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Author Zlatanova, D.; Ahmed, A.; Valasseva, A.; Genov, P. openurl 
  Title Adaptive Diet Strategy of the Wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Europe: a Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication ACTA ZOOLOGICA BULGARICA Abbreviated Journal Acta zool. bulg.  
  Volume 66 Issue 4 Pages 439-452  
  Keywords Wolf, Canis lupus, prey, adaptive strategy  
  Abstract The diet strategy of the wolf in Europe is reviewed on the basis of 74 basic and 14 additional literature
sources. The comparative analysis reveals clear dependence on the latitude (and, therefore, on the changing
environmental conditions) correlated with the wild ungulate abundance and diversity. Following a
geographic pattern, the wolf is specialised on different species of ungulates: moose and reindeer in Scandinavia,
red deer in Central and Eastern Europe and wild boar in Southern Europe. Where this large prey
is taken, the roe deer is hunted with almost the same frequency in every region. The wolf diet in Europe
shows two ecological adaptations formed by a complex of variables: 1. Wolves living in natural habitats
with abundance of wild ungulates feed mainly on wild prey. 2. In highly anthropogenic habitats, with low
abundance of wild prey, wolves feed on livestock (where husbandry of domestic animals is available) and
take also a lot of plant food, smaller prey (hares and rodents) and garbage food. The frequency of occurrence
of wild ungulates in the diet of wolves in North Europe varies from 54.0% in Belarus to 132.7% in
Poland, while that of livestock is in the range from 0.4% in Norway to 74.9% in Belarus. In South Europe,
the frequency of occurrence of wild prey varies from 0% in Italy and Spain to 136.0% in Italy, while of domestic
ungulates ranges between 0% and 100% in Spain. The low density or lack of wild prey triggers the
switch of the wolf diet to livestock, plant food (32.2-85% in Italy) or even garbage (up to 41.5% in Italy).
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6388  
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Author Meriggi,A.; Lovari, S. openurl 
  Title A Review of Wolf Predation in Southern Europe: Does the Wolf Prefer Wild Prey to Livestock? Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Applled Ecology Abbreviated Journal J. Appl. Ecol  
  Volume 33 Issue Pages 1561-1571  
  Keywords Canis lupus, conservation, food habits, prey abundance, prey availability.  
  Abstract 1. The recent recovery of the wolf in southern Europe has not yet removed the risk
of local extinction. Wolf populations are fragmented and often comprise fewer than
500 individuals. In North America, northern and eastern Europe, wolves feed maiiily
on wild herbivores. In southern Europe, this canid has apparently adapted to feed
also on fruit, rubbish, livestock, small and medium-size mammals.
2. The main conservation problem lies with predation o n domestic ~ingulates,w liich
leads to extensive killing of wolves. The reintroduction of wild large herbivores has
been advocated as a means of reducing attacks on livestock, but predatiori on the
latter may remain high if domestic ungulates are locally abundant.
3. Our synthesis of 15 studies, published in the last 15 years, on food habits of the
wolf in southern Europe, has shown that ungulates have been the main diet component
overall. A significant inverse correlation was found between the occurrence (%) of
wild and domestic ungulates in the diet. The presence of relatively few wild ungulate
species was necessary to reduce predation on livestock.
4. Selection of wild and domestic ungulate prey was influenced mainly by their local
abundance, but also by their accessibility. Feeding dependence on rubbish was local
and rare. In Italy, the consumption of riibbish/fruit and that of ungulates was significantly
negatively correlated. Diet breadth increased as the presence of large prey
in tlie diet decreased.
5. The simultaneous reintroduction of severa1 wild ungulate species is likely to reduce
predation on livestock and may prove to be one of the most effective conservation
measures.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6387  
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Author Farmer, K.; Krüger, K.; Byrne, R.W.; Marr, I. doi  openurl
  Title Sensory laterality in affiliative interactions in domestic horses and ponies (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 21 Issue 5 Pages 631-637  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Many studies have been carried out into both motor and sensory laterality of horses in agonistic and stressful situations. Here we examine sensory laterality in affiliative interactions within four groups of domestic horses and ponies (N = 31), living in stable social groups, housed at a single complex close to Vienna, Austria, and demonstrate for the first time a significant population preference for the left side in affiliative approaches and interactions. No effects were observed for gender, rank, sociability, phenotype, group, or age. Our results suggest that right hemisphere specialization in horses is not limited to the processing of stressful or agonistic situations, but rather appears to be the norm for processing in all social interactions, as has been demonstrated in other species including chicks and a range of vertebrates. In domestic horses, hemispheric specialization for sensory input appears not to be based on a designation of positive versus negative, but more on the perceived need to respond quickly and appropriately in any given situation.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Farmer2018 Serial (down) 6386  
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Author Merkies, K.; McKechnie, M.J.; Zakrajsek, E. doi  openurl
  Title Behavioural and physiological responses of therapy horses to mentally traumatized humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Equine-assisted therapy; Ptsd; Horse; Behaviour; Cortisol; Heart rate  
  Abstract The benefits to humans of equine-assisted therapy (EAT) have been well-researched, however few studies have analyzed the effects on the horse. Understanding how differing mental states of humans affect the behaviour and response of the horse can assist in providing optimal outcomes for both horse and human. Four humans clinically diagnosed and under care of a psychotherapist for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were matched physically to four neurotypical control humans and individually subjected to each of 17 therapy horses loose in a round pen. A professional acting coach instructed the control humans in replicating the physical movements of their paired PTSD individual. Both horses and humans were equipped with a heart rate (HR) monitor recording HR every 5secs. Saliva samples were collected from each horse 30 min before and 30 min after each trial to analyze cortisol concentrations. Each trial consisted of 5 min of baseline observation of the horse alone in the round pen after which the human entered the round pen for 2 min, followed by an additional 5 min of the horse alone. Behavioural observations indicative of stress in the horse (gait, head height, ear orientation, body orientation, distance from the human, latency of approach to the human, vocalizations, and chewing) were retrospectively collected from video recordings of each trial and analyzed using a repeated measures GLIMMIX with Tukey's multiple comparisons for differences between treatments and time periods. Horses moved slower (p < 0.0001), carried their head lower (p < 0.0001), vocalized less (p < 0.0001), and chewed less (p < 0.0001) when any human was present with them in the round pen. Horse HR increased in the presence of the PTSD humans, even after the PTSD human left the pen (p < 0.0001). Since two of the PTSD/control human pairs were experienced with horses and two were not, a post-hoc analysis showed that horses approached quicker (p < 0.016) and stood closer (p < 0.0082) to humans who were experienced with horses. Horse HR was lower when with inexperienced humans (p < 0.0001) whereas inexperienced human HR was higher (p < 0.0001). Horse salivary cortisol did not differ between exposure to PTSD and control humans (p > 0.32). Overall, behavioural and physiological responses of horses to humans are more pronounced based on human experience with horses than whether the human is diagnosed with a mental disorder. This may be a reflection of a directness of movement associated with humans who are experienced with horses that makes the horse more attentive. It appears that horses respond more to physical cues from the human rather than emotional cues. This knowledge is important in tailoring therapy programs and justifying horse responses when interacting with a patient in a therapy setting.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6385  
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Author Kwang Ng Aik; Rodrigues Daphne url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Big-Five Personality Profile of the Adaptor and Innovator Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The Journal of Creative Behavior Abbreviated Journal J. Creativ. Behav.  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 254-268  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This study explored the relationship between two creative styles (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience). 164 teachers from 3 secondary and 2 primary schools in Singapore completed a self?report questionnaire, which consisted of the Kirton Adaption?Innovation Inventory and the NEO?Five Factor Inventory. It was found that adaptors were significantly more conscientious than innovators, while innovators were significantly more extraverted and open to experience than adaptors. No significant differences were found between adaptors and innovators in neuroticism and agreeableness. The study also revealed a meaningful pattern of relationships between the Big Five personality traits and the three facet scales of the KAI. Specifically, Sufficiency of Originality was negatively correlated with Openness to Experience and Extraversion; Rule Governance was positively correlated with conscientiousness but negatively correlated with openness to experience; Efficiency was positively correlated with conscientiousness. The overall findings supported the fundamental contention that different creative styles were due to different combinations of personality traits, with adaptors being more conscientious, while innovators being more extraverted and open to experience. These personality?based differences in creative styles between adaptors and innovators had resulted in much social conflict between them. One way of resolving it is to make known the nature and value of different creative styles to these two different types of creators.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0175 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1002/j.2162-6057.2002.tb01068.x Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6384  
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Author Kusunose, R.; Yamanobe, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of training schedule on learned tasks in yearling horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 78 Issue 2 Pages 225-233  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Twelve yearlings were divided into two groups and subjected to two different training schedules: (a) 30min of training daily (the daily trained group); and (b) 30min of training for 4 days, followed by a 3-day rest (the intermittently trained group), in order to compare the effect of two training methods on the ability of the horses to learn to be driven and ridden and to respond to the handlers? cues. The length of this experimental training was 17 days. The first step of training was surcingling and proceeded to lunging, to driving from the ground, and finally to being ridden at a trot on a track. Both groups were tested four times during the experimental period when they were at the same stage of training. They were driven and then ridden at a walk by a rider on a specified course and evaluated. The time to complete the course, accuracy of traveling the course, and heart rate during the test were used as the indicators of success in training. In three out of the four tests, the daily trained group tended to move faster and with more accuracy than the intermittently trained group. It would appear that daily training without a long interruption is more effective for yearlings.  
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  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00089-8 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6382  
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Author Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N. isbn  openurl
  Title Animal Innovation Type Book Whole
  Year 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Oxford Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-0-19-852622 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6381  
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Author Liberg, O.; Chapron, G.; Wabakken, P.; Pedersen, H.C.; Hobbs, N.T.; Sand, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proc Biol Sci Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B  
  Volume 279 Issue 1730 Pages 910-915  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state-space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as 'cryptic poaching'. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6380  
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Author Chapron, G.; Treves, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Proc Biol Sci Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B  
  Volume 283 Issue 1830 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Quantifying environmental crime and the effectiveness of policy interventions is difficult because perpetrators typically conceal evidence. To prevent illegal uses of natural resources, such as poaching endangered species, governments have advocated granting policy flexibility to local authorities by liberalizing culling or hunting of large carnivores. We present the first quantitative evaluation of the hypothesis that liberalizing culling will reduce poaching and improve population status of an endangered carnivore. We show that allowing wolf (Canis lupus) culling was substantially more likely to increase poaching than reduce it. Replicated, quasi-experimental changes in wolf policies in Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, revealed that a repeated policy signal to allow state culling triggered repeated slowdowns in wolf population growth, irrespective of the policy implementation measured as the number of wolves killed. The most likely explanation for these slowdowns was poaching and alternative explanations found no support. When the government kills a protected species, the perceived value of each individual of that species may decline; so liberalizing wolf culling may have sent a negative message about the value of wolves or acceptability of poaching. Our results suggest that granting management flexibility for endangered species to address illegal behaviour may instead promote such behaviour.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6379  
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Author Burn, C.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Vicious Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study of Canine Tail-Chasing and Human Responses to It, Using a Free Video-Sharing Website Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 6 Issue 11 Pages e26553  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Tail-chasing is widely celebrated as normal canine behaviour in cultural references. However, all previous scientific studies of tail-chasing or 'spinning' have comprised small clinical populations of dogs with neurological, compulsive or other pathological conditions; most were ultimately euthanased. Thus, there is great disparity between scientific and public information on tail-chasing. I gathered data on the first large (n = 400), non-clinical tail-chasing population, made possible through a vast, free, online video repository, YouTube[TM]. The demographics of this online population are described and discussed. Approximately one third of tail-chasing dogs showed clinical signs, including habitual (daily or 'all the time') or perseverative (difficult to distract) performance of the behaviour. These signs were observed across diverse breeds. Clinical signs appeared virtually unrecognised by the video owners and commenting viewers; laughter was recorded in 55% of videos, encouragement in 43%, and the commonest viewer descriptors were that the behaviour was 'funny' (46%) or 'cute' (42%). Habitual tail-chasers had 6.5+/-2.3 times the odds of being described as 'Stupid' than other dogs, and perseverative dogs were 6.8+/-2.1 times more frequently described as 'Funny' than distractible ones were. Compared with breed- and age-matched control videos, tail-chasing videos were significantly more often indoors and with a computer/television screen switched on. These findings highlight that tail-chasing is sometimes pathological, but can remain untreated, or even be encouraged, because of an assumption that it is 'normal' dog behaviour. The enormous viewing figures that YouTube[TM] attracts (mean+/-s.e. = 863+/-197 viewings per tail-chasing video) suggest that this perception will be further reinforced, without effective intervention.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6378  
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