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Author Murray, L.M.A.; Byrne, K.; D’Eath, R.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Pair-bonding and companion recognition in domestic donkeys, <em>Equus asinus</em> Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 143 Issue 1 Pages 67-74  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Pair and social bonding has been documented in various taxa, where pair formations are often described as being driven by kinship or sexual motivation. However, pair-bonding between unrelated individuals where sexual motivation is not a factor is not well documented. Many social relationships and pair-bonds between members of a dyad are facilitated by each individual's ability to recognise their partner using cues which are characteristic of that particular individual. The aims of this study were i) to investigate the existence of pair-bonding in domestic donkeys and ii) to determine whether members of a dyad could recognise their companion during a Y-maze recognition test. Subjects were 55 unrelated donkeys (38 gelded males, 15 females) in seven groups of mixed or same sex, comprising 4?14 individuals. Spatial proximity (nearest-neighbour) was observed three times a day over a 22-day period. Using a simulation approach based on observed data to generate randomised nearest-neighbour matrices, the statistical significance of social relationships was estimated. Of these, 42 (79.2%) were involved in significantly (p<0.05) non-random nearest-neighbour relationships, most of which were reciprocal pair relationships. Based on the spatial data, 24 of the donkeys which had shown significant reciprocal nearest-neighbour preferences for one individual (companion) were then used in a Y-maze recognition test in which they were presented with a choice of their companion and either a familiar donkey from the same group or an unfamiliar donkey from a different group. Donkeys? spatial location in the Y-maze demonstrated a preference for their companion versus familiar (one sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, W=239, p=0.002) or unfamiliar donkeys (W=222, p=0.041). These results verify anecdotal evidence from donkey handlers that donkeys often form pair-bonds, and show that reciprocal social preference and recognition are the basis of these. Pair-bond formation and companionship among donkeys have potential implications for their management, husbandry and welfare.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2012.11.005 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6149  
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Author Brooks, C.J.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Directed movement and orientation across a large natural landscape by zebras, Equus burchelli antiquorum Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 277-285  
  Keywords correlated random walk; directed movement; Equus burchelli antiquorum; Gps; movement path; orientation; spatial memory; spatial scale; zebra  
  Abstract We investigated how plains zebras moved across a large natural landscape by analysing the movement paths of nine zebra mares foraging out from spatially confined waterholes during the dry season in the Makgadikgadi Pans National Park, Botswana. Since it was essential to investigate directed movement over a range of spatial scales to determine the correct movement behaviour and strategy, we used Nams's scaling test for oriented movement. Zebras followed directed movement paths in the lower to medium spatial scales (10 m–3.7 km) and above their visual, and possibly olfactory, range. The spatial scale of directed movement suggests that zebras had a well-defined spatial awareness and cognitive ability. Seven zebras used directed movement paths, but the remaining two followed paths not significantly different to a correlated random walk (CRW). At large spatial scales (>3 km) no distinct movement pattern could be identified and paths could not be distinguished from a CRW. Foraging strategy affected the extent of directed movement: zebras with a confined dispersion of grazing patches around the central place directed their movements over a longer distance. Zebras may extend the distance at which they can direct their movement after improving their knowledge of the local environment.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6148  
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Author Marneweck, C.; Jürgens, A.; Shrader, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dung odours signal sex, age, territorial and oestrous state in white rhinos Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Proc Biol Sci Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B  
  Volume 284 Issue 1846 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Mammals commonly communicate olfactorily via urine. However, the extent to which they communicate via dung, another waste product, is unknown. Behavioural studies suggest that mammals can obtain information from dung odours but are unclear about the information transmitted. Moreover, an understanding of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from dung is limited. To address this, we analysed the odours emitted from the dung of free-ranging white rhinos, and found that 2,3-dimethylundecane signalled an individual's sex, heptanal discriminated age class, nonane defined male territorial status and 2,6-dimethylundecane indicated female oestrous state. To validate these findings, we artificially reproduced key elements of the territorial and oestrous odour profiles (i.e. profiles likely to elicit behavioural responses from receivers). We then exposed free-ranging territorial males to these odours. In response, males elicited behaviours associated with the specific odours (e.g. territorial male (potential threat): reduced latency in assuming vigilance; oestrous female (potential mate): increased investigation). These results indicate that the VOCs identified from the dung of free-ranging individuals do transmit key information. Moreover, as white rhinos of all ages and sexes defecate communally, middens probably act as information centres. Furthermore, as many other mammals defecate communally, olfactory communication via dung odours is likely a widespread phenomenon.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6147  
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Author White, A.M.; Swaisgood, R.R.; Czekala, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ranging patterns in white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum simum: implications for mating strategies Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 74 Issue 2 Pages 349-356  
  Keywords Ceratotherium simum simum; foraging; habitat choice; home range use; mate choice; mating systems; ranging pattern; resource distribution; white rhinoceros  
  Abstract How animals use space has important consequences for feeding ecology, social organization, mating strategies and conservation management. In white rhinoceros, female home ranges are much larger than male territories, suggesting that movement patterns are influenced by factors other than resource distribution. In this study we placed radiotransmitters on 15 female white rhinoceros, recording 1758 locations and collecting behavioural data during 1671 observation sessions, making this the largest data set of its kind in this species. We investigated how habitat variables and male territories influenced female movement and reproductive behaviour. Female home ranges were approximately 20 km2 and core areas were 5 km2, with male territories roughly the same size as female core areas. Female range size did not vary with season, but the pattern of space use did vary. Females used grassland habitat preferentially, utilizing these areas significantly more than expected based on availability. Findings relevant to the mating strategy include: (1) the amount of grassland in a male's territory predicted female use of the territory; (2) the time that a female spent in a male's territory was a significant predictor of reproductive activity with the male, indicating that females probably mate with the most familiar male; and (3) the temporal pattern of female space use suggests that females did not increase mate sampling behaviour nor did they become more choosy about which males they visited when reproductively active. These findings suggest that males may maximize reproductive success by defending areas containing more grassland habitat.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6146  
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Author Daniel, J.C.; Mikulka, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Discrimination learning in the white rhinoceros Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 58 Issue 1–2 Pages 197-202  
  Keywords Rhinoceros; Learning  
  Abstract This study examined the ability of two adult white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum) to develop a visual discrimination between an open circle and a triangle. These stimuli were presented as black symbols on large white cards. The cards were presented 4.6 m apart and a food reward was given if the subject approached the open circle. Ten discrimination choices were given daily until each subject reached the criterion of 80% correct responding over a block of 50 trials. The female reached the criterion over trials 151–200, while the male required considerably longer (trials 501–550). The male's discrimination was dramatically affected by a shift in the food reward. This study demonstrates that these rhinos were able to develop a successful discrimination and this protocol could be used to further examine their visual acuity.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6145  
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Author Cinková, I.; Policht, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sex and species recognition by wild male southern white rhinoceros using contact pant calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 375-386  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Recognition of information from acoustic signals is crucial in many animals, and individuals are under selection pressure to discriminate between the signals of conspecifics and heterospecifics or males and females. Here, we first report that rhinos use information encoded in their calls to assess conspecifics and individuals of closely related species. The southern (Ceratotherium simum) and critically endangered northern (C. cottoni) white rhinos are the most social out of all the rhinoceros species and use a contact call pant. We found that southern white rhino pant calls provide reliable information about the caller’s sex, age class and social situation. Playback experiments on wild territorial southern white rhinoceros males revealed that they responded more strongly to the pant calls of conspecific females compared to the calls of other territorial males. This suggests that pant calls are more important form of communication between males and females than between territorial males. Territorial southern males also discriminated between female and territorial male calls of northern species and reacted more intensively to the calls of northern than southern males. This might be caused by a novelty effect since both species naturally live in allopatry. We conclude that white rhinos can directly benefit from assessing individuals at long distances using vocal cues especially because their eyesight is poor. Pant calls thus likely play a significant role in their social relationships and spatial organization. In addition, better understanding of vocal communication in white rhinos might be helpful in conservation management particularly because of their low reproduction in captivity.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Cinková2016 Serial (down) 6144  
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Author Cinková, I.; Policht, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 385-392  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros.  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Cinková2015 Serial (down) 6143  
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Author Carlstead, K.; Brown, J.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Relationships between patterns of Fecal corticoid excretion and behavior, reproduction, and environmental factors in captive black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceros Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Zoo Biology Abbreviated Journal Zoo Biol.  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 215-232  
  Keywords stress; adrenal activity; olfactory behavior; ovarian activity; reproduction; mortality  
  Abstract Mortality is high in zoo-housed black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), and the reproductive rates of captive white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) are unsustainably low. To determine the possible role of stress in the causation of these problems, we analyzed weekly fecal samples collected for 1 year from black (10 males and 16 females) and white (six males and 13 females) rhinoceroses at 16 zoos for corticoid metabolite concentrations. Fecal corticoid profiles were examined in relation to behavior as rated by keepers in a questionnaire, luteal phase ovarian cycles of females (Brown et al., 2001), and socioenvironmental factors. We compared individual fecal corticoid profiles by examining hormone means and variability (i.e., standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV)). For the black rhinos, higher mean corticoid concentrations were found at zoos where rhinos were maintained in enclosures that were exposed to the public around a greater portion of the perimeter. Higher variability in corticoid excretion was correlated with higher rates of fighting between breeding partners and higher institutional mortality rates. Black rhino pairs that were kept separated exhibited lower corticoid variability and less fighting activity when they were introduced during female estrous periods compared to pairs that were kept together every day. For white rhinos, significantly lower mean corticoids were found for individuals that rated higher on “friendliness to keeper.” Higher corticoid variability was found in noncycling as compared to cycling white rhino females. Noncycling females exhibited higher rates of stereotypic pacing and lower frequencies of olfactory behaviors. Interindividual differences in mean corticoids in both species appeared to be related to responsiveness to humans, whereas corticoid variability was related to intraspecific social relationships. More importantly, high corticoid variability appeared to be an indicator of chronic or “bad” stress, because of its association with potentially deleterious consequences in each species (i.e., fighting and mortality (black rhino), and reproductive acyclicity (white rhino)). Our results provide evidence that social stressors may cause chronic stress in black and white rhinos, and that this contributes to the captive-population sustainability problems observed in each species. Zoo Biol 0:1–18, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1098-2361 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6142  
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Author GONÇALVES DA SILVA, A.; CAMPOS-ARCEIZ, A.; ZAVADA, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title On tapir ecology, evolution and conservation: what we know and future perspectives–part II Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Integrative Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 1-3  
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  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1749-4877 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6141  
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Author Oliveira-Santos, L.G.R.; Machado-Filho, L.C.P.; Tortato, M.A.; Brusius, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of extrinsic variables on activity and habitat selection of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in the coastal sand plain shrub, southern Brazil Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 75 Issue 3 Pages 219-226  
  Keywords Behaviour; Circadian rhythmic; Moonlight; Rainfall; Temperature  
  Abstract The objectives of this research were to: 1. evaluate the circadian activity patterns of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) throughout the seasons and 2. study the influence of moonlight, temperature and rainfall on the activity patterns and habitat selection of this species, in the coastal sand shrub in southern Brazil. From June 2005 to June 2006, eight tapirs were monitored in a large enclosure containing open and vegetation-covered areas, using four camera traps. Differences in activity patterns within seasons were found. Tapir predominately presented nocturnal-crepuscular activity; however, they differed in the winter, with cathemeral activity patterns. Covered areas were mostly used during periods of extreme temperatures, with less diurnal and more nocturnal activities within these areas, on hotter days. Activity in open areas mainly occurred during periods of intermediate temperatures, both during the day and in the night. Moonlight intensity did not influence nocturnal activities. On days of precipitation of 34 mm or more, there was no record of open-area activities, despite constant activity in covered-area.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6140  
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