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Author McComb, K.; Shannon, G.; Durant, S.M.; Sayialel, K.; Slotow, R.; Poole, J.; Moss, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Leadership in elephants: the adaptive value of age Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B.  
  Volume 278 Issue 1722 Pages (down) 3270-3276  
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  Abstract The value of age is well recognized in human societies, where older individuals often emerge as leaders in tasks requiring specialized knowledge, but what part do such individuals play in other social species? Despite growing interest in how effective leadership might be achieved in animal social systems, the specific role that older leaders may play in decision-making has rarely been experimentally investigated. Here, we use a novel playback paradigm to demonstrate that in African elephants (Loxodonta africana), age affects the ability of matriarchs to make ecologically relevant decisions in a domain critical to survival—the assessment of predatory threat. While groups consistently adjust their defensive behaviour to the greater threat of three roaring lions versus one, families with younger matriarchs typically under-react to roars from male lions despite the severe danger they represent. Sensitivity to this key threat increases with matriarch age and is greatest for the oldest matriarchs, who are likely to have accumulated the most experience. Our study provides the first empirical evidence that individuals within a social group may derive significant benefits from the influence of an older leader because of their enhanced ability to make crucial decisions about predatory threat, generating important insights into selection for longevity in cognitively advanced social mammals.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5652  
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Author Dunn, M.F.; Branlant, G. openurl 
  Title Roles of zinc ion and reduced coenzyme in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase catalysis. The mechanism of aldehyde activation Type Journal Article
  Year 1975 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry  
  Volume 14 Issue 14 Pages (down) 3176-3182  
  Keywords *Alcohol Oxidoreductases/metabolism; Aldehydes/*pharmacology; Animals; Binding Sites; Enzyme Activation/drug effects; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; Liver/enzymology; *NAD/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; Oxidation-Reduction; Protein Binding; Spectrophotometry; Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet; Temperature; *Zinc/pharmacology  
  Abstract 1,4,5,6-Tetrahydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (H2NADH) has been investigated as a reduced coenzyme analog in the reaction between trans-4-N,N-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (I) (lambdamax 398 nm, epsilonmax 3.15 X 10-4 M-minus 1 cm-minus 1) and the horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase-NADH complex. These equilibrium binding and temperature-jump kinetic studies establish the following. (i) Substitution of H2NADH for NADH limits reaction to the reversible formation of a new chromophoric species, lambdamax 468 nm, epsilonmax 5.8 x 10-4 M-minus 1 cm-minus 1. This chromophore is demonstrated to be structurally analogous to the transient intermediate formed during the reaction of I with the enzyme-NADH complex [Dunn, M. F., and Hutchison, J. S. (1973), Biochemistry 12, 4882]. (ii) The process of intermediate formation with the enzyme-NADH complex is independent of pH over the range 6.13-10.54. Although studies were limited to the pH range 5.98-8.72, a similar pH independence appears to hold for the H2NADH system. (iii) Within the ternary complex, I is bound within van der Waal's contact distance of the coenzyme nicotinamide ring. (iv) Formation of the transient intermediate does not involve covalent modification of coenzyme. Based on these findings, we conclude that zinc ion has a Lewis acid function in facilitating the chemical activation of the aldehyde carbonyl for reduction, and that reduced coenzyme plays a noncovalent effector role in this substrate activating step.  
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  ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:238585 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3817  
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Author Hoover, T.S.; Marshall, T.T. url  openurl
  Title A comparison of learning styles and demographic characteristics of students enrolled in selected animal science courses Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages (down) 3169-3173  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2939  
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Author Proops, L.; McComb, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus) extends to familiar humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 279 Issue 1741 Pages (down) 3131-3138  
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  Abstract It has recently been shown that some non-human animals can cross-modally recognize members of their own taxon. What is unclear is just how plastic this recognition system can be. In this study, we investigate whether an animal, the domestic horse, is capable of spontaneous cross-modal recognition of individuals from a morphologically very different species. We also provide the first insights into how cross-modal identity information is processed by examining whether there are hemispheric biases in this important social skill. In our preferential looking paradigm, subjects were presented with two people and playbacks of their voices to determine whether they were able to match the voice with the person. When presented with familiar handlers subjects could match the specific familiar person with the correct familiar voice. Horses were significantly better at performing the matching task when the congruent person was standing on their right, indicating marked hemispheric specialization (left hemisphere bias) in this ability. These results are the first to demonstrate that cross-modal recognition in animals can extend to individuals from phylogenetically very distant species. They also indicate that processes governed by the left hemisphere are central to the cross-modal matching of visual and auditory information from familiar individuals in a naturalistic setting.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5616  
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Author Ordakowski-Burk, A.L.; Quinn, R.W.; Shellem, T.A.; Vough, L.R. doi  openurl
  Title Voluntary intake and digestibility of reed canarygrass and timothy hay fed to horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 84 Issue 11 Pages (down) 3104-3109  
  Keywords Animal Feed/*analysis; Animal Nutrition Physiology; Animals; Diet/*veterinary; Digestion/*physiology; Feeding Behavior/*physiology; Horses/*physiology; Male; Poaceae/*metabolism  
  Abstract Thousands of hectares of timothy (Phleum pretense L.) grown in the Mid-Atlantic region are infected by cereal rust mite (Abacarus hysterix) that causes discoloration and curling of leaves, decreased nutritional quality, and substantial decreases in yield. A decline in production of timothy hay can lower income for hay producers and cause horse owners to search for alternative hays. Low alkaloid reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) hay has potential as an alternative to timothy hay because it grows well in the Mid-Atlantic region, is believed to have a similar nutrient quality to timothy, and is not as susceptible to cereal rust mite. Eleven mature, stalled Thoroughbred geldings (549 +/- 12.1 kg) that were exercised daily were used to compare voluntary DMI and apparent nutrient DM digestibility of timothy and low-alkaloid Chiefton variety reed canarygrass hay. Horses were paired by age and BW and randomly assigned to timothy or reed canarygrass hay during a 14-d period to measure voluntary DMI followed by a 4-d period to measure apparent DM digestibility. Both hays met the minimum requirements for DE, CP, Ca, P, K, Fe, and Mn, but they did not meet the minimum requirements for Cu, Zn, and Na for horses at maintenance and averaging 550 kg of BW. Timothy hay seemed to have a lower CP concentration (14.4%) compared with reed canarygrass hay (17.1%) and a more desirable Ca:P ratio at 1.6:1 compared with 0.8:1 for reed canarygrass hay. Horses fed timothy consumed more hay (P <0.001) during the voluntary DMI period compared with horses fed reed canarygrass. Greater voluntary DMI of timothy occurred on d 1, 3, and 5 (P <0.05), but DMI was similar for other days. Apparent DM digestibility was greater in horses fed timothy hay by 9.6% compared with horses fed reed canarygrass hay (P <0.05). Horses fed timothy had greater DM digestibility of ADF (P = 0.001), NDF (P = 0.001), sugar (P = 0.05), and Ca (P = 0.001) but lower apparent DM digestibility of CP (P = 0.012) and crude fat (P = 0.004). Timothy hay was superior in voluntary DMI and apparent DM digestibility compared with low-alkaloid reed canarygrass hay fed to horses.  
  Address Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park 20742, USA. amyburk@umd.edu  
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  ISSN 1525-3163 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:17032805 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4236  
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Author Sappington, B.F.; Goldman, L. url  openurl
  Title Discrimination learning and concept formation in the Arabian horse Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 72 Issue 12 Pages (down) 3080-3087  
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  Abstract Discrimination learning and concept formation abilities were investigated in four mature Arabian horses. A series of two-choice discrimination problems were presented on stimulus panels that could open to allow access to food bowls. Selection of the correct stimulus resulted in food reinforcement, and an incorrect choice was not rewarded. The positions of the correct and incorrect stimuli were varied randomly during each test session, and the criterion for learning each problem was 85% correct for two consecutive sessions of 30 or 40 trials. Testing progressed through six discrimination problems. The first four were simple pattern discriminations, but the last two incorporated several different triangles as correct stimuli and thus involved the concept of triangularity. Two of the subjects successfully completed only simple pattern discriminations, one showed evidence of learning in the first concept problem, and one completed all six tests, including the two concept formation problems. The results demonstrate complex pattern discrimination ability in horses, and suggest that they may also have the ability to form and use concepts in problem solving.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3569  
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Author Apple, J.K.; Kegley, E.B.; Galloway, D.L.; Wistuba, T.J.; Rakes, L.K.; Yancey, J.W.S. url  openurl
  Title Treadmill exercise is not an effective methodology for producing the dark-cutting condition in young cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 84 Issue 11 Pages (down) 3079-3088  
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  Abstract Holstein steer calves (n = 25) were used to evaluate the effects of treadmill exercise (TME) on blood metabolite status and formation of dark-cutting beef. Calves were blocked by BW (156 {+/-} 33.2 kg) and assigned randomly within blocks to 1 of 5 TME treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design (4 or 8 km/h for a duration of 10 or 15 min) with a nonexercised control. Venous blood was collected via indwelling jugular catheters at 10, 2, and 0 min before TME and at 2-min intervals during exercise. Nonexercised steers were placed on the treadmill but stood still for 15 min. Serum cortisol levels, as well as plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and NEFA, were similar (P > 0.05) before TME. Serum cortisol concentrations were unaffected (P > 0.05) during the first 6 min of TME, but between 8 and 15 min of TME, cortisol concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in steers exercised at 8 km/h than those exercised at 4 km/h or controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Although TME did not affect (P > 0.05) plasma glucose levels, plasma lactate concentrations in steers exercised at 8 km/h increased (P < 0.05) sharply with the onset of the TME treatment and remained elevated compared with steers exercised at 4 km/h or unexercised controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Exercised steers had the lowest (P < 0.05) plasma NEFA concentrations during the first 6 min of TME compared with unexercised steers; however, NEFA concentrations were similar after 10 and 12 min of TME, and by the end of TME, steers exercised at 8 km/h had greater (P < 0.05) NEFA levels than nonexercised controls or steers exercised at 4 km/h (speed x time, P < 0.001). Even though muscle glycogen levels and pH decreased (P < 0.001) and muscle lactate concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with increasing time postmortem, neither treadmill speed nor TME duration altered postmortem LM metabolism. Consequently, there were no (P > 0.05) differences in the color, water-holding capacity, shear force, or incidences of dark-cutting carcasses associated with preslaughter TME. It is apparent that preslaughter TME, at the speeds and durations employed in this study, failed to alter antemortem or postmortem muscle metabolism and would not be a suitable animal model for studying the formation of the dark-cutting condition in ruminants.  
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  Notes 10.2527/jas.2006-137 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2947  
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Author Bode, N.W.F.; Faria, J.J.; Franks, D.W.; Krause, J.; Wood, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How perceived threat increases synchronization in collectively moving animal groups Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci.  
  Volume 277 Issue 1697 Pages (down) 3065-3070  
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  Abstract Nature is rich with many different examples of the cohesive motion of animals. Previous attempts to model collective motion have primarily focused on group behaviours of identical individuals. In contrast, we put our emphasis on modelling the contributions of different individual-level characteristics within such groups by using stochastic asynchronous updating of individual positions and orientations. Our model predicts that higher updating frequency, which we relate to perceived threat, leads to more synchronized group movement, with speed and nearest-neighbour distributions becoming more uniform. Experiments with three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that were exposed to different threat levels provide strong empirical support for our predictions. Our results suggest that the behaviour of fish (at different states of agitation) can be explained by a single parameter in our model: the updating frequency. We postulate a mechanism for collective behavioural changes in different environment-induced contexts, and explain our findings with reference to confusion and oddity effects.  
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  Notes 10.1098/rspb.2010.0855 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5188  
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Author Skedros, J.G.; Dayton, M.R.; Sybrowsky, C.L.; Bloebaum, R.D.; Bachus, K.N. doi  openurl
  Title The influence of collagen fiber orientation and other histocompositional characteristics on the mechanical properties of equine cortical bone Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 209 Issue Pt 15 Pages (down) 3025-3042  
  Keywords Animals; Biomechanics; Bone and Bones/*physiology; Collagen/*physiology; Forelimb; Horses/*physiology  
  Abstract This study examined relative influences of predominant collagen fiber orientation (CFO), mineralization (% ash), and other microstructural characteristics on the mechanical properties of equine cortical bone. Using strain-mode-specific (S-M-S) testing (compression testing of bone habitually loaded in compression; tension testing of bone habitually loaded in tension), the relative mechanical importance of CFO and other material characteristics were examined in equine third metacarpals (MC3s). This model was chosen since it had a consistent non-uniform strain distribution estimated by finite element analysis (FEA) near mid-diaphysis of a thoroughbred horse, net tension in the dorsal/lateral cortices and net compression in the palmar/medial cortices. Bone specimens from regions habitually loaded in tension or compression were: (1) tested to failure in both axial compression and tension in order to contrast S-M-S vs non-S-M-S behavior, and (2) analyzed for CFO, % ash, porosity, fractional area of secondary osteonal bone, osteon cross-sectional area, and population densities of secondary osteons and osteocyte lacunae. Multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that in S-M-S compression testing, CFO most strongly influenced total energy (pre-yield elastic energy plus post-yield plastic energy); in S-M-S tension testing CFO most strongly influenced post-yield energy and total energy. CFO was less important in explaining S-M-S elastic modulus, and yield and ultimate stress. Therefore, in S-M-S loading CFO appears to be important in influencing energy absorption, whereas the other characteristics have a more dominant influence in elastic modulus, pre-yield behavior and strength. These data generally support the hypothesis that differentially affecting S-M-S energy absorption may be an important consequence of regional histocompositional heterogeneity in the equine MC3. Data inconsistent with the hypothesis, including the lack of highly longitudinal collagen in the dorsal-lateral ;tension' region, paradoxical histologic organization in some locations, and lack of significantly improved S-M-S properties in some locations, might reflect the absence of a similar habitual strain distribution in all bones. An alternative strain distribution based on in vivo strain measurements, without FEA, on non-Thoroughbreds showing net compression along the dorsal-palmar axis might be more characteristic of the habitual loading of some of the bones that we examined. In turn, some inconsistencies might also reflect the complex torsion/bending loading regime that the MC3 sustains when the animal undergoes a variety of gaits and activities, which may be representative of only a portion of our animals, again reflecting the possibility that not all of the bones examined had similar habitual loading histories.  
  Address Utah Bone and Joint Center, 5323 S. Woodrow Street #202, Salt Lake City, UT 84107, USA. jskedros@utahboneandjoint.com  
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  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16857886 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1868  
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Author Pere, M.C. openurl 
  Title Maternal and fetal blood levels of glucose, lactate, fructose, and insulin in the conscious pig Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 73 Issue 10 Pages (down) 2994-2999  
  Keywords Animals; Blood Glucose/*analysis; Catheterization/methods/veterinary; Consciousness/physiology; Female; Fetal Blood/*chemistry; Fructose/analysis/*blood; Insulin/analysis/*blood; Lactates/analysis/*blood; Pregnancy; Swine/*blood/physiology  
  Abstract To study nutrition and metabolism in the fetal pig, a chronic catheterization method was developed that allows blood sampling in arteries and veins, at both the umbilical and uterine sources, in the conscious, unstressed animal. A catheter was inserted in the fetal aorta through a femoral artery, and another one was introduced in the umbilical vein. A catheter was put in a femoral artery of the sow so that its end was in the abdominal aorta. A fourth catheter was placed in a uterine vein draining the fetoplacental unit studied. This procedure was applied to 18 Large White primiparous sows at 99 d of gestation. Blood samples were drawn simultaneously using the four catheters before a meal at 103 d of pregnancy, and glucose, insulin, lactate, and fructose were determinated. Glycemia was 2.5 times higher in the sow than in the fetus. The extraction coefficient of glucose by the fetus amounted to 14% of the umbilical supply. The insulin level in the fetal pig was very low ( < 5 microU/mL). Lactate and fructose seemed to originate from the placenta. Blood lactate was 2.6 times lower in the sow than in the fetus, and its extraction coefficient by the fetus amounted to 8%. Fructose in the fetal blood was 2.3 times higher than that of glucose. Fructose was not utilized by the pig fetus. The present results obtained in the fetal pig are comparable to the conclusions drawn from studies with other species.  
  Address Station de Recherches Porcines, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Saint-Gilles, France  
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  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:8617670 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2751  
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