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Author Wells, P.G.; Bhuller, Y.; Chen, C.S.; Jeng, W.; Kasapinovic, S.; Kennedy, J.C.; Kim, P.M.; Laposa, R.R.; McCallum, G.P.; Nicol, C.J.; Parman, T.; Wiley, M.J.; Wong, A.W. doi  openurl
  Title Molecular and biochemical mechanisms in teratogenesis involving reactive oxygen species Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Toxicology and applied pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Toxicol Appl Pharmacol  
  Volume 207 Issue 2 Suppl Pages 354-366  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract Developmental pathologies may result from endogenous or xenobiotic-enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules and/or alter signal transduction. This minireview focuses upon several model drugs (phenytoin, thalidomide, methamphetamine), environmental chemicals (benzo[a]pyrene) and gamma irradiation to examine this hypothesis in vivo and in embryo culture using mouse, rat and rabbit models. Embryonic prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) and lipoxygenases bioactivate xenobiotics to free radical intermediates that initiate ROS formation, resulting in oxidation of proteins, lipids and DNA. Oxidative DNA damage and embryopathies are reduced in PHS knockout mice, and in mice treated with PHS inhibitors, antioxidative enzymes, antioxidants and free radical trapping agents. Thalidomide causes embryonic DNA oxidation in susceptible (rabbit) but not resistant (mouse) species. Embryopathies are increased in mutant mice deficient in the antioxidative enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), or by glutathione (GSH) depletion, or inhibition of GSH peroxidase or GSH reductase. Inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice are partially protected. Inhibition of Ras or NF-kB pathways reduces embryopathies, implicating ROS-mediated signal transduction. Atm and p53 knockout mice deficient in DNA damage response/repair are more susceptible to xenobiotic or radiation embryopathies, suggesting a teratological role for DNA damage, consistent with enhanced susceptibility to methamphetamine in ogg1 knockout mice with deficient repair of oxidative DNA damage. Even endogenous embryonic oxidative stress carries a risk, since untreated G6PD- or ATM-deficient mice have increased embryopathies. Thus, embryonic processes regulating the balance of ROS formation, oxidative DNA damage and repair, and ROS-mediated signal transduction may be important determinants of teratological risk.  
  Address Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0041-008X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16081118 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 68  
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Author Kirkpatrick, J.F.; Shldeler, S.E.; Lasley, B.L.; Turner, J.W.J. openurl 
  Title Pregnancy determination in uncaptured feral horses by means of fecal steroid conjugates Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Theriogenology Abbreviated Journal Theriogenology  
  Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 753-760  
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  Abstract This study was carried out to develop an accurate, rapid and inexpensive method for diagnosing pregnancy in uncaptured feral horses by analysis of fecal steroid metabolites and to compare the accuracy of this method with diagnosis by urinary estrone conjugates (E(1)C). Paired urine and fecal samples were collected from 40 sexually mature feral mares during August and October. Urine samples were extracted directly from the soil and analyzed by enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for E(1)C. Water extracts of fecal samples were assayed by EIA for E(1)C and nonspecific progesterone metabolites (iPdG). Urinary E(1)C, fecal E(1)C and fecal iPdG concentrations for seven mares which produced foals were 3.9 +/- 1.3 (SEM) mug/mg creatinine, 4.2 +/- 0.8 ng/g feces and 1.411 +/- 569.6 ng/g feces, respectively. Urinary E(1)C and fecal E(1)C and iPdG concentrations for the 33 mares which did not produce foals were 0.1 +/- 0.0 mug/mg creatinine and 0.5 +/- 0.1 and 32.8 +/- 4.5 ng/g feces, respectively. These differed (P < 0.01) from values in mares which produced foals.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences Eastern Montana College Billings, MT 59101 USA  
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  ISSN 0093-691X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16726944 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 146  
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Author Zentall, T.R. doi  openurl
  Title Temporal discrimination learning by pigeons Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Behavioural processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 74 Issue 2 Pages 286-292  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract Memory for time by animals appears to undergo a systematic shortening. This so-called choose-short effect can be seen in a conditional temporal discrimination when a delay is inserted between the sample and comparison stimuli. We have proposed that this temporal shortening may result from a procedural artifact in which the delay appears similar to the intertrial interval and thus, produces an inadvertent ambiguity or 'instructional failure'. When this ambiguity is avoided by distinguishing the intertrial interval from the delay, as well as the samples from the delay, the temporal shortening effect and other asymmetries often disappear. By avoiding artifacts that can lead to a misinterpretation of results, we may understand better how animals represent time. An alternative procedure for studying temporal discriminations is with the psychophysical bisection procedure in which following conditional discrimination training, intermediate durations are presented and the point of subjective equality is determined. Research using the bisection procedure has shown that pigeons represent temporal durations not only as their absolute value but also relative to durations from which they must be discriminated. Using this procedure, we have also found that time passes subjectively slower when animals are required to respond to the to-be-timed stimulus.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, United States. zentall@uky.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17110057 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 216  
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Author Zentall, T.R. doi  openurl
  Title Timing, memory for intervals, and memory for untimed stimuli: The role of instructional ambiguity Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Behavioural processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 71 Issue 2-3 Pages 88-97  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract Theories of animal timing have had to account for findings that the memory for the duration of a timed interval appears to be dramatically shorted within a short time of its termination. This finding has led to the subjective shortening hypothesis and it has been proposed to account for the poor memory that animals appear to have for the initial portion of a timed interval when a gap is inserted in the to-be-timed signal. It has also been proposed to account for the poor memory for a relatively long interval that has been discriminated from a shorter interval. I suggest here a simpler account in which ambiguity between the gap or retention interval and the intertrial interval results in resetting the clock, rather than forgetting the interval. The ambiguity hypothesis, together with a signal salience mechanism that determines how quickly the clock is reset at the start of the intertrial interval can account for the results of the reported timing experiments that have used the peak procedure. Furthermore, instructional ambiguity rather than memory loss may account for the results of many animal memory experiments that do not involve memory for time.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 202B Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA. zentall@uky.edu  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16406373 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 219  
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Author Wittig, R.M.; Crockford, C.; Wikberg, E.; Seyfarth, R.M.; Cheney, D.L. doi  openurl
  Title Kin-mediated reconciliation substitutes for direct reconciliation in female baboons Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 274 Issue 1613 Pages 1109-1115  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract It has been hypothesized that group-living mammals engage in reconciliation (post-conflict affiliation between former opponents) to reduce the disruptive costs of aggression and restore opponents' tolerance to baseline levels. Recipients of aggression are sometimes reluctant to tolerate the proximity of a recent opponent, however, in apparent fear that aggression will be renewed. In such cases, reconciliatory behaviour by the aggressor's close kin may substitute for direct reconciliation. We describe a playback experiment with free-ranging baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) that examines whether friendly behaviour by the aggressor's kin can substitute for direct reconciliation by the aggressor herself. In the test condition, female subjects who had recently been threatened heard the friendly grunt of one of their aggressor's relatives, mimicking kin-mediated vocal reconciliation. In the control condition, subjects heard the grunt of a dominant female from a different matriline. Subjects responded significantly more strongly in test than in control trials. Moreover, in the next hour they were significantly more likely to tolerate the proximity of both their aggressor and the relative whose grunt they had heard. In contrast, subjects' behaviour towards both control females and other members of their aggressor's matriline was unaffected. We conclude that kin-mediated vocal reconciliation can substitute for direct reconciliation in baboons.  
  Address Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018, USA  
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  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:17301022 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 342  
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Author Linklater, W.L.; Henderson, K.M.; Cameron, E.Z.; Stafford, K.J.; Minot, E.O. openurl 
  Title The robustness of faecal steroid determination for pregnancy testing Kaimanawa feral mares under field conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication New Zealand veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal N Z Vet J  
  Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 93-98  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract AIMS: To investigate the utility of faecal oestrone sulphate (OS) concentrations for detecting pregnancy in mares during behavioural studies of feral horses, in which the collection and preservation of samples is not immediate. METHODS: Oestrone sulphate concentrations were measured in fresh dung samples collected from 153 free-roaming Kaimanawa mares throughout the year. In addition, multiple samples were taken from the same pile to investigate the reliability of diagnosis from a single sample, as well as the influence of time until preservation on OS concentrations. Samples were also taken before and after a 10mm simulated rainfall event to test for dilution of OS concentrations by rain. Oestrone sulphate concentrations in all samples were measured using an enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: From approximately 150 to 250 days of gestation, OS concentrations were consistently >80 ng/g in mares which subsequently foaled. Mares which did not foal and had low faecal OS concentrations in multiple samples throughout the year had faecal OS concentrations of 31+/-13 ng/g (mean+/-s.d.) with an upper 95% confidence limit of 57 ng/g. Mares sampled from 1 week before to 1 month after behavioural oestrus, and that did not foal in the previous and subsequent seasons, had OS concentrations of 37+/-32 ng/g (mean+/-s.d.) with an upper 95% confidence limit of 100 ng/g. The standard error of oestrone sulphate concentrations in multiple samples from the same dung pile ranged from 1 to 37% of the mean. This large within-pile variation, however, did not result in incorrect diagnoses from single samples unless mares were within 18 days of parturition. Keeping samples at ambient temperatures for up to 16 hours did not affect OS concentrations. Simulated rainfall caused a 17% mean reduction in OS concentrations, but did not change pregnancy diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Faecal OS concentrations >100 ng/g were indicative of pregnancy in Kaimanawa mares. For mares more than 150 days post-mating, OS concentrations <57 ng/g were indicative of non-pregnancy, while concentrations between 57 and 100 ng/g provided an inconclusive diagnosis. A single sample from each dung pile collected within 16 hours of defecation was sufficient to accurately diagnose pregnancy in mares 150-250 days post conception. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Measurement of OS concentrations in dung samples was a reliable and robust indicator of pregnancy status in feral mares 150-250 days post mating. This corresponds approximately to the period from May to August, given the seasonal breeding pattern in this population. This method of determining pregnancy status is suitable for field use in behavioural and demographic studies of wild horse populations.  
  Address Ecology Group, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. wlinklater@hotmail.com  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-0169 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16032132 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 411  
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Author Linklater, W.L.; Cameron, E.Z.; Stafford, K.J.; Austin, T. openurl 
  Title Chemical immobilisation and temporary confinement of two Kaimanawa feral stallions Type Letter
  Year 1998 Publication New Zealand veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal N Z Vet J  
  Volume 46 Issue 3 Pages 117-118  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-0169 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16032032 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 412  
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Author Manser, M.B.; Seyfarth, R.M.; Cheney, D.L. openurl 
  Title Suricate alarm calls signal predator class and urgency Type News
  Year 2002 Publication Trends in Cognitive Sciences Abbreviated Journal Trends. Cognit. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 55-57  
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  ISSN 1364-6613 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15866180 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 686  
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Author Whiten, A.; van Schaik, C.P. doi  openurl
  Title The evolution of animal 'cultures' and social intelligence Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 362 Issue 1480 Pages 603-620  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract Decades-long field research has flowered into integrative studies that, together with experimental evidence for the requisite social learning capacities, have indicated a reliance on multiple traditions ('cultures') in a small number of species. It is increasingly evident that there is great variation in manifestations of social learning, tradition and culture among species, offering much scope for evolutionary analysis. Social learning has been identified in a range of vertebrate and invertebrate species, yet sustained traditions appear rarer, and the multiple traditions we call cultures are rarer still. Here, we examine relationships between this variation and both social intelligence-sophisticated information processing adapted to the social domain-and encephalization. First, we consider whether culture offers one particular confirmation of the social ('Machiavellian') intelligence hypothesis that certain kinds of social life (here, culture) select for intelligence: 'you need to be smart to sustain culture'. Phylogenetic comparisons, particularly focusing on our own study animals, the great apes, support this, but we also highlight some paradoxes in a broader taxonomic survey. Second, we use intraspecific variation to address the converse hypothesis that 'culture makes you smart', concluding that recent evidence for both chimpanzees and orang-utans support this proposition.  
  Address Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9JP, UK  
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  ISSN 0962-8436 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17255007 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 729  
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Author Backhaus D, openurl 
  Title Experimentelle Untersuchungen ber die Sehschärfe und das Farbsehen einiger Huftiere Type Journal Article
  Year 1959 Publication Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z. Tierpsychol.  
  Volume 16 Issue Pages 445-467  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 910  
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