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Author Crowell-Davis, S.L.; Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Maternal behavior Type
  Year 1986 Publication The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice Abbreviated Journal Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract  
  Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 557-571  
  Keywords Aggression; Animals; Animals, Wild; Female; *Horses; Lactation; *Maternal Behavior; Pregnancy; *Pregnancy, Animal; Rejection (Psychology)  
  Abstract Parturition in mares is rapid and is followed by a brief period of sensitivity to imprinting on a foal. There is large individual variation in normal maternal style, but normal mothers actively defend their foal, remain near the foal when it is sleeping, tolerate or assist nursing, and do not injure their own foal. Disturbance of a mare and foal during the early imprinting period can predispose a mare to rejection of her foal; therefore, it should be avoided. There are a variety of forms of foal rejection and numerous etiologies. Therefore, each case should be evaluated individually.  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0749-0739 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:3492245 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 49  
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Author Crowell-Davis, S.L.; Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Techniques for taking a behavioral history Type
  Year 1986 Publication The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice Abbreviated Journal Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract  
  Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 507-518  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Cooperative Behavior; *Horses; Maternal Behavior  
  Abstract A thorough behavioral history is essential for adequate assessment of a given case. In reviewing the chief complaint, a description of what actually happened, rather than the owner's interpretation of what happened, is required. Other behavior problems, environment, rearing history, and training need to be reviewed. Sample question sets for some common problems are given.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0749-0739 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:3492242 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 50  
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Author Youket, R.J.; Carnevale, J.M.; Houpt, K.A.; Houpt, T.R. openurl 
  Title Humoral, hormonal and behavioral correlates of feeding in ponies: the effects of meal frequency Type
  Year 1985 Publication Journal of animal science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 61 Issue 5 Pages 1103-1110  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Blood Glucose/*analysis; Blood Proteins/*analysis; Blood Volume; *Eating; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Female; Heart Rate; Horses/blood/*physiology; Male; Osmolar Concentration; Osmotic Pressure; Triiodothyronine/*blood  
  Abstract The effect of meal frequency on body fluid, glucose, triiodothyronine (T3), heart rate and behavior was measured in 10 ponies. A simple reversal design was used in which each pony received one meal/day (1X) for 2 wk and six meals/day (6X) for 2 wk. The total intake/day was held constant. Feeding was followed by a rise in plasma levels of glucose, T3, protein and osmolality. One large meal was followed by significantly greater changes in all of the variables than was a meal one-sixth the size. Plasma T3 rose from 41 +/- 5 (SE) ng/liter before feeding to 43 +/- 5 ng/liter following a small meal, but rose significantly higher, from 39 +/- 4 to 60 +/- 10 ng/liter, following a large meal. Glucose rose from 84 +/- 3 to 109 +/- 7 mg/dl following a small meal and rose significantly higher, from 83 +/- 3 to 154 +/- 11 mg/dl, after a large meal. Plasma protein rose from 6.55 +/- .14 to 6.62 +/- .16 g/dl following a small meal and from 6.45 +/- .14 to 6.99 +/- .11 g/dl following a large meal. Osmolality rose from 227 +/- 1 mosmol/liter before to 279 +/- 1 mosmol/liter following a small meal and significantly higher from 278 +/- 2 to 285 +/- 1 mosnol/liter following a large meal. Heart rate rose from 42 beats/min in the absence of feed to 50 beats/min when food was visible to the ponies and did not rise higher when eating began. There were no significant differences in the cardiac response to one large meal and that to a small meal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:4077755 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 51  
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Author Laut, J.E.; Houpt, K.A.; Hintz, H.F.; Houpt, T.R. openurl 
  Title The effects of caloric dilution on meal patterns and food intake of ponies Type
  Year 1985 Publication Physiology & behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 549-554  
  Keywords Animals; Body Weight; *Diet; Energy Intake; *Feeding Behavior; Homeostasis; Horses/*physiology; Male  
  Abstract In order to determine if horses will increase their intake in response to caloric dilution, four pony geldings were fed ad lib a mixed grain diet either undiluted (3.4 Mcal/kg of digestible energy) or diluted (wt/wt) with 25% sawdust (2.6 Mcal/kg) or with 50% sawdust (1.7 Mcal/kg). The mean daily caloric intake was 17,457 kcal (3.4 Mcal diet), 17,546 kcal (2.6 Mcal diet) and 12,844 kcal (1.7 Mcal). The mean time spent eating was 246 (3.4 Mcal), 351 (2.6 Mcal), and 408 (1.7 Mcal) minutes/day. Meal size increased and meal frequency decreased with increasing dilution. The median long survivorships of intermeal intervals were 6.4 min (3.4 Mcal), 3.95 min (2.6 Mcal) and 4.91 min (1.7 Mcal). Ponies responded to caloric dilution by increasing the volume of intake to maintain caloric intake when the diet had 25% diluent. When the diet was diluted by 50%, intake was increased, but not at a rate adequate to maintain caloric intake. However, the ponies were able to maintain body weight.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:4070429 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 52  
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Author Houpt, T.R. openurl 
  Title The physiological determination of meal size in pigs Type
  Year 1985 Publication The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Nutr Soc  
  Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 323-330  
  Keywords Animals; Appetite/physiology; Drinking; Duodenum/physiology; *Eating; Energy Intake; Food; Horses/physiology; Milk; Osmolar Concentration; Receptors, Cell Surface/physiology; Receptors, Cholecystokinin; Swine/*physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract  
  Address  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-6651 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:2996010 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 53  
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Author Crowell-Davis, S.L.; Houpt, K.A.; Carnevale, J. openurl 
  Title Feeding and drinking behavior of mares and foals with free access to pasture and water Type
  Year 1985 Publication Journal of animal science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 883-889  
  Keywords Animals; *Drinking Behavior; *Feeding Behavior; Female; Horses/*physiology; Male; Poaceae; Seasons; Temperature; Time Factors  
  Abstract The feeding and drinking behavior of 11 mares and 15 foals living on pasture with free access to water was recorded during 2,340 15-min focal samples taken over 2 yr. Lactating mares on pasture spent about 70% of the day feeding. Foals began feeding on their first day of life. As they grew older, they spent progressively more time feeding, but still spent only 47 +/- 6% of the time feeding by 21 wk of age. Foals fed primarily during the early morning and evening. While grass formed the major proportion of the diet of both foals and mares, they also ate clay, humus, feces, bark, leaves and twigs. Almost all feeding by foals was done while their mothers were feeding. Movement to water sources was frequently, but not invariably, carried out by an entire herd. Frequency (P = .005) but not duration (P greater than .05) of drinking bouts by mares increased as the temperature increased. Frequency was greatest at 30 to 35 C, at which temperature mares drank once every 1.8 h. Frequency of drinking varied with the time of day (P less than .01), being rarest during the early morning (0500 to 0900 h eastern daylight time) and most frequent during the afternoon (1300 to 1700 h). Drinking by foals was very rare. The youngest age at which a foal was observed to drink was 3 wk, and 8 of 15 foals were never observed to drink before weaning.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:3988655 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 54  
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Author Crowell-Davis, S.L.; Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Coprophagy by foals: effect of age and possible functions Type
  Year 1985 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 17-19  
  Keywords *Aging; Animals; *Coprophagia; Deoxycholic Acid/physiology; Female; Horse Diseases/*physiopathology; Horses; Humans; Male; Pheromones/physiology; Time Factors; Urination  
  Abstract In colts and fillies observed from birth to 24 weeks old, coprophagy occurred from Weeks 1 to 19. Its frequency was greatest during the first two months. Coprophagy was rarely observed in mares and stallions. Foals usually ate the faeces of their mother but were observed to eat their own and those of a stallion and another unrelated mare. Urination by the foal occurred before, during or after 26 per cent of the coprophagy incidents. It is hypothesised that foals may consume faeces in response to a maternal pheromone which signals the presence of deoxycholic acid or other acids which the foal may be deficient in and which it may require for gut immuno-competence myelination of the nervous system. Such a pheromone may also serve to accelerate growth and sexual maturation. Coprophagy may also provide nutrients and introduce normal bacterial flora to the gut.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:4038939 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 55  
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Author Sufit, E.; Houpt, K.A.; Sweeting, M. openurl 
  Title Physiological stimuli of thirst and drinking patterns in ponies Type
  Year 1985 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 12-16  
  Keywords Animals; Blood Proteins/analysis; Drinking Behavior/drug effects/*physiology; Furosemide/pharmacology; Horses/*physiology; Male; Osmolar Concentration; Osmotic Pressure; Sodium Chloride/pharmacology; Thirst/drug effects/*physiology; Time Factors; Water Deprivation/physiology  
  Abstract The stimuli that elicit thirst were studied in four ponies. Nineteen hours of water deprivation produced an increase in plasma protein from 67 +/- 0.1 g/litre to 72 +/- 2 g/litre, a mean (+/- se) increase in plasma sodium from 139 +/- 3 to 145 +/- 2 mmol/litre and an increase in plasma osmolality from 297 +/- 1 to 306 +/- 2 mosmol/litre. Undeprived ponies drank 1.5 +/- 0.9 kg/30 mins; 19 h deprived ponies drank 10.2 +/- 2.5 kg/30 mins and corrected the deficits in plasma protein, plasma sodium and plasma osmolality as well as compensating for the water they would have drunk during the deprivation period. In order to determine if an increase in plasma osmolality would stimulate thirst, 250 ml of 15 per cent sodium chloride was infused intravenously. The ponies drank when osmolality increased 3 per cent and when plasma sodium rose from 136 +/- 3 mmol/litre to 143 +/- 3 mmol/litre. Ponies infused with 15 per cent sodium chloride drank 2.9 +/- 0.7 kg; those infused with 0.9 per cent sodium chloride drank 0.7 +/- 0.5 kg. In order to determine if a decrease in plasma volume would stimulate thirst, ponies were injected with 1 or 2 mg/kg bodyweight (bwt) frusemide. Plasma protein rose from 68 +/- 2 g/litre pre-injection to 75 +/- 2 g/litre 1 h after 1 mg/kg bwt frusemide and to 81 +/- 1 g/litre 1 h after 2 mg/kg bwt frusemide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:3979367 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 56  
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Author Houpt, K.A.; Parsons, M.S.; Hintz, H.F. openurl 
  Title Learning ability of orphan foals, of normal foals and of their mothers Type
  Year 1982 Publication Journal of animal science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 1027-1032  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Body Weight; Dominance-Subordination; Female; Horses/*physiology; *Learning; *Maternal Deprivation; Mothers/*psychology  
  Abstract The maze learning ability of six pony foals that had been weaned at birth was compared to that of six foals reared normally. The foals' learning ability was also compared to their mothers' learning ability at the same task; the correct turn in a single choice point maze. The maze learning test was conducted when the foals were 6 to 8 mo old and after the mothered foals had been weaned. There was no significant difference between the ability of orphaned (weaned at birth) and mothered foals in their ability to learn to turn left (6 +/- .7 and 5.1 +/- .1 trials, respectively) or to learn the reversal, to turn right (6.7 +/- .6 and 6.2 +/- .6 trials, respectively). The orphan foals spent significantly more time in the maze in their first exposure to it than the mothered foals (184 +/- 42 vs 55 +/- 15 s. Mann Whitney U = 7, P less than .05). The mothers of the foals (n = 11) learned to turn left as rapidly as the foals (5.9 +/- .7 trials), but they were slower to learn to turn right (9.8 +/- 1.4 vs 6.4 +/- .4 trials, Mann Whitney U = 33, P less than .05), indicating that the younger horses learned more rapidly. There was no correlation between the trials to criteria of the mare and those of her foal, but there was a significant negative correlation between rank in trials to criteria and age (r = -65, P less than .05) when data from the mare and foal trials were combined. The dominance hierarchy of the mares was determined using a paired feeding test in which two horses competed for one bucket of feed. Although there was no correlation between rank in the hierarchy and maze learning ability, there was a correlation between body weight and rank in the hierarchy (r = .7, P less than .05). This may indicate either that heavier horses are likely to be dominant or that horses high in dominance gain more weight. Maternal deprivation did not appear to seriously retard learning of a simple maze by foals, although the orphans moved more slowly initially. The lack of maternal influence on learning is also reflected in the lack of correlation between the mare's learning ability and that of her foal. Young horses appear to learn more rapidly than older horses.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7174546 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 58  
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Author Brown, R.F.; Houpt, K.A.; Schryver, H.F. openurl 
  Title Stimulation of food intake in horses by diazepam and promazine Type
  Year 1976 Publication Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 495-497  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Diazepam/*pharmacology; Diet; Feeding Behavior/*drug effects; Female; Horses/*physiology; Male; Promazine/*pharmacology; Stimulation, Chemical  
  Abstract In two adult horses doses of 0.02-0.03 mg/kg diazepam, intravenously, increased 1 hr intake 54-75% above control levels. Intake was stimulated when the diet was a high grain, calorically dense one and also when the diet was a high fiber, calorically dilute one. Two young rapidly growing weanling horses showed an even more pronounced stimulation of intake. Following diazepam 1 hr intake was increased 105-240% above control lelvels. Promazine at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg also stimulated intake in adult horses, but not as markedly as did diazepam. A transquilizer and a neuroleptic appear to have a stimulatory eff upon short-term intake in horses.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-3057 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:1005496 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 60  
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