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Author Krueger., K.; Farmer, K. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Social learning in Horses: Differs from individual learning only in the learning stimulus and not in the learning mechanisms Type Abstract
  Year 2018 Publication 14th Meeting of the Internatinoal Society for Equitation Science Abbreviated Journal 14th Meeting ISES  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse; individual learning; learning mechanisms; learning stimuli; social learning  
  Abstract Equine welfare can be enhanced by applying species specific training. This may incorporate social learning, as horses are highly social and social stimuli are of primary importance. Social learning is comparable to individual learning in its learning mechanisms, differing primarily in the way it is stimulated. Our initial study showed that horses of different breeds (N = 38) follow humans after observing other horses doing so, but only if the observed horse was familiar to and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's exact test: N = 12, P = 0.003). A second study showed that horses and ponies (N = 25) learned to pull a rope to open a feeding apparatus after observing demonstrations by conspecifics, again, only if the demonstrating horse was older and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's combination test, N = 3, v2 = 27.71, p = 0.006). Our third approach showed that horses and ponies (N = 24) learned to press a switch to open a feeding apparatus after observing a familiar person (GzLM: N = 24, z = 2.33, P = 0.02). Most recently, we confronted horses and ponies (N = 50) with persons demonstrating different techniques for opening a feeding apparatus. In this study we investigated whether the horses would copy the demonstrators' techniques or apply their own. Here only some horses copied the technique, and most of the successful learners used their mouths irrespective of the demonstrators' postures (Chi Square Test: N = 40, df = 2, &#967;2 = 31.4, p < 0.001). In all the approaches social stimuli elicited learning processes in the test horses, while only a few individuals in the control groups mastered the tasks by individual learning. The following behaviour observed in the initial study may have been facilitated by a social stimuli (social facilitation), and the opening of the feed boxes in the subsequent studies appear to be mostly the result of enhancement (social enhancement). Some horses may have used the social stimuli at first and continued their learning process by individual trial and error. However, the horses were also selective in whom and some in how to copy. This may have been conditioned (socially conditioned) or the result of simple forms of reasoning on the reliability of the particular information provided by demonstrators of certain social ranks or social positions, as high ranking and familiar horses and familiar persons were copied and some imitated exactly.
Lay person message: Traditional riding instructions suggest that horses learn by observing other horses. For example, older, more experienced driving horses are used for initial training of young driving horses. We have shown that horses indeed use learning stimuli provided by other horse, as well as by humans. Horses readily accept stimuli observed in high ranking and familiar horses, and familiar persons. Such stimuli elicit learning processes which are comparable to individual learning. We suggest applying social learning whenever possible, as it is much faster and less stressful than individual learning, where learners experience negative outcomes in trial and error learning.
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6405  
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Author Blatz, S.; Krüger,K.;Zanger, M. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Der Hufmechanismus – was wir wirklich wissen! Eine historische und fachliche Auseinandersetzung mit der Biomechanik des Hufes Type Book Whole
  Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Huf Hufmechanismus Pferd  
  Abstract Der Hufmechanismus – wir alle glauben ihn zu kennen und zu wissen wie er funktioniert. Doch wussten Sie, dass nach über 250 Jahren der Forschung immer noch keine eindeutige Aussage dazu getroffen werden kann, wie der Hufmechanismus genau entsteht, vonstattengeht und wie er bei der Hufbearbeitung berücksichtigt werden muss?

Die Ergebnisse von 50 Studien unterstützen die Elastizitätstheorie. Sie beschreibt einen individuellen Hufmechanismus, der von Pferd zu Pferd unterschiedlich und von mannigfaltigen Faktoren abhängig ist.

Der Hufmechanismus zeigt sich als ebenso anpassungsfähig wie die Hufform selbst. Daher sollte bei der Hufbearbeitung und beim Beschlag mit Maß und Weitblick die optimale und individuelle Lösung für jedes Pferd gefunden werden.
 
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  Publisher Xenophon Verlag e.K. Place of Publication Wald Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-004-0 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6404  
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Author Van Horik, J.; Clayton, N.; Emery, N. openurl 
  Title Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology Type Book Whole
  Year Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication New York Editor Vonk, J.; Shackelford, T.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6403  
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Author Jerison H. J. openurl 
  Title Intelligence and Evolutionary Biology Type Book Whole
  Year 1988 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Jerison H. J., Jerison, J.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6402  
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Author Kruska, D.C.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comparative quantitative investigations on brains of wild cavies (Cavia aperea) and guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). A contribution to size changes of CNS structures due to domestication Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal Mamm Biol  
  Volume 79 Issue 4 Pages 230-239  
  Keywords Domestication; Allometry; Brain structure volumes; Brain-behavior correlation  
  Abstract Intraspecific allometric calculations of the brain to body size relation revealed distinct differences between 127 (67; 60) ancestral wild cavies and 82 (37; 45) guinea pigs, their domesticated relatives. The dependency of both measures from one another remained the same in both animal groups but the brains of guinea pigs were by 14.22% smaller at any net body weight. Consistent with results in other species the domestication of Cavia aperea is also characterized by a decrease of brain size. Fresh tissue sizes of the five brain parts medulla oblongata, cerebellum, mesencephalon, diencephalon and telencephalon were determined for 6 cavies and 6 guinea pigs by the serial section method. Additionally the sizes of 16 endbrain structures and those of the optic tract, the lateral geniculate body and the cochlear nucleus were measured. Different decrease values resulted for all these structures concomitant with domestication as was calculated from the amount of total brain size decrease and average relative structure values in the wild as well as the domesticated brain. The size decrease of the entire telencephalon (-13.7%) was within the range of the mean overall reduction as similarly was the case for the total neocortex (-10.7%) whereas the total allocortex (-20.9%) clearly was more strongly affected. The size decrease of the olfactory bulb (-41.9%) was extreme and clearly higher than found for the secondary olfactory structures (around -11%). The primary nuclei of other sensory systems (vision, audition) were decreased to less extent (lateral geniculate: -18.1%; cochlear nucleus: -12.6%). Mass decreases of pure white matter parts were nearly twice as high in contrast to associated grey matter parts (neocortex white versus grey matter; tractus opticus versus lateral geniculate body). The relatively great decrease values found for the limbic structures hippocampus (-26.9%) and schizocortex (-25.9%) are especially notable since they are in good conformity with domestication effects in other mammalian species. The findings of this study are discussed with regard to results of similar investigations on wild and domesticated gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), the encephalization of the wild form, the special and species-specific mode and duration of domestication and in connection with certain behavioral changes as resulted from comparative investigations in ethology, socio-biology, endocrinology and general physiology.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial (down) 6401  
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Author Fenner, K.; Freire, R.; McLean, A.; McGreevy, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioral, demographic and management influences on equine responses to negative reinforcement Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Learning; horse management; training; temperament; negative reinforcement  
  Abstract Understanding the factors that influence horse learning is critical to ensure horse welfare and rider safety. In this study, data were obtained from horses (n=96) training to step backwards through a corridor in response to bit pressure. Following training, learning ability was determined by the latency to step backwards through the corridor when handled on the left and right reins. Additionally, horse owners were questioned about each horse's management, training, behavior and signalment (such as horse breed, age and sex). Factors from these four broad domains were examined using a multiple logistic regression (MLR) model, following an Information Theoretic approach, for associations between horses' behavioral attributes and their ability to learn the task. The MLR also included estimates of the rider's ability and experience as well as owner's perceptions of their horse's trainability and temperament. Results revealed several variables including explanatory variables that correlated significantly with rate of learning. Horses were faster at backing, a behavioral trait, when handled on the right (t = 3.65, df = 94, P < 0.001) than the left side. Thoroughbred horses were slower at completing the tests than other breeds of horses when handled on the left side (LM, F1,48=4.5, P=0.04) and right side (LM, F1,45=6.0, P=0.02). Those in regular work, a training factor, did not learn faster than their unworked counterparts on the right rein but completed the task faster on the left rein (F1,44=5.47, P=0.02). This may reflect differences in laterality and habituation effects. In contrast, more anxious horses were faster at completing the test when handled from the right (Spearman, r=-0.22, P=0.04). It is possible that these horses have an increased arousal level when interacting with handlers, resulting in more engagement with the lesson, accounting for the improved performance results. The findings of this study will help clarify how horse behavior, training and management may influence learning and how their application may optimize learning outcomes. Future equine behavior assessment and research questionnaires should include items that assess these qualities.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6400  
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Author Galef, B.G.; Laland, K.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social Learning in Animals: Empirical Studies and Theoretical Models Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication BioScience Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 489-499  
  Keywords  
  Abstract AbstractThe last two decades have seen a virtual explosion in empirical research on the role of social interactions in the development of animals' behavioral repertoires, and a similar increase in attention to formal models of social learning. Here we first review recent empirical evidence of social influences on food choice, tool use, patterns of movement, predator avoidance, mate choice, and courtship, and then consider formal models of when animals choose to copy behavior, and which other animals' behavior they copy, together with empirical tests of predictions from those models.  
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  ISSN 0006-3568 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0489:Sliaes]2.0.Co;2 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6398  
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Author Ronnenberg, K.; Habbe, B.; Gräber, R.; Strauß, E.; Siebert, U. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Coexistence of wolves and humans in a densely populated region (Lower Saxony, Germany) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Basic and Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal Basic. Appl. Ecol.  
  Volume 25 Issue Pages 1-14  
  Keywords Grey wolf; ; Habitat use; Species distribution models; Predator-prey interactions  
  Abstract Since the first sporadic occurrences of grey wolves (Canis lupus) west of the Polish border in 1996, wolves have shown a rapid population recovery in Germany. Wolves are known to avoid people and wolf attacks on humans are very rare worldwide. However, the subjectively perceived threat is considerable, especially as food-conditioned habituation to humans occurs sporadically. Lower Saxony (Germany) has an exceedingly higher human population density than most other regions with territorial wolves; thus, the potential for human-wolf conflicts is higher. Using hunters' wildlife survey data from 455 municipalities and two years (2014-2015) and data from the official wolf monitoring (557 confirmed wolf presences and 500 background points) collected between 2012-2015, grey wolf habitat selection was modelled using generalized additive models with respect to human population density, road density, forest cover and roe deer density. Moreover, we tested whether habitat use changed in response to human population and road density between 2012/2013 and 2014/2015. Wolves showed a preference for areas of low road density. Human population density was less important as a covariate in the model of the survey data. Areas with higher prey abundance (5-10 roe deer/km2) and areas with >20% forest cover were preferred wolf habitats. Wolves were mostly restricted to areas with the lowest road and human population densities. However, between the two time periods, avoidance of human density decreased significantly. Recolonization of Germany is still in its early stages and it is unclear where this process will halt. To-date authorities mainly concentrate on monitoring measures. However, to avoid conflict, recolonization will require more stringent management of wolf populations and an improved information strategy for rural populations.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1439-1791 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6397  
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Author Quaresmini, C.; Forrester, G.S.; Spiezio, C.; Vallortigara, G. doi  openurl
  Title Social environment elicits lateralized behaviors in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Comparative Psychology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 128 Issue 3 Pages 276-284  
  Keywords *Animal Ethology; *Animal Social Behavior; *Chimpanzees; *Gorillas; *Social Influences; Cerebral Dominance; Lateral Dominance; Social Environments  
  Abstract The influence of the social environment on lateralized behaviors has now been investigated across a wide variety of animal species. New evidence suggests that the social environment can modulate behavior. Currently, there is a paucity of data relating to how primates navigate their environmental space, and investigations that consider the naturalistic context of the individual are few and fragmented. Moreover, there are competing theories about whether only the right or rather both cerebral hemispheres are involved in the processing of social stimuli, especially in emotion processing. Here we provide the first report of lateralized social behaviors elicited by great apes. We employed a continuous focal animal sampling method to record the spontaneous interactions of a captive zoo-living colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a biological family group of peer-reared western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). We specifically focused on which side of the body (i.e., front, rear, left, right) the focal individual preferred to keep conspecifics. Utilizing a newly developed quantitative corpus-coding scheme, analysis revealed both chimpanzees and gorillas demonstrated a significant group-level preference for focal individuals to keep conspecifics positioned to the front of them compared with behind them. More interestingly, both groups also manifested a population-level bias to keep conspecifics on their left side compared with their right side. Our findings suggest a social processing dominance of the right hemisphere for context-specific social environments. Results are discussed in light of the evolutionary adaptive value of social stimulus as a triggering factor for the manifestation of group-level lateralized behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Address Quaresmini, Caterina: Department of Psychology and Cognitive Sciences, University of Trento, Corso Bettini 31, Rovereto, Italy, 38068, caterina.quaresmini@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher American Psychological Association Place of Publication Us Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1939-2087(Electronic),0735-7036(Print) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ 2014-13828-001 Serial (down) 6396  
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Author McVey, A.; Wilkinson, A.; Mills, D.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning in horses: the effect of using a group leader demonstrator on the performance of familiar conspecifics in a detour task Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Equine; Imitation; Leader; Social facilitation; Social learning  
  Abstract Learning through the observation of others allows the transfer of information without the costs incurred during individual trial and error learning. Horses (Equus caballus) are a highly social species, which might be expected to be capable of learning from others, but experimental findings are inconsistent, and potentially confounded by social facilitation effects not related directly to the learning of the task. We refined the methods used in previous equine social learning studies, to examine and distinguish specific social influences on learning of a task: we used predefined group leaders rather than agonistically dominant individuals to demonstrate a detour task to familiar conspecific observers; in addition we had two control groups: a non-observer (true control) and a group with the demonstrator simply present at the goal (social facilitation control). 44 socially kept horses were allocated to one of the three test conditions and took part in five trials each. Success rate, latency and detour direction were recorded. There was no significant difference between the three groups in the likelihood of them succeeding in the task nor latency to succeed; however there was a significant difference in the route chosen by the groups, with the true control choosing the side with the entrance gate significantly more than either the observer group or social facilitation group. Both of the latter two groups chose to go in the same direction relative to themselves, regardless of which side the gate was. Seven out of nine horses in the observer group chose the same direction as their demonstrator every time. Our results show a significant role of social facilitation on detour behaviour and highlight the importance of including adequate controls for simpler cognitive influences on behaviour before claims can be made about the specific learning of motor actions or goal directed behaviour. Social cues may be important to horses if the task is sufficiently challenging and motivationally important, so future work should consider more demanding, but ecologically relevant situations, in order to maximise the potential revelation of social learning effects which do not depend on simple local or stimulus enhancement effects.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6395  
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