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Author Sinclair, A.R.E. openurl 
  Title Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem Type Book Whole
  Year 1979 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2346  
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Author Talbot, L.M.; Talbot, M.H. openurl 
  Title The Wildebeest in Western Masailand Type Book Whole
  Year 1963 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2347  
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Author Hopkins, W.D.; Taglialatela, J.P.; Leavens, D.A. url  openurl
  Title Chimpanzees differentially produce novel vocalizations to capture the attention of a human Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 281-286  
  Keywords acoustic signals; chimpanzee; cognition; Pan troglodytes; vocal communication  
  Abstract Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, produce numerous species-atypical signals when raised in captivity. We examined contextual elements of the use of two of these vocal signals, the `raspberry' and the extended grunt. Our results demonstrate that these vocalizations are not elicited by the presence of food, but instead function as attention-getting signals. These findings reveal a heretofore underappreciated category of animal signals: attention-getting sounds produced in novel environmental circumstances. The invention and use of species-atypical signals, considered in relation to group differences in signalling repertoires in apes in their natural habitats, may index a generative capacity in these hominoid species without obvious corollary in other primate species.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2889  
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Author Meehan, C.L.; Mench, J.A. url  openurl
  Title The challenge of challenge: Can problem solving opportunities enhance animal welfare? Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 102 Issue 3-4 Pages 246-261  
  Keywords Cognition; Environmental enrichment; Challenge; Eustress; Problem solving; Intrinsic motivation  
  Abstract Cognitive mechanisms are an important part of the organization of the behavior systems of animals. In the wild, animals regularly face problems that they must overcome in order to survive and thrive. Solving such problems often requires animals to process, store, retrieve, and act upon information from the environment--in other words, to use their cognitive skills. For example, animals may have to use navigational, tool-making or cooperative social skills in order to procure their food. However, many enrichment programs for captive animals do not include the integration of these types of cognitive challenges. Thus, foraging enrichments typically are designed to facilitate the physical expression of feeding behaviors such as food-searching and food consumption, but not to facilitate complex problem solving behaviors related to food acquisition. Challenging animals by presenting them with problems is almost certainly a source of frustration and stress. However, we suggest here that this is an important, and even necessary, feature of an enrichment program, as long as animals also possess the skills and resources to effectively solve the problems with which they are presented. We discuss this with reference to theories about the emotional consequences of coping with challenge, the association between lack of challenge and the development of abnormal behavior, and the benefits of stress (arousal) in facilitating learning and memory of relevant skills. Much remains to be done to provide empirical support for these theories. However, they do point the way to a practical approach to improving animal welfare--to design enrichments to facilitate the cognitive mechanisms which underlie the performance of complex behaviors that cannot be performed due to the restrictions inherent to the captive environment.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2890  
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Author Cantlon, J.F.; Brannon, E.M. url  openurl
  Title How Much Does Number Matter to a Monkey (Macaca mulatta)? Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 32-41  
  Keywords numerical cognition; Weber's law; nonhuman primates; numerosity  
  Abstract Although many animal species can represent numerical values, little is known about how salient number is relative to other object properties for nonhuman animals. In one hypothesis, researchers propose that animals represent number only as a last resort, when no other properties differentiate stimuli. An alternative hypothesis is that animals automatically, spontaneously, and routinely represent the numerical attributes of their environments. The authors compared the influence of number versus that of shape, color, and surface area on rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) decisions by testing them on a matching task with more than one correct answer: a numerical match and a nonnumerical (color, surface area, or shape) match. The authors also tested whether previous laboratory experience with numerical discrimination influenced a monkey's propensity to represent number. Contrary to the last-resort hypothesis, all monkeys based their decisions on numerical value when the numerical ratio was favorable.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2891  
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Author Provenza, F.D. url  openurl
  Title Acquired aversions as the basis for varied diets of ruminants foraging on rangelands Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 2010-2020  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2946  
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Author Gray, E.R.; Spetch, M.L. url  openurl
  Title Pigeons Encode Absolute Distance but Relational Direction From Landmarks and Walls Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 474-480  
  Keywords spatial cognition; absolute distance; relational direction; landmark configurations  
  Abstract In recent studies, researchers have examined animals' use of absolute or relational distances in finding a hidden goal. When trained with an array of landmarks, most animals use the default strategy of searching at an absolute distance from 1 or more landmarks. In contrast, when trained in enclosures, animals often use the relationship among walls. In the present study, pigeons were trained to find the center of an array of landmarks or a set of short walls that did not block external cues. Expansion tests showed that both groups of pigeons primarily used an absolute distance strategy. However, on rotational tests, pigeons continued to search in the center of the array, suggesting that direction was learned in relation to array.  
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  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2894  
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Author Lanier, J.L.; Grandin, T.; Green, R.D.; Avery, D.; McGee, K. url  openurl
  Title The relationship between reaction to sudden, intermittent movements and sounds and temperament Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 78 Issue 6 Pages 1467-1474  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2945  
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Author Abeyesinghe, S.M.; Nicol, C.J.; Hartnell, S.J.; Wathes, C.M. url  openurl
  Title Can domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, show self-control? Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 70 Issue 1 Pages 1-11  
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  Abstract An important aspect of cognition is whether animals live exclusively in the present or can anticipate the future. Defined as self-control, the ability to choose a large, remote reinforcer over a small, proximate reinforcer available at the same frequency has been examined in a number of species, often proving difficult to demonstrate. We investigated self-control for food in domestic fowl using a standard two-key operant task and an equivalent two-choice return maze (TCRM) task. When hens chose between a 2-s delay to a 3-s feed access (impulsive) and a 6-s delay to a 7-s feed access (self-control), they appeared unable to discriminate in the TCRM but were impulsive in the operant task. We explored reasons for not choosing self-control in the operant task, first by examining the relation between feed access time and actual feed intake. A second operant experiment examined whether failure to show self-control could be attributed to an inability to combine the delay and access (quantity) reward information associated with choices to reach overall predictions of value. New hens chose between a 2-s delay to a 3-s feed access (impulsive) and either a 22-s delay to a 22-s feed access (standard self-control) or a 6-s delay to a 22-s feed access (jackpot self-control). While hens were impulsive in the standard condition, they showed significant and pronounced self-control in the jackpot condition, eliminating the possibility of an absolute cognitive constraint. Impulsive behaviour can instead be explained by temporal discounting: perceived depreciation of reward value as a function of the uncertainty associated with delay. Implications for welfare are discussed.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2897  
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Author Ernst, K.; Puppe, B.; Schon, P.C.; Manteuffel, G. url  openurl
  Title A complex automatic feeding system for pigs aimed to induce successful behavioural coping by cognitive adaptation Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 91 Issue 3-4 Pages 205-218  
  Keywords Learning; Cognition; Reward; Welfare; Pig  
  Abstract In modern intensive husbandry systems there is an increasing tendency for animals to interact with technical equipment. If the animal-technology interface is well-designed this may improve animal welfare by offering challenges for cognitive adaptation. Here a system and its application is presented that acoustically calls individual pigs out of a group (n = 8) to a feeding station. In three different learning phases, the computer-controlled “call-feeding-station” (CFS) trained the animals to recognize a specific acoustic signal as a summons for food, using a combination of classical and operant conditioning techniques. The experimental group's stall contained four CFSs, at each of which one animal at a time was able to feed. When an animal had learned to discriminate and recognize its individual acoustic signal it had to localize the particular CFS that was calling and to enter inside it. Then, it received a portion of feed, the amount of which was adapted to the respective age of the animals. Each animal was called at several, unpredictable times each day and the computer programme ensured that the total feed supply was sufficient for each animal. In the last phase of the experiment the animals, in addition, had to press a button with an increasing fixed ratio for the delivery of feed. It was demonstrated that the pigs were able to adapt quickly to the CFSs. Although they were challenged over 12 h daily by requirements of attention, sensory localization and motor efforts to gain comparatively low amounts of feed, they performed well and reached fairly constant success rates between 90 and 95% and short delays between 14 and 16 s between a summons and the food release in the last phase of the experiment. The weight gain during the experiment was the same as in a conventionally fed control group (n = 8). We therefore conclude that CFSs present a positive challenge to the animals with no negative effects on performance but with a potentially beneficial role for welfare and against boredom. The system is also a suitable experimental platform for research on the effects of successful adaptation by rewarded cognitive processes in pigs.  
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  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2898  
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