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Author McGreevy, P.; Yeates, J. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Horses (Equus caballus) Type Book Chapter
  Year 2018 Publication Companion Animal Care and Welfare Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords animal company; behavioural signs; diseases; domestic horses; euthanasia; human interaction; nutritional requirements  
  Abstract Summary Domestic horses are equid members of the class Mammalia, order Perissodactyla, and family Equidae. Horses are obligate herbivores, with nutritional requirements as listed in a table. Adequate space is necessary for exercise, exploration, flight, sharing resources, play, and rolling. Company is essential for all horses, including stallions. Company provides opportunities for mutual grooming and play and allows horses to stand head-to-tail to remove flies. Unhandled horses may respond to humans as they would to predators, whereas handled horses' responses depend on their previous interactions with humans. Horses can suffer from several diseases as listed in another table. The best method of euthanasia of horses is usually sedation followed by either cranial shooting or the injection of an overdose of pentobarbitone into the jugular vein. Behavioural signs of distress can include increased locomotory activity, vigilance behaviours, neighing, snorting, pawing, nibbling walls and buckets, defaecation, rearing, kicking stable walls or doors, and high-stepping 'prancing'.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Wiley Online Books Abbreviated Series Title Companion Animal Care and Welfare  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 9781119333708 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi:10.1002/9781119333708.ch13 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6506  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Crowell-Davis, S.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spatial relations between mares and foals of the Welsh pony (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim Beh  
  Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 1007-1015  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Welsh pony mares and foals (Equus caballus) were usually found to be within 1 or 5 m of each other during the first week of the foal's life and gradually spent more time at greater distances as the foals became older. There was an overall levelling of the trend during the 9th-15th weeks of life of the foal, followed by a second period of change during weeks 16-24. Through weeks 21-24, mares and foals spent at least half of their time within 5 m of each other. Proximity was primarily due to foal activity except during foal recumbency. During the first 8 weeks of the foal's life, a mare remained close by when it was recumbent, either by grazing in a circle around it or by standing upright beside it. Mares and foals were most likely to be close together when they were resting upright with the other ponies in the herd and most likely to be far apart when the foal was playing. Similarities in patterns of spatial relationship between the foals of a given mare were demonstrated. There was no difference between colts and filies in the development of independence.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6505  
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Author Crowell-Davis, S.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nursing behaviour and maternal aggression among Welsh ponies (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 1985 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl Anim Behav Sci  
  Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 11-25  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Nursing behaviour and related aggression of mare-foal pairs was studied from birth (n = 21) to 24 weeks of age (n = 15) of the foal. Foals exhibited a decreasing length and frequency of nursing as they grew older. Mares rarely aggressed against their foals during nursing in the foal's first 4 weeks of life, but did so increasingly through Weeks 13-16, after which the rate of aggression during nursing decreased. Mares terminated nursing primarily by moving away, and were most likely to do so during the foal's first 4 weeks of life. They became gradually less likely to do so as the foal grew older. It was concluded that mares sometimes flex their hind limb on the side opposite the foal during nursing in order to conserve energy in a situation in which they would be remaining still anyway. There was no difference between colts and fillies in the frequency or duration of nursing or in the frequency with which their mothers aggressed against them or terminated nursing.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6504  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Myslajek, R.W.; Tracz, M.; Tracz, M.; Tomczak, P.; Szewczyk, M.; Niedzwiecka, N.; Nowak, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spatial organization in wolves Canis lupus recolonizing north-west Poland: Large territories at low population density Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Mammalian Biology Abbreviated Journal Mamm. Biol.  
  Volume 92 Issue Pages 37-44  
  Keywords Wolf recovery; Spatial organization; GPS/GSM telemetry; Central European wolf population  
  Abstract Monitoring of the wolf Canis lupus is a demanding task as it lives in low densities, utilizes vast home ranges and disperses over large areas. These factors make obtaining accurate data about population parameters over the whole distribution area of the species impossible. Thus detailed local studies on socio-spatial organization are essential to calibrate information obtained over a larger area. We applied GPS/GSM telemetry, non-invasive genetic sampling, year-round tracking, camera trapping and howling stimulations to determine the number of family groups, population density and home-range sizes of wolves in the Drawa Forest (DF, western Poland, 2500 km2), an area recently recolonized by the species. Home ranges of three collared male wolves ranged from 321.8 to 420.6 km2 (MCP 100%) and from 187.5 to 277.5 km2 (Kernel 95%), but core areas had a size of 30.5-84.7 km2 (MCP50%) and 35.0-88.8 km2 (Kernel 50%). Mean near neighbour distance between centres of 6 tracked pack homesites was 15.3 km. The number of wolves in DF increased from 14 individuals in 2013/2014 to 30 in 2016/2017. The annual rate of increase varied from 43% in 2014/2015 to 7% in the final year. Population density for the whole study area was relatively low (1.2 indiv./100 km2 in 2016/2017), but densities within territories of two packs studied with telemetry were 1.9 and 1.5 indiv./100 km2. Mean pack size varied between 3.5 and 5.6 individuals, with the largest pack comprising 8 wolves. Mean number of pups observed in summers (June-August) was 4.5. Differences in home range sizes between wolves in western and eastern Poland indicate that results of regional studies cannot be freely extrapolated despite close genetic relationships. Thus, decisions related to management of wolf habitats should be based on intensive local studies.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6503  
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Author Santiago-Avila, F.J.; Cornman, A.M.; Treves, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages e0189729  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Large carnivores, such as gray wolves, Canis lupus, are difficult to protect in mixed-use landscapes because some people perceive them as dangerous and because they sometimes threaten human property and safety. Governments may respond by killing carnivores in an effort to prevent repeated conflicts or threats, although the functional effectiveness of lethal methods has long been questioned. We evaluated two methods of government intervention following independent events of verified wolf predation on domestic animals (depredation) in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA between 1998-2014, at three spatial scales. We evaluated two intervention methods using log-rank tests and conditional Cox recurrent event, gap time models based on retrospective analyses of the following quasi-experimental treatments: (1) selective killing of wolves by trapping near sites of verified depredation, and (2) advice to owners and haphazard use of non-lethal methods without wolf-killing. The government did not randomly assign treatments and used a pseudo-control (no removal of wolves was not a true control), but the federal permission to intervene lethally was granted and rescinded independent of events on the ground. Hazard ratios suggest lethal intervention was associated with an insignificant 27% lower risk of recurrence of events at trapping sites, but offset by an insignificant 22% increase in risk of recurrence at sites up to 5.42 km distant in the same year, compared to the non-lethal treatment. Our results do not support the hypothesis that Michigan's use of lethal intervention after wolf depredations was effective for reducing the future risk of recurrence in the vicinities of trapping sites. Examining only the sites of intervention is incomplete because neighbors near trapping sites may suffer the recurrence of depredations. We propose two new hypotheses for perceived effectiveness of lethal methods: (a) killing predators may be perceived as effective because of the benefits to a small minority of farmers, and (b) if neighbors experience side-effects of lethal intervention such as displaced depredations, they may perceive the problem growing and then demand more lethal intervention rather than detecting problems spreading from the first trapping site. Ethical wildlife management guided by the “best scientific and commercial data available” would suggest suspending the standard method of trapping wolves in favor of non-lethal methods (livestock guarding dogs or fladry) that have been proven effective in preventing livestock losses in Michigan and elsewhere.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6502  
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Harman, A.; McLean, A.; Hawson, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Over-flexing the horse's neck: A modern equestrian obsession? Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research  
  Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 180-186  
  Keywords  
  Abstract We used an opportunistic review of photographs of different adult and juvenile horses walking, trotting, and cantering (n = 828) to compare the angle of the nasal plane relative to vertical in feral and domestic horses at liberty (n = 450) with ridden horses advertised in a popular Australian horse magazine (n = 378). We assumed that horses in advertisements were shown at, what was perceived by the vendors to be, their best. Of the ridden horses, 68% had their nasal plane behind the vertical. The mean angle of the unridden horses at walk, trot, and canter (30.7 ± 11.5; 27.3 ± 12.0; 25.5 ± 11.0) was significantly greater than those of the ridden horses (1.4 ± 14.1; ?5.1 ± ?11.1; 3.1 ± 15.4, P < 0.001). Surprisingly, unridden domestic horses showed greater angles than feral horses or domestic horses at liberty. We compared adult and juvenile horses in all 3 gaits and found no significant difference. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the longitudinal neck flexion of the degree desirable by popular opinion in ridden horses is not a common feature of unridden horses moving naturally. Moreover, they suggest that advertised horses in our series are generally being ridden at odds with their natural carriage and contrary to the international rules of dressage (as published by the International Equestrian Federation). These findings are discussed against the backdrop of the established doctrine, which states that carrying a rider necessitates changes in longitudinal flexion, and in the context of the current debate around hyperflexion.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2010.03.004 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6501  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Suter, S.M.; Giordano, M.; Nietlispach, S.; Apollonio, M.; Passilongo, D. openurl 
  Title Non-invasive acoustic detection of wolves Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Bioacoustics Abbreviated Journal Bioacoustics  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Monitoring wolves (Canis lupus) is a difficult and often expensive task due to high mobility,pack dynamic, shyness and nocturnal activity of this species. Wolves communicate acoustically trough howling, within pack and with packs of the neighbourhood. A wolf howl is a low frequency vocalization that can be transmitted over long distances and thus be used

for monitoring tasks. Animated howling survey is a current method to monitor wolves indifferent areas all over the world. Animated howling, however, may be invasive to residential wolf packs and could create possible negative reactions from local human population. Here we show that it is possible to detect wolves by recording spontaneous howling events. We measured the sound pressure level of wolf howls on captive individuals and we further found that simulated howling may be recorded and clearly identified up to a distance of 3 km. We finally conducted non-invasive acoustic detection of wolves in a free ranging population. The use of passive sound recorders may provide a powerful non-invasive tool for future wolf monitoring and thus help to established sustainable management plans for this species.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6500  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Passilongo, D.; Buccianti, A.; Dessi-Fulgheri, F.; Gazzola, A.; Zaccaronii, M.; Apollonio, M. openurl 
  Title The Acoustic Structure Of Wolf Howls In Some Eastern Tuscany (Central Italy) Free Ranging Packs Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Bioacoustics Abbreviated Journal Bioacoustics  
  Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 159-175  
  Keywords Canis lupus, acoustic structure, mammal communication, sonogram, fundamental frequency.  
  Abstract Italian wolf howls are described for the first time from observations between 20032008 of a population living in eastern Tuscany, central Italy. A sample of 37 howls selected among single responses and 128 howls included in the choruses of 7 free ranging packs was recorded and analysed. The mean fundamental frequency of the howls ranged between 274908 Hz. Two main structures recognised by means of multivariate explorative analysis, in particular Principal Component and Cluster Analysis, were ascribed to breaking and flat howls. Discriminant Function Analysis was applied to the recognised groups with the aim to find a general rule for classification. Howls with different features were correctly assigned to the groups obtained by explorative analysis in 95.8% of cases. The analysis of the variables characterising the structure of the howls suggests that maximum frequency and range of fundamental frequency are the most important parameters for classification, while duration does not appear to play any significant role.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6499  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Passilongo, D.; Mattioli, L.; Bassi, E.; Szabó, L.; Apollonio, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Visualizing sound: counting wolves by using a spectral view of the chorus howling Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Frontiers in Zoology Abbreviated Journal Front. Zool.  
  Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 22  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Monitoring large carnivores is a central issue in conservation biology. The wolf (Canis lupus) is the most studied large carnivore in the world. After a massive decline and several local extinctions, mostly due to direct persecutions, wolves are now recolonizing many areas of their historical natural range. One of the main monitoring techniques is the howling survey, which is based on the wolves' tendency to use vocalisations to mark territory ownership in response to howls of unknown individuals. In most cases wolf howling sessions are useful for the localisation of the pack, but they provide only an aural estimation of the chorus size.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1742-9994 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Passilongo2015 Serial (down) 6498  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author openurl 
  Title Animal Acoustic Communication: Sound Analysis and Research Methods Type Book Whole
  Year 1998 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Berlin Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ ref56 Serial (down) 6497  
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