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Author Biegler, R.; McGregor, A.; Krebs, J.R.; Healy, S.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A larger hippocampus is associated with longer-lasting spatial memory Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages (down) 6941-6944  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Volumetric studies in a range of animals (London taxi-drivers, polygynous male voles, nest-parasitic female cowbirds, and a number of food-storing birds) have shown that the size of the hippocampus, a brain region essential to learning and memory, is correlated with tasks involving an extra demand for spatial learning and memory. In this paper, we report the quantitative advantage that food storers gain from such an enlargement. Coal tits () a food-storing species, performed better than great tits (), a nonstoring species, on a task that assessed memory persistence but not on a task that assessed memory resolution or on one that tested memory capacity. These results show that the advantage to the food-storing species associated with an enlarged hippocampus is one of memory persistence.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.121034798 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4743  
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Author Lergetporer, P.; Angerer, S.; Glätzle-Rützler, D.; Sutter, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 111 Issue 19 Pages (down) 6916-6921  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children’s cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner’s level of cooperation.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5805  
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Author Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Small, J.R.; Libertini, L.J.; Small, E.W. openurl 
  Title Kinetics of histidine deligation from the heme in GuHCl-unfolded Fe(III) cytochrome C studied by a laser-induced pH-jump technique Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of the American Chemical Society Abbreviated Journal J Am Chem Soc  
  Volume 123 Issue 27 Pages (down) 6649-6653  
  Keywords Animals; *Bacterial Proteins; Cytochrome c Group/*chemistry; Guanidine/*chemistry; Heme/*chemistry; Histidine/*chemistry; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; *Lasers; Ligands; Protein Folding  
  Abstract We have developed an instrumental setup that uses transient absorption to monitor protein folding/unfolding processes following a laser-induced, ultrafast release of protons from o-nitrobenzaldehyde. The resulting increase in [H(+)], which can be more than 100 microM, is complete within a few nanoseconds. The increase in [H(+)] lowers the pH of the solution from neutrality to approximately 4 at the highest laser pulse energy used. Protein structural rearrangements can be followed by transient absorption, with kinetic monitoring over a broad time range (approximately 10 ns to 500 ms). Using this pH-jump/transient absorption technique, we have examined the dissociation kinetics of non-native axial heme ligands (either histidine His26 or His33) in GuHCl-unfolded Fe(III) cytochrome c (cyt c). Deligation of the non-native ligands following the acidic pH-jump occurs as a biexponential process with different pre-exponential factors. The pre-exponential factors markedly depend on the extent of the pH-jump, as expected from differences in the pK(a) values of His26 and His33. The two lifetimes were found to depend on temperature but were not functions of either the magnitude of the pH-jump or the pre-pulse pH of the solution. The activation energies of the deligation processes support the suggestion that GuHCl-unfolded cyt c structures with non-native histidine axial ligands represent kinetic traps in unfolding.  
  Address Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, 43100 Parma, Italy  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0002-7863 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11439052 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3788  
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Author Haruta, N.; Kitagawa, T. openurl 
  Title Time-resolved UV resonance Raman investigation of protein folding using a rapid mixer: characterization of kinetic folding intermediates of apomyoglobin Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry  
  Volume 41 Issue 21 Pages (down) 6595-6604  
  Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry; Circular Dichroism; Holoenzymes/chemistry; Horses; Hydrochloric Acid/chemistry; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Imidazoles/chemistry; Kinetics; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry; Peptide Fragments/chemistry; *Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Secondary; Spectrum Analysis, Raman/*methods; Tryptophan/*chemistry; Ultraviolet Rays; Whales  
  Abstract The 244-nm excited transient UV resonance Raman spectra are observed for the refolding intermediates of horse apomyoglobin (h-apoMb) with a newly constructed mixed flow cell system, and the results are interpreted on the basis of the spectra observed for the equilibrium acid unfolding of the same protein. The dead time of mixing, which was determined with the appearance of UV Raman bands of imidazolium upon mixing of imidazole with acid, was 150 micros under the flow rate that was adopted. The pH-jump experiments of h-apoMb from pH 2.2 to 5.6 conducted with this device demonstrated the presence of three folding intermediates. On the basis of the analysis of W3 and W7 bands of Trp7 and Trp14, the first intermediate, formed before 250 micros, involved incorporation of Trp14 into the alpha-helix from a random coil. The frequency shift of the W3 band of Trp14 observed for this process was reproduced with a model peptide of the A helix when it forms the alpha-helix. In the second intermediate, formed around 1 ms after the start of refolding, the surroundings of both Trp7 and Trp14 were significantly hydrophobic, suggesting the formation of the hydrophobic core. In the third intermediate appearing around 3 ms, the hydrophobicity was relaxed to the same level as that of the pH 4 equilibrium intermediate, which was investigated in detail with the stationary state technique. The change from the third intermediate to the native state needs more time than 40 ms, while the appearance of the native spectrum after the mixing of the same solutions was confirmed separately.  
  Address School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12022863 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3785  
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Author Gácsi, M.; Gyoöri, B.; Virányi, Z.; Kubinyi, E.; Range, F.; Belényi, B.; Miklósi, Á. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Explaining Dog Wolf Differences in Utilizing Human Pointing Gestures: Selection for Synergistic Shifts in the Development of Some Social Skills Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 4 Issue 8 Pages (down) e6584  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <sec> <title>Background</title> <p>The comparison of human related communication skills of socialized canids may help to understand the evolution and the epigenesis of gesture comprehension in humans. To reconcile previously contradicting views on the origin of dogs' outstanding performance in utilizing human gestures, we suggest that dog-wolf differences should be studied in a more complex way.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title> <p>We present data both on the performance and the behaviour of dogs and wolves of different ages in a two-way object choice test. Characteristic behavioural differences showed that for wolves it took longer to establish eye contact with the pointing experimenter, they struggled more with the handler, and pups also bit her more before focusing on the human's signal. The performance of similarly hand-reared 8-week-old dogs and wolves did not differ in utilizing the simpler proximal momentary pointing. However, when tested with the distal momentary pointing, 4-month-old pet dogs outperformed the same aged hand reared wolves. Thus early and intensive socialisation does not diminish differences between young dogs and wolves in behaviour and performance. Socialised adult wolves performed similarly well as dogs in this task without pretraining. The success of adult wolves was accompanied with increased willingness to cooperate.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Conclusion/Significance</title> <p>Thus, we provide evidence for the first time that socialised adult wolves are as successful in relying on distal momentary pointing as adult pet dogs. However, the delayed emergence of utilising human distal momentary pointing in wolves shows that these wild canines react to a lesser degree to intensive socialisation in contrast to dogs, which are able to control agonistic behaviours and inhibition of actions in a food related task early in development. We suggest a “synergistic” hypothesis, claiming that positive feedback processes (both evolutionary and epigenetic) have increased the readiness of dogs to attend to humans, providing the basis for dog-human communication.</p> </sec>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5196  
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Author Scheffer, M.; van Nes, E.H. doi  openurl
  Title Self-organized similarity, the evolutionary emergence of groups of similar species Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 103 Issue 16 Pages (down) 6230-6235  
  Keywords Animals; *Competitive Behavior; *Ecosystem; *Evolution; *Models, Biological  
  Abstract Ecologists have long been puzzled by the fact that there are so many similar species in nature. Here we show that self-organized clusters of look-a-likes may emerge spontaneously from coevolution of competitors. The explanation is that there are two alternative ways to survive together: being sufficiently different or being sufficiently similar. Using a model based on classical competition theory, we demonstrate a tendency for evolutionary emergence of regularly spaced lumps of similar species along a niche axis. Indeed, such lumpy patterns are commonly observed in size distributions of organisms ranging from algae, zooplankton, and beetles to birds and mammals, and could not be well explained by earlier theory. Our results suggest that these patterns may represent self-constructed niches emerging from competitive interactions. A corollary of our findings is that, whereas in species-poor communities sympatric speciation and invasion of open niches is possible, species-saturated communities may be characterized by convergent evolution and invasion by look-a-likes.  
  Address Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen, The Netherlands. marten.scheffer@wur.nl  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16585519 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 510  
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Author Muscatello, G.; Anderson, G.A.; Gilkerson, J.R.; Browning, G.F. doi  openurl
  Title Associations between the ecology of virulent Rhodococcus equi and the epidemiology of R. equi pneumonia on Australian thoroughbred farms Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Applied and Environmental Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Appl Environ Microbiol  
  Volume 72 Issue 9 Pages (down) 6152-6160  
  Keywords Actinomycetales Infections/epidemiology/microbiology/*veterinary; Air Microbiology; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Australia/epidemiology; Colony Count, Microbial; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; Ecosystem; Horse Diseases/epidemiology/*microbiology; Horses; Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology/microbiology/*veterinary; Rhodococcus equi/genetics/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity; Soil Microbiology; Virulence  
  Abstract The ecology of virulent strains of Rhodococcus equi on horse farms is likely to influence the prevalence and severity of R. equi pneumonia in foals. This study examined the association between the ecology of virulent R. equi and the epidemiology of R. equi pneumonia by collecting air and soil samples over two breeding seasons (28 farm-year combinations) on Thoroughbred breeding farms with different reported prevalences of R. equi pneumonia. Colony blotting and DNA hybridization were used to detect and measure concentrations of virulent R. equi. The prevalence of R. equi pneumonia was associated with the airborne burden of virulent R. equi (both the concentration and the proportion of R. equi bacteria that were virulent) but was not associated with the burden of virulent R. equi in the soil. Univariable screening and multivariable model building were used to evaluate the effect of environmental and management factors on virulent R. equi burdens. Lower soil moisture concentrations and lower pasture heights were significantly associated with elevated airborne concentrations of virulent R. equi, as were the holding pens and lanes, which typically were sandy, dry, and devoid of pasture cover. Few variables appeared to influence concentrations of virulent R. equi in soil. Acidic soil conditions may have contributed to an elevated proportion of virulent strains within the R. equi population. Environmental management strategies that aim to reduce the level of exposure of susceptible foals to airborne virulent R. equi are most likely to reduce the impact of R. equi pneumonia on endemically affected farms.  
  Address School of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. mug@unimelb.edu.au  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0099-2240 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16957241 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2622  
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Author Reiss, D.; Marino, L. doi  openurl
  Title Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: a case of cognitive convergence Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 10 Pages (down) 5937-5942  
  Keywords Animals; *Cognition; Dolphins/*physiology; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract The ability to recognize oneself in a mirror is an exceedingly rare capacity in the animal kingdom. To date, only humans and great apes have shown convincing evidence of mirror self-recognition. Two dolphins were exposed to reflective surfaces, and both demonstrated responses consistent with the use of the mirror to investigate marked parts of the body. This ability to use a mirror to inspect parts of the body is a striking example of evolutionary convergence with great apes and humans.  
  Address Osborn Laboratories of Marine Sciences, New York Aquarium, Wildlife Conservation Society, Brooklyn, NY 11224, USA. dlr28@columbia.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:11331768 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2822  
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Author Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Gwinner, E. doi  openurl
  Title Long-term memory for a life on the move Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages (down) 5863-5866  
  Keywords Animals; Germany; Israel; Memory/*physiology; Models, Biological; Periodicity; Songbirds/*physiology  
  Abstract Evidence is accumulating that cognitive abilities are shaped by the specific ecological conditions to which animals are exposed. Long-distance migratory birds may provide a striking example of this. Field observations have shown that, at least in some species, a substantial proportion of individuals return to the same breeding, wintering, and stopover sites in successive years. This observation suggests that migrants have evolved special cognitive abilities that enable them to accomplish these feats. Here we show that memory of a particular feeding site persisted for at least 12 months in a long-distance migrant, whereas a closely related nonmigrant could remember such a site for only 2 weeks. Thus, it seems that the migratory lifestyle has influenced the learning and memorizing capacities of migratory birds. These results build a bridge between field observations suggesting special memorization feats of migratory birds and previous neuroanatomical results from the same two species indicating an increase in relative hippocampal size from the first to the second year of life in the migrant but not in the nonmigrant.  
  Address Max Planck Research Centre for Ornithology, Department of Biological Rhythms and Behaviour, Von-der-Tann-Strasse 7, 82346 Andechs, Germany. mettke-hofmann@erl.ornithol.mpg.de  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12719527 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 511  
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Author Amé, J.-M.; Halloy, J.; Rivault, C.; Detrain, C.; Deneubourg, J.L. doi  openurl
  Title Collegial decision making based on social amplification leads to optimal group formation Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 103 Issue 15 Pages (down) 5835-5840  
  Keywords Animals; Blattellidae/*physiology; Choice Behavior; Decision Making; Leadership; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract Group-living animals are often faced with choosing between one or more alternative resource sites. A central question in such collective decision making includes determining which individuals induce the decision and when. This experimental and theoretical study of shelter selection by cockroach groups demonstrates that choices can emerge through nonlinear interaction dynamics between equal individuals without perfect knowledge or leadership. We identify a simple mechanism whereby a decision is taken on the move with limited information and signaling and without comparison of available opportunities. This mechanism leads to optimal mean benefit for group individuals. Our model points to a generic self-organized collective decision-making process independent of animal species.  
  Address Service d'Ecologie Sociale CP231, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F. D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16581903 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2042  
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