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Author Leiner, L. openurl 
  Title Vergleich verschiedener Methoden zur Angstextinktion bei Pferden Type Manuscript
  Year 2006 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Pferde sind Fluchttiere. Ihr Fluchtinstinkt bewirkt, dass sie sich leicht erschrecken und auch in
diversen Situationen mit Flucht reagieren. Diese Tatsache ist den meisten Reitern bekannt,
nur ist es für den Menschen teilweise schwer, mit dieser Eigenschaft auszukommen und sie zu
verstehen oder gar nachzuvollziehen. So kommt es häufig zu Unfällen, die aus der Angst der
Pferde resultieren, jedoch vermeidbar gewesen wären, hätte man ankündigende Signale früher
erkannt. Des Weiteren kann die Angst eines Pferdes auch durch eine (Ver-) Weigerung,
bestimmte Dinge zu tun, sichtbar werden. Diese Weigerung wird in der Reiterei gerne als
„Bockigkeit“ und „Ungehorsam“ des Pferdes interpretiert und führt nicht selten zu einer
Bestrafung. Insgesamt kann man sagen, dass angstauslösende Reize und die Reaktionen des
Pferdes darauf oft falsch eingeschätzt oder falsch interpretiert werden und in der Folge auch
falsch damit umgegangen wird. Ein Grund dafür ist sicher das fehlende Wissen über das
Verhalten des Pferdes. Mit der vorliegenden Diplomarbeit soll ein Beitrag geleistet werden,
das Pferd in seinem Angstverhalten besser zu verstehen. Ziel der Arbeit war es, das Verhalten
des Pferdes bei verschiedenen Intensitäten von Angst zu untersuchen. Des Weiteren wurden
Methoden untersucht, mit denen man die Angst von Pferden vor bestimmten Reizen und
Situationen potentiell lindern kann, was letztendlich auch der Unfallvorbeugung dient.
Die vorliegende Diplomarbeit wurde am Haupt- und Landesgestüt Marbach durchgeführt; 24
Junghengste standen hierfür zur Verfügung. Darunter waren 18 Deutsche Warmblüter, 3
Vollblutaraber und 3 Schwarzwälder Füchse (Kaltblüter), somit war auch ein Rassenvergleich
möglich.
In einem ersten Teil der Arbeit wurde untersucht, wie sich Angst bei Pferden äußert. Hierfür
wurde ausgenutzt, dass Pferde ganz generell vor unbekannten, neuen Gegenständen Angst
haben (= Neophobie). Zur Angstauslösung dienten als Konfrontationsgegenstände ein
Sonnenschirm und eine Plastikplane. Beide Gegenstände waren für die Testpferde unbekannt.
Das Verhalten sowie die Herzrate der Tiere wurden während aller Versuche beobachtet und
quantifiziert. Nacheiner ersten Konfrontation wurden die Pferde an die Objekte gewöhnt
(Extinktionstraining = Angstlöschung) und beobachtet welche Verhaltensymptome sich
während dieser Gewöhnung (= Verlust der Neophobie) verändern. Die Hypothese war, dass
tatsächliche Angstsymptome während der Gewöhnung immer seltener zu beobachten sind.
Zusammenfassung III
Als Verhaltensweisen für Angst konnten Ausweichbewegungen und Flucht, Lautäußerungen
(Prusten und Schnauben), das Anspannen der Halsmuskulatur sowie das Vordrücken der
Oberlippe identifiziert werden. Darüber hinaus wurde gezeigt, dass Abstufungen im
Angstverhalten möglich sind: Bei sehr hohem Angstlevel sind Fluchtreaktionen zu
beobachten. Bei mittlerem Angstlevel treten Ausweichbewegungen im Schritt und
Lautäußerungen (Prusten und Schnauben) auf, bei geringem Angstlevel wird die
Halsmuskulatur angespannt und die Oberlippe vorgedrückt.
Im Zweiten Teil der Arbeit sollten verschiedene Methoden zur Angst-Extinktionauf ihre
Wirksamkeit hin untersucht werden. Verwendet wurde in verschiedenen Testgruppen die
Methode der Desensibilisierung (d.h. leichte, schrittweise stärker werdende Exposition
gegenüber dem angstauslösenden Reiz), die Desensibilisierung mit Gegenkonditionierung
(positive Verstärkung) durch Streicheln bzw. Reiben des Halses und die Desensibilisierung
mit Gegenkonditionierung durch Futterbelohnung. Als Kontrollgruppe dienten Pferde, die
ohne eine Konfrontation mit dem angstauslösenden Reiz nur über den Versuchplatz geführt
wurden.
Während des Extinktionstrainings konnte beobachtet werden, dass die Desensibilisierung mit
Gegenkonditionierung zu einer schnelleren Extinktion führt als ohne Gegenkonditionierung.
Allerdings zeigte ein Vergleich mit der Kontrollgruppe, die das Extinktionstraining nicht
erfahren hatte, den gleichen Verlust an Angstverhalten wie die Gruppen mit Extinktionstraining.
Dieses Ergebnis wurde so interpretiert, dass die wiederholte Exposition gegenüber
angstauslösenden Reizen bei den durchgeführten Verhaltenstests zwar eine Rolle spielt, doch
dass auch allein die Beschäftigung mit den Tieren zu einem Verlust von Angstverhalten führt
(wahrscheinlich auch aufgrund eines wachsenden Vertrauens zur Führperson, die über das
komplette Experiment hin die Gleiche blieb).
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Diploma thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6205  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bailey, D url  openurl
  Title Dominance Hierarchies in Horses: Comparing and Contrasting Different Methods for Assessing Hierarchies Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Understanding animal social structures is imperative when it comes to the care, housing and handling of large herd animals. Knowing how hierarchies are structured, along with environmental and physiological aspects that may affect them, will allow owners and breeders to house and care for their animals. The aim of my study was to better understand two methods used to assess dominance hierarchies in horses, Equus caballus, and to predict which method would be more useful for owners housing domestic horses. I designed an experiment where I compared a structured method, the paired feeding test, with behavioral observations from the horses’ natural setting. I hypothesized that the structured method would not conclude the same dominance hierarchy as the natural observations. I also hypothesized that traits of the horses, such as size or age, would correlate with the hierarchy ranking within a herd. A herd of six individual horses from a small ranch east of Platteville, Colorado was used to test the two methods. I found that the two methods measured different hierarchies. The paired feeding test showed no correlations to any of the physical measurements, as well as did not provide a hierarchy that was similar to the natural dominance observations of the horses. Natural observations established a more linear hierarchy and had significant correlations with weight and overall body size. The results indicate that the paired feeding test may not be a valid method for establishing dominance hierarchies within domestic horses housed in a small range.

I recommend use of natural observations over paired feeding tests for ranchers, breeders or owners trying to understand the dominance hierarchies among their herds.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6204  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Siniscalchi, M.; Padalino, B.; Lusito, R.; Quaranta, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Is the left forelimb preference indicative of a stressful situation in horses? Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 107 Issue Supplement C Pages 61-67  
  Keywords Animal welfare; Ethology; Horse; Limb preference; Physiology  
  Abstract Abstract Evidence for behavioural and brain lateralisation is now widespread among the animal kingdom; lateralisation of limb use (pawedness) occurs in several mammals including both feral and domestic horses. We investigated limb preferences in 14 Quarter Horse during different motor tasks (walking, stepping on and off a step, truck loading and unloading). Population lateralisation was observed in two tasks: horses preferentially used their left forelimb during truck loading and stepping off a step. The results also revealed that horses showed higher scores for anxious behaviours during truck loading suggesting that the use of the left forelimb in this task may reflect the main role of the right hemisphere in control of behaviour during stressful situation.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6203  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Valenchon, M.; Lévy, F.; Moussu, C.; Lansade, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stress affects instrumental learning based on positive or negative reinforcement in interaction with personality in domestic horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages e0170783  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The present study investigated how stress affects instrumental learning performance in horses (Equus caballus) depending on the type of reinforcement. Horses were assigned to four groups (N = 15 per group); each group received training with negative or positive reinforcement in the presence or absence of stressors unrelated to the learning task. The instrumental learning task consisted of the horse entering one of two compartments at the appearance of a visual signal given by the experimenter. In the absence of stressors unrelated to the task, learning performance did not differ between negative and positive reinforcements. The presence of stressors unrelated to the task (exposure to novel and sudden stimuli) impaired learning performance. Interestingly, this learning deficit was smaller when the negative reinforcement was used. The negative reinforcement, considered as a stressor related to the task, could have counterbalanced the impact of the extrinsic stressor by focusing attention toward the learning task. In addition, learning performance appears to differ between certain dimensions of personality depending on the presence of stressors and the type of reinforcement. These results suggest that when negative reinforcement is used (i.e. stressor related to the task), the most fearful horses may be the best performers in the absence of stressors but the worst performers when stressors are present. On the contrary, when positive reinforcement is used, the most fearful horses appear to be consistently the worst performers, with and without exposure to stressors unrelated to the learning task. This study is the first to demonstrate in ungulates that stress affects learning performance differentially according to the type of reinforcement and in interaction with personality. It provides fundamental and applied perspectives in the understanding of the relationships between personality and training abilities.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6202  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hampson, B.A.; Morton, J.M.; Mills, P.C.; Trotter, M.G.; Lamb, D.W.; Pollitt, C.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring distances travelled by horses using GPS tracking collars Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Australian Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal Aust. Vet. J.  
  Volume 88 Issue 5 Pages 176-181  
  Keywords behaviour; feral horses; foals; global positioning system (GPS); horses; paddock design  
  Abstract Objective  The aims of this work were to (1) develop a low-cost equine movement tracking collar based on readily available components, (2) conduct preliminary studies assessing the effects of both paddock size and internal fence design on the movements of domestic horses, with and without foals at foot, and (3) describe distances moved by mares and their foals. Additional monitoring of free-ranging feral horses was conducted to allow preliminary comparisons with the movement of confined domestic horses. Procedures  A lightweight global positioning system (GPS) data logger modified from a personal/vehicle tracker and mounted on a collar was used to monitor the movement of domestic horses in a range of paddock sizes and internal fence designs for 6.5-day periods. Results  In the paddocks used (0.8-16 ha), groups of domestic horses exhibited a logarithmic response in mean daily distance travelled as a function of increasing paddock size, tending asymptotically towards approximately 7.5 km/day. The distance moved by newborn foals was similar to their dams, with total distance travelled also dependent on paddock size. Without altering available paddock area, paddock design, with the exception of a spiral design, did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled. Feral horses (17.9 km/day) travelled substantially greater mean daily distances than domestic horses (7.2 km/day in 16-ha paddock), even when allowing for larger paddock size. Conclusions  Horses kept in stables or small yards and paddocks are quite sedentary in comparison with their feral relatives. For a given paddock area, most designs did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Asia Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1751-0813 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6201  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kaczensky, P.; Huber, K. openurl 
  Title The Use of High Frequency GPS Data to Classify Main Behavioural Categories in a Przewalski’s Horse in the Mongolian Gobi Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6200  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pongrácz openurl 
  Title Type Journal Article
  Year Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6199  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smolla, M.; Alem, S.; Chittka, L.; Shultz, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Copy-when-uncertain: bumblebees rely on social information when rewards are highly variable Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Biology letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract To understand the relative benefits of social and personal information use in foraging decisions, we developed an agent-based model of social learning that predicts social information should be more adaptive where resources are highly variable and personal information where resources vary little. We tested our predictions with bumblebees and found that foragers relied more on social information when resources were variable than when they were not. We then investigated whether socially salient cues are used preferentially over non-social ones in variable environments. Although bees clearly used social cues in highly variable environments, under the same conditions they did not use non-social cues. These results suggest that bumblebees use a 'copy-when-uncertain' strategy.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6198  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Knolle, F.; Goncalves, R.P.; Morton, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sheep recognize familiar and unfamiliar human faces from two-dimensional images Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 4 Issue 11 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract One of the most important human social skills is the ability to recognize faces. Humans recognize familiar faces easily, and can learn to identify unfamiliar faces from repeatedly presented images. Sheep are social animals that can recognize other sheep as well as familiar humans. Little is known, however, about their holistic face-processing abilities. In this study, we trained eight sheep (Ovis aries) to recognize the faces of four celebrities from photographic portraits displayed on computer screens. After training, the sheep chose the 'learned-familiar' faces rather than the unfamiliar faces significantly above chance. We then tested whether the sheep could recognize the four celebrity faces if they were presented in different perspectives. This ability has previously been shown only in humans. Sheep successfully recognized the four celebrity faces from tilted images. Interestingly, there was a drop in performance with the tilted images (from 79.22 ± 7.5% to 66.5 ± 4.1%) of a magnitude similar to that seen when humans perform this task. Finally, we asked whether sheep could recognize a very familiar handler from photographs. Sheep identified the handler in 71.8 ± 2.3% of the trials without pretraining. Together these data show that sheep have advanced face-recognition abilities, comparable with those of humans and non-human primates.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6197  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Webster, M.M.; Laland, K.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning strategies and predation risk: minnows copy only when using private information would be costly Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Proc Biol Sci Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B  
  Volume 275 Issue 1653 Pages 2869-2876  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Animals can acquire information from the environment privately, by sampling it directly, or socially, through learning from others. Generally, private information is more accurate, but expensive to acquire, while social information is cheaper but less reliable. Accordingly, the 'costly information hypothesis' predicts that individuals will use private information when the costs associated with doing so are low, but that they should increasingly use social information as the costs of using private information rise. While consistent with considerable data, this theory has yet to be directly tested in a satisfactory manner. We tested this hypothesis by giving minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus) a choice between socially demonstrated and non-demonstrated prey patches under conditions of low, indirect and high simulated predation risk. Subjects had no experience (experiment 1) or prior private information that conflicted with the social information provided by the demonstrators (experiment 2). In both experiments, subjects spent more time in the demonstrated patch than in the non-demonstrated patch, and in experiment 1 made fewer switches between patches, when risk was high compared with when it was low. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the costly information hypothesis, and imply that minnows adopt a 'copy-when-asocial-learning-is-costly' learning strategy.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6196  
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