachs, the horses were randomly allocated to a control or an antacid diet At the start of the trial, the stomachs of the crib-biting foals were significantly more ulcerated and inflamed than the stomachs of the normal foals. In addition, the faecal pH of the crib-biting foals (6.05) was significantly lower than that of the normal foals (6.58). The antacid diet resulted in a significant improvement in the condition of the horses' stomachs. The crib-biting behaviour declined in most of the foals, regardless of their diet, but tended to decline to a greater extent in the foals on the antacid diet.
Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Bristol BS40 5DU
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0042-4900 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12498408 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 83
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Author Waters, A.J.; Nicol, C.J.; French, N.P.
Title Factors influencing the development of stereotypic and redirected behaviours in young horses: findings of a four year prospective epidemiological study Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J
Volume 34 Issue 6 Pages 572-579
Keywords Age Factors; Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animal Welfare; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Female; Horse Diseases/epidemiology/prevention & control/*psychology; Horses; Housing, Animal; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Prevalence; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; *Stereotyped Behavior; Weaning
Abstract Stereotypies are invariant and repetitive behaviour patterns that seemingly have no function, which tend to develop in captive animals faced with insoluble problems and may be indicative of reduced welfare. A 4 year prospective study of the factors influencing the development of stereotypic and redirected behaviours (abnormal behaviour) in a population of 225 young Thoroughbred and part-Thoroughbred horses was conducted between 1995 and 1999. Abnormal behaviour affected 34.7% of the population. Multivariable analysis showed that foals of low- or middle-ranking mares were less likely to develop abnormal behaviour than foals of dominant mares (rate ratio (RR) 0.23, P<0.01; RR 0.48, P<0.01, respectively). Weaning by confinement in a stable or barn was associated with an increased rate of development of abnormal behaviour, compared with paddock-weaning (RR 2.19, P<0.05), and housing in barns, rather than at grass after weaning, was associated with a further increase (RR 2.54, P<0.01). Specific stereotypic and redirected behaviours were then considered as separate outcomes. Crib-biting was initiated by 10.5% of horses at median age 20 weeks, weaving by 4.6% of horses at median age 60 weeks, box-walking by 2.3% of horses at median age 64 weeks and wood-chewing by 30.3% of horses at median age 30 weeks. Wood-chewing developed at a lower rate in horses born to subordinate or mid-ranking mares than in horses born to dominant mares (RR 0.29, P<0.01; RR 0.41, P<0.01, respectively), and at a higher rate in horses kept in barns or stables rather than at grass after weaning (RR 4.49, P<0.001; RR 1A6, P<0.001, respectively). Feeding concentrates after weaning was associated with a 4-fold increase in the rate of development of crib-biting (RR 4.12, P = 0.02). The results of this study support the idea that simple changes in feeding, housing and weaning practices could substantially lower the incidence of abnormal behaviour in young horses.
Address University of Bristol, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Langford, Bristol, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12357996 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 84
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Author Abeyesinghe, S.M.; Nicol, C.J.; Wathes. C.M.; Randall, J.M.
Title Development of a raceway method to assess aversion of domestic fowl to concurrent stressors Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.
Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 175-194
Keywords previous termConcurrent stressors; Aversion; Domestic fowlnext term; Transport; Vibration; Hyperthermia
Abstract The requirement for assessing the effects of stressor combinations in improving the welfare of animals has not been widely recognised. Knowledge of the effects of concurrent stressors is needed to improve environments such as transport, where animals are presented with many simultaneous challenges. However, no method for measuring the effects of different stressors with a common unit is currently available. A locomotor passive avoidance method was developed as a common currency measure of the aversion of domestic fowl to concurrent stressors, using vibrational and thermal stressors as an exemplar. Juvenile fowl, fasted overnight, were trained to run a raceway into a goal-box for small food rewards (FR1). When running consistently, the reinforcement schedule was superimposed with a FR5 treatment schedule (60 min confinement in the goal-box with either a control of no other stressors [N] or concurrent vibration and thermal stressors [VT]). Subsequent latency to return to the goal-box was recorded as a measure of aversion. The factors affecting bird response were addressed in a series of experiments to optimise the method and clarify interpretation of results. Pre-feeding (20% ration 2 h prior to testing) did not affect response, but increasing the number of treatment presentations facilitated learning and increased method sensitivity. Treatment responses were consistent across experiments; overall VT was avoided (P<0.001), but N was not. However, there was large individual variation in response to VT. A final experiment indicated that, given a visual discriminatory cue, birds were capable of learning the required association between entering the goal-box and receiving the treatment, suggesting that the delay responses were due to aversion rather than the immediate impact of treatment on ability to respond. Further work is required to test the singular stressors, but the method retains common currency potential for assessing aversion to multiple stressors.
Address Bio-Engineering Division, Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, MK45 4HS, Bedford, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:11738510 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 85
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Webster, A.J.; Nicol, C.J.
Title Study of the behaviour, digestive efficiency and gut transit times of crib-biting horses Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication The Veterinary record Abbreviated Journal Vet. Rec.
Volume 148 Issue 19 Pages 592-596
Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Case-Control Studies; *Digestion; *Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects; Horse Diseases/*physiopathology; Horses/*physiology/psychology; Male; Stereotyped Behavior/*physiology; Sulfapyridine/blood; Sulfasalazine/diagnostic use/pharmacology
Abstract The spontaneous behaviour and the apparent digestibility of dry matter and fibre and transit times of digesta were compared in four normal horses and four crib-biters. A technique was developed for measuring total gut transit times (TGTT) by using single-stool analysis of the passage of radio-opaque polyethylene markers. Longer TGTT were recorded in the crib-biters than in the normal horses but the orocaecal transit times did not differ. The crib-biters rested less than the normal horses.
Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0042-4900 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:11386445 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 86
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Nicol, C.J.
Title Prevention of crib-biting: a review Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication Equine veterinary journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl
Volume Issue 27 Pages 35-38
Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Horse Diseases/*prevention & control/psychology; Horses; *Stereotyped Behavior
Abstract Crib-biting is a common oral stereotype. Because of perceived deleterious effects on the health and appearance of subjects the prevention of crib-biting is regularly attempted. The resourcefulness of horses in satisfying their motivation to perform this behaviour often frustrates owners' efforts at prevention. This paper reviews the efficacy and observable consequences of attempting to prevent crib-biting by a variety of methods. These include attempts to prevent the grasping of objects, to interfere with air-engulfing and to introduce punishment for grasping and neck-flexion. Other approaches include the use of surgery, acupuncture, pharmaceuticals, operant feeding and environmental enrichment. A remedy that is effective for every crib-biter remains elusive. We conclude that, rather than concentrating on remedial prevention, further research should be directed at establishing why horses crib-bite and how the emergence of crib-biting can be avoided.
Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:10485002 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 87
Permanent link to this record