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Author Weber-Mzell, D.; Kotanko, P.; Hauer, A.C.; Goriup, U.; Haas, J.; Lanner, N.; Erwa, W.; Ahmaida, I.A.; Haitchi-Petnehazy, S.; Stenzel, M.; Lanzer, G.; Deutsch, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Gender, age and seasonal effects on IgA deficiency: a study of 7293 Caucasians Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication European Journal of Clinical Investigation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 224-228  
  Keywords Age- and gender-related variability; immunoglobulin A; seasonal variability; serum IgA deficiency  
  Abstract Background The frequency of serum IgA deficiency (SIgAD) differs between populations. We examined the prevalence of SIgAD in healthy Caucasians. Materials and methods Serum immunoglobulin A (SIgA) was measured in 7293 volunteers (2264 women, 5029 men) aged 30 ± 14·2 years (mean ± SD; range: 12–66). Serum immunoglobulin A and subnormal SIgA levels were defined by a SIgA level < 0·07 g L-1, and between 0·07 and 0·7 g L-1, respectively. Means were compared by analysis of variance (anova) and analysis of covariance (ancova); frequencies by the χ2 test. Results Fifteen subjects (0·21%; one woman, 14 men) had SIgAD. Subnormal SIgA levels were found in 155 persons (2·13%): 21 females (0·93% of the females) and 134 males (2·66% of the males; difference: 1·74%; 95% CI: 1·12–2·33%; P < 0·001). Males were more likely to have subnormal SIgA levels or SIgAD (odds ratio 3·09, 95% CI: 1·97–4·85). The prevalence of SIgAD and subnormal SIgA was lowest in winter (χ2 = 14·8; P = 0·002; 3 d.f.; and χ2 = 43·2; P < 0·001; 3 d.f., respectively). Serum immunoglobulin A concentrations were significantly higher during winter. Serum immunoglobulin A levels increased with age on average by 0·2 ± 0·06 g L-1 per decade of life (P < 0·001). Taking into account the influence of age, SIgA concentration was lower in females as compared with males. Conclusion The prevalence of SIgAD and subnormal SIgA levels is increased in males. There exists a significant influence of gender, age and seasons on SIgA levels.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Science Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1365-2362 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6127  
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Author Jafarzadeh A.; Sadeghi M.; Karam G.A.; Vazirinejad R. openurl 
  Title Salivary IgA and IgE levels in healthy subjects: relation to age and gender Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Braz. oral res. Abbreviated Journal Braz. Oral Res.  
  Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 21-27  
  Keywords Saliva; Immunoglobulin A; Immunoglobulin E; Adult; Child  
  Abstract It has been reported that the immune system undergoes age and gender changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the age- and gender-dependent changes of salivary IgA and IgE levels among healthy subjects. A total of 203 healthy individuals (aged 1-70 years) were enrolled in the study. Two milliliters of saliva were collected from all participants, and salivary IgA and IgE levels were measured by the ELISA technique. Mean salivary IgA levels were significantly higher in subjects aged 11-20 years as compared to subjects aged 1-10 years (P < 0.01). Mean salivary IgA levels increased with age up to the age of 60 years, and then slightly decreased in subjects aged 61-70 years. The frequency of subjects with detectable levels of salivary IgE and mean salivary IgE levels gradually increased with age, with maximum levels being observed in the 31-40 years age group and not changing significantly thereafter. The mean levels of salivary IgA and IgE in adults were significantly higher than those observed in children (P < 0.00001 and P < 0.05, respectively). No significant differences were observed between men and women regarding both salivary immunoglobulins. These results showed age-dependent changes of the salivary IgA and IgE levels. Gender had no effect on the salivary levels of IgA and IgE.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6126  
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Author Gorgasser I.; Tichy A.; Palme R. openurl 
  Title Faecal cortisol metabolites in Quarter Horses during initial training under field conditions[Messung der Kortisolmetaboliten im Pferdekot während der Grundausbildung von 2jährigen Quarter Horses] Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Wien. Tierärztl. Mschr. – Vet. Med. Austria Abbreviated Journal Wien. Tierärztl. Mschr. – Vet. Med. Austria  
  Volume 94 Issue Pages 226 - 230  
  Keywords horse, stress, adrenocortical activity, western riding, non-invasive[Pferd, Stress, Nebennierenrindenaktivität, Westernreiten, nicht-invasiv]  
  Abstract The first month of training of a young horse is suspected to be stressful, but the endocrine responses to initial training are unknown. Therefore in our study a total of 40 Quarter Horses (QH), all at the age of almost 2 years, were followed during the first 30 days of their training. During this time faecal samples were collected twice daily and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) were measured. Baseline values of FCM ranged between 1.3 and 20.1 (median: 6.7) ng/g faeces. No differences in FCM values between days of training were found. Mares showed the highest values. Significant diurnal variations were observed in mares (p=0.035) and stallions (p=0.003), but not in geldings (p=0.282). As in this study adrenocortical activity was not increased during initial training, horses seem to cope very well with this new situation. The results of our large-scale study provide basic physiological data about initial training. This gives additional input in an emotional debate about animal welfare aspects of first time handling and training of horses.

Abbreviations: 11,17-DOA = 11,17-dioxoandrostanes; EIA = Enyzme Immunoassay; FCM = faecal cortisol metabolites; GC = glucocorticoids; HPA-axis = hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis; QH = Quarter Horses

[Das Einreiten eines jungen Pferdes steht unter Verdacht belastend zu sein. Bisher gibt es aber keine Veröffentlichungen über endokrine Vorgänge während dieser Phase. Mit der vorliegenden Studie wurde überprüft, ob Pferde aufgrund physischer und psychischer Belastungen während des Trainings höhere Konzentrationen an Kortisolmetaboliten im Kot (FCM) aufweisen. Es wurden dazu 40 Quarter Horses im Alter von 2 Jahren während der ersten 30 Tage der Grundausbildung des Westernreitens beobachtet und ihre FCM Werte gemessen. Während dieser Zeitspanne wurden täglich morgens und abends Kotproben der Pferde genommen. Die Basalwerte der FCM Konzentration variierten zwischen 1,3 und 20,1 (Median: 6,7) ng/g Kot, wobei Stuten die höchsten Werte hatten. Signifikante Unterschiede während der einzelnen Trainingstage konnten nicht festgestellt werden. In der Tagesrhythmik wurden signifikante Unterschiede bei Stuten (p=0,035) und bei Hengsten (p=0,003), jedoch nicht bei Wallachen (p=0,282) ermittelt. In dieser Studie konnte keine erhöhte Aktivität der Nebennierenrinde im Verlauf der Grundausbildung eines Pferdes im Westernreitstil festgestellt werden. Das legt nahe, dass Pferde mit dieser neuen, zeitlich kurz andauernden Situationen gut zurechtkommen. Unsere Studie wurde an einer großen Anzahl von Tieren unter Feldbedingungen durchgeführt. Sie bietet daher eine gute Datenbasis über Belastungen während des Einreitens. Damit liefert sie einen zusätzlichen Beitrag zu einer mitunter emotional geführten Debatte über tierschutzrelevante Aspekte bei der Grundausbildung von Pferden.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6125  
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Author Clayton, H.M.; Larson, B.; Kaiser, L.A.J.; Lavagnino, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Length and elasticity of side reins affect rein tension at trot Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 188 Issue 3 Pages 291-294  
  Keywords Horse; Equitation; Training; Rein aids  
  Abstract This study investigated the horse’s contribution to tension in the reins. The experimental hypotheses were that tension in side reins (1) increases biphasically in each trot stride, (2) changes inversely with rein length, and (3) changes with elasticity of the reins. Eight riding horses trotted in hand at consistent speed in a straight line wearing a bit and bridle and three types of side reins (inelastic, stiff elastic, compliant elastic) were evaluated in random order at long, neutral, and short lengths. Strain gauge transducers (240 Hz) measured minimal, maximal and mean rein tension, rate of loading and impulse. The effects of rein type and length were evaluated using ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Rein tension oscillated in a regular pattern with a peak during each diagonal stance phase. Within each rein type, minimal, maximal and mean tensions were higher with shorter reins. At neutral or short lengths, minimal tension increased and maximal tension decreased with elasticity of the reins. Short, inelastic reins had the highest maximal tension and rate of loading. Since the tension variables respond differently to rein elasticity at different lengths, it is recommended that a set of variables representing different aspects of rein tension should be reported.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1090-0233 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6124  
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Author Albright, J.; Sun, X.; Houpt, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does cribbing behavior in horses vary with dietary taste or direct gastric stimuli? Type Journal Article
  Year Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl Anim Behav Sci  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Horse; Stereotypy; Cribbing; Diet  
  Abstract Abstract Concentrated feed diets have been shown to drastically increase the rate of the cribbing, an oral stereotypy in horses, but the specific component causing the rise has not been identified. Furthermore, the mechanism through which feed affects cribbing has not been explored. In the first experiment of this study, we quantified the latency to crib and number of cribs in 15 min after the horses tasted various grain, sugar, and artificial sweetener solutions. Undiluted grain stimulated the most cribs (P < 0.01) compared with all other solutions, and shortest latency to crib, although this was significantly higher only when compared with diluted grain (P = 0.03). In Experiment 2, latency to crib and number of cribs in 15 min after the grain and sugar solutions were administered via nasograstric tube were also evaluated. There were no statistical differences among cribbing responses to grain, fructose, and water administered directly to the stomach although grain stimulated cribbing behavior more quickly than 10% fructose (P = 0.03) and 100% tap water (P = 0.04). These results confirm that highly palatable diets, possibly mediated through the opioid and dopaminergic systems, are one of the most potent inducers of cribbing behavior. The highly palatable taste remains the probable “cribogenic” factor of concentrated diet, although gastric and post-gastric effects cannot be excluded.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6123  
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Author Briefer, E.F.; Mandel, R.; Maigrot, A.-L.; Briefer Freymond, S.; Bachmann, I.; Hillmann, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Perception of emotional valence in horse whinnies Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Frontiers in Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 8  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result. We tested whether domestic horses perceive, and are affected by, the emotional valence of whinnies produced by both familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. We measured physiological and behavioural reactions to whinnies recorded during emotionally negative (social separation) and positive (social reunion) situations.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1742-9994 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Briefer2017 Serial (down) 6049  
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Author Hartmann, E.; Christensen, J.W.; McGreevy, P.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dominance and leadership: Useful concepts in human-horse interactions? Type Journal Article
  Year Publication Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal Journal of Equine Veterinary Science  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Dominance hierarchies in horses primarily influence priority access to limited resources of any kind, resulting in predictable contest outcomes that potentially minimize aggressive encounters and associated risk of injury. Levels of aggression in group-kept horses under domestic conditions have been reported to be higher than in their feral counterparts but can often be attributed to sub-optimal management. Horse owners often express concerns about the risk of injuries occurring in group-kept horses but these concerns have not been substantiated by empirical investigations. What has not yet been sufficiently addressed are human safety aspects related to approaching and handling group-kept horses. Given horses? natural tendency to synchronize activity to promote group cohesion, questions remain about how group dynamics influence human-horse interactions. Group dynamics influence a variety of management scenarios, ranging from taking a horse out of its social group to the prospect of humans mimicking the horse?s social system by taking a putative leadership role and seeking after an alpha position in the dominance hierarchy to achieve compliance. Yet, there is considerable debate about whether the roles horses attain in their social group are of any relevance in their reactions to humans. This article reviews the empirical data on social dynamics in horses, focusing on dominance and leadership theories and the merits of incorporating those concepts into the human-horse context. This will provide a constructive framework for informed debate and valuable guidance for owners managing group-kept horses and for optimizing human-horse interactions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0737-0806 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2017.01.015 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6048  
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Author Merl, S.; Scherzer, S.; Palme, R.; Möstl, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Pain causes increased concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites in horse feces Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal J Equine Vet Sci  
  Volume 20 Issue 9 Pages 586-590  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The concentration of 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA), a group of cortisol metabolites, was measured using enzyme immunoassay in fecal samples of horses experiencing painful episodes. One group of horses consisted of 10 stallions castrated (samples were collected daily for 10 days); the other group was made up of 29 horses which were brought to an animal hospital because of signs of colic (samples were collected twice daily for six days). Before castration, median concentrations of 10.5 nmol/kg feces were measured. On days 1 and 2 after castration, median 11,17-DOA values increased up to 26.2 and 50.0 nmol/kg feces, respectively, and decreased thereafter to levels lower than at the beginning of the sampling period. High variations were measured between individual cases of colic. In animals with colic, all horses excreted more than 33 nmol 11,17-DOA/kg feces for various periods. The highest concentration measured was 885 nmol/kg feces. One animal out of the 29 colic horses did not show any clinical signs of pain upon arrival in the hospital. The 11,17-DOA values were below 17 nmol/kg feces in all those samples. From this data we conclude, that the concentration of 11,17-DOA in feces is a parameter for painful situations that have occurred one or two days earlier.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0737-0806 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6047  
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Author Palme, R.;Touma, C.;Arias,N.;Dominchin, M.F.;Lepschy, M. openurl 
  Title Steroid extraction: Get the best out of faecal samples Type Journal Article
  Year 3012 Publication Veterinary Medicine Austria Abbreviated Journal Vet. Med. Austria  
  Volume 100 Issue Pages 238-246  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Faecal steroid hormone metabolites are becoming increasingly popular as parameters for reproductive functions and stress. Theextraction of the steroids from the faecal matrix represents the initial step before quantification can be performed. The steroid metabolites present in the faecal matrix are of varying polarity and composition, so selection of a proper extraction procedure is essential. There have been some studies to address this complex but often neglected point. Radiolabelled
steroids (e.g. cortisol or progesterone) have frequently been added to faecal samples to estimate the efficiency of the extraction procedures used. However, native, unmetabolized steroids are normally not present in the faeces and therefore the results are artificial and do not accurately reflect the actual recoveries of the substances of interest. In this respect, recovery experiments based on faecal samples from radiometabolism studies are more informative. In these samples, the metabolite content accurately reflects the mixture of metabolites present in the given species. As a result, it is possible to evaluate different extraction methods for use with faecal samples. We present studies on sheep, horses, pigs, hares and dogs that utilized samples containing naturally metabolized, 14C-labelled steroids.
 
  Address Review, faeces, extrac- tion, non-invasive hormone moni- toring, stress, reproduction.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6046  
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Author Palme, R.; Moestl, E. openurl 
  Title Measurement of cortisol metabolites in faeces of sheep as a parameter of cortisol concentration in blood Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal J. Mammal. Biol.  
  Volume 62 Issue Pages 192-197  
  Keywords glucocorticoids, metabolites, animal biology, sheep, immunoenzyme techniques,  
  Abstract  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6044  
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