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Author Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P. url  openurl
  Title Decision support system for overall welfare assessment in pregnant sows A: Model structure and weighting procedure Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 80 Issue 7 Pages 1819-1834  
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  Abstract The problem of how to objectively assess the overall welfare status of animals under farming conditions has contributed to an ongoing debate that has hampered actual decision making on animal welfare. For this reason we constructed a model based on the assumed hierarchical organization of the animals' needs for overall welfare assessment in the case of pregnant sows. This model is implemented in a computer-based decision support system that takes a description of a housing and management system as input and produces a welfare score as output. A formalized procedure was used to construct the model for welfare assessment in pregnant sows on the basis of available scientific knowledge. This SOWEL (from SOw WELfare) model contains 37 attributes that describe the welfare-relevant properties of housing and management systems. In the decision support system these attributes are linked to scientific statements and a list of needs to provide a scientific basis for welfare assessment. Weighting factors that represent the relative importance of the attributes are derived from the scientific statements about the various welfare performance criteria that have been measured by scientists. The welfare score is calculated as the weighted average score. All information in the decision support system is stored in tables in a relational database such that newly available knowledge and insights can be incorporated to refine the model. The model has been developed in line with several existing models but it differs from these models in that it is the first to provide a formalized procedure to explicate the reasoning steps involved in welfare assessment based on available scientific knowledge. N1 -  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2943  
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Author McKinley, S.; Young, R.J. url  openurl
  Title The efficacy of the model-rival method when compared with operant conditioning for training domestic dogs to perform a retrieval-selection task Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 81 Issue 4 Pages 357-365  
  Keywords Dogs; Learning; Operant conditioning; Model-rival; Cognition  
  Abstract Traditionally, dogs have been trained by operant conditioning techniques; that is, dogs make a desired behavioural response and this response is reinforced by a reward such as food. This type of training is very effective in training dogs to perform basic obedience behaviours (e.g. `stay'). However, dogs are social animals and should be predisposed to learn from social stimuli. In the present study, we used a modified version of the model-rival technique that has been extensively used in experiments investigating the cognitive ability of parrots. In this technique, social stimuli are used to create in the animal an interest in the object without the use of food or other rewards. Therefore, the animal learns the name of the object (intrinsic reward) and not that the object's name means food. In this experiment we compared the learning ability of nine pet dogs to solve the same retrieval-selection task having been previously trained using operant conditioning or model-rival techniques. The retrieval-selection task was the dogs had to correctly select the commanded object to bring to the experimenter from a group of three similar objects. The results show no difference in the speeds with which the dogs solved the test--demonstrating the efficacy of the model-rival method. This is the first time that the effectiveness of the model-rival technique has been experimentally demonstrated with dogs. Furthermore, we believe that the methodology reported in this paper has applications in dog training and in experiments into dog cognition.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2900  
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Author Hoover, T.S.; Marshall, T.T. url  openurl
  Title A comparison of learning styles and demographic characteristics of students enrolled in selected animal science courses Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 3169-3173  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2939  
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Author Kendrick, K.M. url  openurl
  Title How the sheep's brain controls the visual recognition of animals and humans Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 69 Issue 12 Pages 5008-5016  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2940  
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Author Honeyman, M.S.; Miller, G.S. url  openurl
  Title The effect of teaching approaches on achievement and satisfaction of field-dependent and field-independent learners in animal science Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 76 Issue 6 Pages 1710-1715  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2941  
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Author Minton, J.E. url  openurl
  Title Function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system in models of acute stress in domestic farm animals Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 72 Issue 7 Pages 1891-1898  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2942  
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Author Bugnyar, T.; Kotrschal, K. url  openurl
  Title Observational learning and the raiding of food caches in ravens, Corvus corax: is it `tactical' deception? Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 64 Issue 2 Pages 185-195  
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  Abstract Group-foraging ravens scatter-hoard when they are competing for food and, to some extent, also raid the caches made by others. We investigated the effects of observational spatial memory on individual caching and raiding tactics. With captive ravens, we found visual observation was essential for locating and raiding the caches of conspecifics. Both captive and free-ranging ravens, food cachers as well as potential cache raiders, responded to each other's presence. Cachers withdrew from conspecifics and most often placed their caches behind structures, obstructing the view of potential observers. Raiders watched inconspicuously and kept at a distance to cachers close to their cache sites. In response to the presence of potential raiders or because of their initial movements towards caches, the cachers frequently interrupted caching, changed cache sites, or recovered their food items. These results suggest that ravens, regardless of whether they act as cachers or raiders, are capable of withholding information about their intentions and, hence, manipulate the other bird's attention either to prevent or to achieve social-learning opportunities. Such interactions may qualify as `tactical' deception and may have created a considerable pressure selecting for social cognition in ravens. Copyright 2002 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2904  
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Author Appleby, M. url  openurl
  Title Consciousness, Cognition and Animal Welfare: J.K. Kirkwood, R.C. Hubrecht, S. Wickens, H. O'Leary, S. Oakley (Eds.), Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 2001, 251 pp., Paperback, Supplement to Volume 10 of Animal Welfare, [pound sign]15/US$ 30, ISSN 0962-7286 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 239-241  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2905  
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Author Ligout, S.; Porter, R.H.; Bon, R. url  openurl
  Title Social discrimination in lambs: persistence and scope Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 76 Issue 3 Pages 239-248  
  Keywords Social discrimination; Social cognition; Persistence of recognition; Lambs  
  Abstract Social recognition among familiar unrelated lambs was assessed in a series of tests. Lambs and their mothers were housed together in small groups for 1 week (Original groups; O) then reorganized into new groupings (Recent-groups; R) for the remainder of the experiment. During test series 1, lambs that were paired with a familiar O-group partner, from which they had been separated for 5 days, emitted fewer distress bleats than did those tested with an unfamiliar partner. This same effect was not evident when the test was repeated several hours later, indicating that the animals had become habituated to the testing procedures. Two days later, when given the choice between an O- versus a R-partner (test series 2), lambs did not display a preference for either of the stimulus lambs. However, in an additional two-choice test (test series 3) the subject lambs responded discriminatively to a recent familiar partner that was simultaneously present with an unfamiliar lamb. Overall, the results suggest that lambs are capable of developing discriminative relationships with age-mates from different sub-groups, and that such social discrimination persists over a separation period lasting at least several days. It is not clear whether lambs recognize several individual conspecifics per se or discriminate between members of higher order social categories (e.g. familiar versus unfamiliar individuals). Proximal and distal social discrimination may be mediated by different combinations of sensory modalities.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2906  
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Author McLean, A.N. url  openurl
  Title Cognitive abilities -- the result of selective pressures on food acquisition? Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 241-258  
  Keywords Adaptive intelligence; Animal cognition; Darwinian selection; Insightful learning  
  Abstract Locating and capturing food are suggested as significant selection pressures for the evolution of various cognitive abilities in mammals and birds. The hypothesis is proposed that aspects of food procuring behaviour should be strongly indicative of particular cognitive abilities. Experimental data concerning higher mental abilities in mammals and birds are reviewed. These data deal with self-recognition studies, rule-learning experiments, number concept, deceptive abilities, tool-use and observational learning. A Darwinian approach reveals: (1) the adaptiveness of particular abilities for particular niches, (2) that in complex foraging environments, increases in foraging efficiencies in animals should result from the evolution of particular cognitive abilities, (3) that phenomena such as convergent mental evolution should be expected to have taken place across taxonomic groups for species exploiting similar niches, (4) that divergence in mental ability should also have taken place where related species have exploited dissimilar niches. Experimental data of higher mental abilities in animals concur with a Darwinian explanation for the distribution of these cognitive abilities and no anomalies have been found. There are, as a consequence, significant implications for the welfare of animals subject to training when training methodology gives little or no consideration to the various mental abilities of species.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2907  
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