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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Nicol, C.J. openurl 
  Title Prevention of crib-biting: a review Type
  Year 1998 Publication Equine veterinary journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 27 Pages 35-38  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Horse Diseases/*prevention & control/psychology; Horses; *Stereotyped Behavior  
  Abstract Crib-biting is a common oral stereotype. Because of perceived deleterious effects on the health and appearance of subjects the prevention of crib-biting is regularly attempted. The resourcefulness of horses in satisfying their motivation to perform this behaviour often frustrates owners' efforts at prevention. This paper reviews the efficacy and observable consequences of attempting to prevent crib-biting by a variety of methods. These include attempts to prevent the grasping of objects, to interfere with air-engulfing and to introduce punishment for grasping and neck-flexion. Other approaches include the use of surgery, acupuncture, pharmaceuticals, operant feeding and environmental enrichment. A remedy that is effective for every crib-biter remains elusive. We conclude that, rather than concentrating on remedial prevention, further research should be directed at establishing why horses crib-bite and how the emergence of crib-biting can be avoided.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10485002 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 87  
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Nicol, C.J. openurl 
  Title The effect of short-term prevention on the subsequent rate of crib-biting in thoroughbred horses Type
  Year 1998 Publication Equine veterinary journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 27 Pages 30-34  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Horse Diseases/*prevention & control/psychology; Horses; Male; Recurrence; *Stereotyped Behavior; Videotape Recording  
  Abstract The results of an experimental study of the motivational consequences of short-term prevention of crib-biting are reported here. Eight test horses wore a cribbing collar for 24 h. This was effective in preventing crib-biting in 6 subjects. Using analysis of co-variance that accounted for baseline differences in crib-biting rate, test horses showed significantly more crib-biting than control horses on the first day after prevention (P < 0.05). There was also a highly significant increase in the crib-biting rate of test horses on the first day after prevention in comparison with their baseline rate (P < 0.01). This defines the increase as a post inhibitory rebound. An increase in the novelty of the cribbing bar and an increase in feeding motivation during the period of prevention are rejected as explanations of the rebound in this study. Instead, it is suggested that the rebound reflected a rise in internal motivation to crib-bite during the period of prevention. Behaviours that exhibit this pattern of motivation are generally considered functional; and it has been argued that their prevention may compromise welfare.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10485001 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 88  
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Richardson, J.D.; Nicol, C.J.; Lane, J.G. openurl 
  Title Radiographic and endoscopic study of horses performing an oral based stereotypy Type
  Year 1995 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 92-95  
  Keywords Animals; Endoscopy/*veterinary; Esophagus/physiopathology/radiography; Female; Fluoroscopy/veterinary; Horse Diseases/physiopathology/*psychology/radiography; Horses; Male; Pharynx/physiopathology/radiography; *Stereotyped Behavior; Video Recording  
  Abstract There is confusion in the veterinary literature concerning the definition of oral based stereotypies in the horse. This study reports the use of fluoroscopy and endoscopy during cribbiting/wind-sucking in afflicted horses. This permitted observations of movements of the pharyngeal and oesophageal tissues and of the air column within during the stereotypic behaviour. The findings reported show that the sequence of events during crib-biting/wind-sucking is not related to deglutition and that air is not swallowed to the stomach. Transient dilation of the upper oesophagus was recorded and the characteristic noise of wind-sucking coincided with the in-rush of air through the cricopharynx. The oesophageal distension was relieved when the air returned to the pharynx although small quantities passed caudally. It is proposed that the role of contraction of the strap muscles of the neck is to create a pressure gradient in the soft tissues surrounding the oesophagus which provokes movement of air from the pharynx into the oesophagus. The findings suggest that the definitions currently used in the sale of horses are in need of revision.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7607156 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 90  
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Cripps, P.J.; French, N.P.; Green, L.E.; Nicol, C.J. openurl 
  Title Management factors associated with stereotypic and redirected behaviour in the thoroughbred horse Type
  Year 1995 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 86-91  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animals; Horse Diseases/psychology/*therapy; Horses; Risk Factors; *Stereotyped Behavior; Time Factors  
  Abstract A greater knowledge of the effect of management factors is required to investigate the ontogeny of abnormal behaviour in the stabled horse. A postal survey of racehorse (flat) trainers yielded information about 22 yard and management factors. The relationship of the factors to the prevalence of abnormal behaviour was analysed by logistic regression. Management factors related to the time spent in the stable showed the strongest associations with stereotypic behaviour. The risk of horses performing abnormal behaviour increased: 1) as the amount of forage fell below 6.8 kg/day, 2) when bedding types other than straw were used, 3) when the total number of horses on the yard was fewer than 75, 4) in association with box designs that minimised contact between neighbouring horses, 5) when hay, rather than other types of forage, was used.  
  Address Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7607155 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 91  
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Author Spadavecchia, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Spadavecchia, L.; Mosing, M.; Auer, U.; van den Hoven, R. doi  openurl
  Title Effects of butorphanol on the withdrawal reflex using threshold, suprathreshold and repeated subthreshold electrical stimuli in conscious horses Type
  Year 2007 Publication Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia Abbreviated Journal Vet Anaesth Analg  
  Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 48-58  
  Keywords Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology; Animals; Butorphanol/*pharmacology; Consciousness; Electric Stimulation; Electromyography; Female; Forelimb/physiology; Horses/*physiology; Male; Pain/veterinary; Pain Threshold/*drug effects; Reflex/*drug effects  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a single intravenous dose of butorphanol (0.1 mg kg(-1)) on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) using threshold, suprathreshold and repeated subthreshold electrical stimuli in conscious horses. STUDY DESIGN: 'Unblinded', prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: Ten adult horses, five geldings and five mares, mean body mass 517 kg (range 487-569 kg). METHODS: The NWR was elicited using single transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the palmar digital nerve. Repeated stimulations were applied to evoke temporal summation. Surface electromyography was performed to record and quantify the responses of the common digital extensor muscle to stimulation and behavioural reactions were scored. Before butorphanol administration and at fixed time points up to 2 hours after injection, baseline threshold intensities for NWR and temporal summation were defined and single suprathreshold stimulations applied. Friedman repeated-measures analysis of variance on ranks and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used with the Student-Newman-Keul's method applied post-hoc. The level of significance (alpha) was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Butorphanol did not modify either the thresholds for NWR and temporal summation or the reaction scores, but the difference between suprathreshold and threshold reflex amplitudes was reduced when single stimulation was applied. Upon repeated stimulation after butorphanol administration, a significant decrease in the relative amplitude was calculated for both the 30-80 and the 80-200 millisecond intervals after each stimulus, and for the whole post-stimulation interval in the right thoracic limb. In the left thoracic limb a decrease in the relative amplitude was found only in the 30-80 millisecond epoch. CONCLUSION: Butorphanol at 0.1 mg kg(-1) has no direct action on spinal Adelta nociceptive activity but may have some supraspinal effects that reduce the gain of the nociceptive system. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Butorphanol has minimal effect on sharp immediate Adelta-mediated pain but may alter spinal processing and decrease the delayed sensations of pain.  
  Address Anesthesiology Section, Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland. claudia.spadavecchia@veths.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1467-2987 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17238962 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 92  
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Author Spadavecchia, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Andersen, O.K.; Spadavecchia, L.; Doherr, M.; Schatzmann, U. openurl 
  Title Comparison of nociceptive withdrawal reflexes and recruitment curves between the forelimbs and hind limbs in conscious horses Type
  Year 2003 Publication American journal of veterinary research Abbreviated Journal Am J Vet Res  
  Volume 64 Issue 6 Pages 700-707  
  Keywords Animals; Consciousness; Female; Forelimb/*physiology; Hindlimb/*physiology; Horses/*physiology; Male; Nociceptors/physiology; Pain/*physiopathology/*veterinary; Pain Threshold/physiology; Recruitment, Neurophysiological/physiology; Reflex/*physiology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWRs) evoked from the distal aspect of the left forelimb and hind limb in conscious standing horses and to investigate NWR recruitment for graded electrical stimulation intensities. ANIMALS: 20 adult horses. PROCEDURE: Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity evoked by transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the digital palmar (or plantar) nerve was recorded from the common digital extensor and cranial tibial muscles. Stimuli consisted of 25-millisecond train-of-5 constant current pulses. Current intensity was gradually increased until NWR threshold intensity was reached. The EMG signal was analyzed for quantification of the NWR. Behavioral responses accompanying the reflex were scored (scale, 0 to 5). The NWR recruitment curves were determined at 0.9, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 times the NWR threshold intensity. RESULTS: The NWR threshold was significantly higher for the hind limb (median value, 6.6 mA; range, 3 to 10 mA) than the forelimb (median, 3 mA; range, 1.7 to 5.5 mA). The NWR of the hind limb had a significantly longer latency (median, 122.8 milliseconds; range, 106 to 172 milliseconds), compared with the forelimb (median, 98 milliseconds; range, 86 to 137 milliseconds), and it was associated with significantly stronger behavioral reactions. Gradual increase of NWR amplitude was evident at increasing stimulation intensities and supported by the behavioral observations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We documented NWRs evoked from the forelimb and hind limb and their recruitment with stimuli of increasing intensity in horses. These results provide a basis for use of NWRs in studies on nociceptive modulation in horses.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, University of Berne, Switzerland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0002-9645 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12828255 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 93  
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Author Ruggieri, V. openurl 
  Title The running horse stops: the hypothetical role of the eyes in imagery of movement Type
  Year 1999 Publication Perceptual and motor skills Abbreviated Journal Percept Mot Skills  
  Volume 89 Issue 3 Pt 2 Pages 1088-1092  
  Keywords Adult; Cerebral Cortex/physiology; Eye Movements/*physiology; Female; Functional Laterality/physiology; Head/physiology; Humans; *Imagination; Models, Neurological; *Motion Perception; Movement/physiology; *Ocular Physiology; *Optical Illusions; Posture/physiology  
  Abstract To examine the hypothetical role of the eyes in visual mental imagery of movement 72 undergraduate women students in psychology were asked to imagine a running horse and then to produce the same mental image without moving the eyes and the head. In 59% of the subjects interesting modifications of the imagined movement appeared: 37% observed an inhibition of the movement and 19% an evident slowing up of the moving figure. The interpretation of this result was made by hypothesizing that the eyes are concretely involved in visual imagery processes.  
  Address University of Rome La Sapienza  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-5125 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10710755 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 94  
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Author Doherty, T.J.; Frazier, D.L. openurl 
  Title Effect of intravenous lidocaine on halothane minimum alveolar concentration in ponies Type
  Year 1998 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages 300-303  
  Keywords Anesthetics/administration & dosage/blood/*pharmacology; Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage/*analysis; Animals; Consciousness/drug effects; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Halothane/administration & dosage/*analysis; Horses/*physiology; Infusions, Intravenous/veterinary; Lidocaine/administration & dosage/blood/*pharmacology; Male  
  Abstract This study investigated the effect of lidocaine i.v. on halothane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in ponies. Six ponies were anaesthetised with thiopentone and succinylcholine, intubated and anaesthesia maintained with halothane. Ventilation was controlled and blood pressure maintained within clinically acceptable limits. Following a 2 h equilibration period, baseline halothane MAC was determined. The ponies were then given a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 or 5 mg/kg bwt) or saline over 5 min, followed by a constant infusion of lidocaine (50 or 100 microg/kg/min, or saline, respectively). The halothane MAC was redetermined after a 60 min infusion of lidocaine or saline. The baseline halothane MAC for the control group was mean +/- s.d. 0.94 +/- 0.03%, and no significant decrease occurred following saline infusion. Lidocaine decreased halothane MAC in a dose-dependent fashion (r = 0.86; P < 0.0003). The results indicate that i.v. lidocaine may have a role in equine anaesthesia.  
  Address Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville 37901-1071, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:9705112 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 95  
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Author Carroll, G.L.; Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Slater, M.R.; Champney, T.H.; Erickson, S.W. openurl 
  Title The effect of detomidine and its antagonism with tolazoline on stress-related hormones, metabolites, physiologic responses, and behavior in awake ponies Type
  Year 1997 Publication Veterinary surgery : VS : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons Abbreviated Journal Vet Surg  
  Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 69-77  
  Keywords Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Animals; Behavior, Animal/drug effects/physiology; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Blood Pressure/drug effects/physiology; Consciousness/physiology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Interactions; Epinephrine/blood; Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/blood; Female; Heart Rate/drug effects/physiology; Horse Diseases/metabolism/physiopathology/psychology; Horses/blood/metabolism/*physiology; Hydrocortisone/blood; Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Imidazoles/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Injections, Intravenous; Male; Norepinephrine/blood; Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha/drug effects/*physiology; Stress/metabolism/physiopathology/veterinary; Time Factors; Tolazoline/administration & dosage/*pharmacology  
  Abstract Six ponies were used to investigate the effect of tolazoline antagonism of detomidine on physiological responses, behavior, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, glucose, and free fatty acids in awake ponies. Each pony had a catheter inserted into a jugular vein 1 hour before beginning the study. Awake ponies were administered detomidine (0.04 mg/kg intravenously [i.v.]) followed 20 minutes later by either tolazoline (4.0 mg/kg i.v.) or saline. Blood samples were drawn from the catheter 5 minutes before detomidine administration (baseline), 5 minutes after detomidine administration, 20 minutes before detomidine administration which was immediately before the administration of tolazoline or saline (time [T] = 0), and at 5, 30, and 60 minutes after injections of tolazoline or saline (T = 5, 30, and 60 minutes, respectively). Compared with heart rate at T = 0, tolazoline antagonism increased heart rate 45% at 5 minutes. There was no difference in heart rate between treatments at 30 minutes. Blood pressure remained stable after tolazoline, while it decreased over time after saline. Compared with concentrations at T = 0, tolazoline antagonism of detomidine in awake ponies resulted in a 55% increase in cortisol at 30 minutes and a 52% increase in glucose at 5 minutes. The change in free fatty acids was different for tolazoline and saline over time. Free fatty acids decreased after detomidine administration. Free fatty acids did not change after saline administration. After tolazoline administration, free fatty acids increased transiently. Tolazoline tended to decrease sedation and analgesia at 15 and 60 minutes postantagonism. Antagonism of detomidine-induced physiological and behavioral effects with tolazoline in awake ponies that were not experiencing pain appears to precipitate a stress response as measured by cortisol, glucose, and free fatty acids. If antagonism of an alpha-agonist is contemplated, the potential effect on hormones and metabolites should be considered.  
  Address Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0161-3499 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:9123816 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 96  
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Author Grubb, T.L.; Foreman, J.H.; Benson, G.J.; Thurmon, J.C.; Tranquilli, W.J.; Constable, P.D.; Olson, W.O.; Davis, L.E. openurl 
  Title Hemodynamic effects of calcium gluconate administered to conscious horses Type
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Vet Intern Med  
  Volume 10 Issue 6 Pages 401-404  
  Keywords Animals; Blood Pressure/drug effects/physiology; Calcium/blood; Calcium Gluconate/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Cardiac Output/drug effects/physiology; Consciousness/*physiology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Female; Heart Rate/drug effects/physiology; Hemodynamic Processes/*drug effects/physiology; Horses/blood/*physiology; Infusions, Intravenous; Male; Myocardial Contraction/drug effects/physiology; Respiration/drug effects/physiology; Stroke Volume/drug effects/physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract Calcium gluconate was administered to conscious horses at 3 different rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg/min for 15 minutes each). Serum calcium concentrations and parameters of cardiovascular function were evaluated. All 3 calcium administration rates caused marked increases in both ionized and total calcium concentrations, cardiac index, stroke index, and cardiac contractility (dP/dtmax). Mean arterial pressure and right atrial pressure were unchanged; heart rate decreased markedly during calcium administration. Ionized calcium concentration remained between 54% and 57% of total calcium concentration throughout the study. We conclude that calcium gluconate can safely be administered to conscious horses at 0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg/min and that administration will result in improved cardiac function.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0891-6640 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:8947873 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 97  
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