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Author Warmuth, V.; Eriksson, A.; Bower, M.A.; Barker, G.; Barrett, E.; Hanks, B.K.; Li, S.; Lomitashvili, D.; Ochir-Goryaeva, M.; Sizonov, G.V.; Soyonov, V.; Manica, A. url  openurl
  Title Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 109 Issue 21 Pages (down) 8202-8206  
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  Abstract Despite decades of research across multiple disciplines, the early history of horse domestication remains poorly understood. On the basis of current evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal sequencing, a number of different domestication scenarios have been proposed, ranging from the spread of domestic horses out of a restricted primary area of domestication to the domestication of numerous distinct wild horse populations. In this paper, we reconstruct both the population genetic structure of the extinct wild progenitor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, and the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppes by fitting a spatially explicit stepping-stone model to genotype data from >300 horses sampled across northern Eurasia. We find strong evidence for an expansion of E. ferus out of eastern Eurasia about 160 kya, likely reflecting the colonization of Eurasia by this species. Our best-fitting scenario further suggests that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and that domestic herds were repeatedly restocked with local wild horses as they spread out of this area. By showing that horse domestication was initiated in the western Eurasian steppe and that the spread of domestic herds across Eurasia involved extensive introgression from the wild, the scenario of horse domestication proposed here unites evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal DNA.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1111122109 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5699  
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Author Leadbeater, E.; Dawson, E.H. url  openurl
  Title A social insect perspective on the evolution of social learning mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 114 Issue 30 Pages (down) 7838-7845  
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  Abstract The social world offers a wealth of opportunities to learn from others, and across the animal kingdom individuals capitalize on those opportunities. Here, we explore the role of natural selection in shaping the processes that underlie social information use, using a suite of experiments on social insects as case studies. We illustrate how an associative framework can encompass complex, context-specific social learning in the insect world and beyond, and based on the hypothesis that evolution acts to modify the associative process, suggest potential pathways by which social information use could evolve to become more efficient and effective. Social insects are distant relatives of vertebrate social learners, but the research we describe highlights routes by which natural selection could coopt similar cognitive raw material across the animal kingdom.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1620744114 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6189  
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Author Hausberger, M.; Gautier, E.; Biquand, V.; Lunel, C.; Jégo, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Could Work Be a Source of Behavioural Disorders? A Study in Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 4 Issue 10 Pages (down) e7625 EP -  
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  Abstract <p>Stress at work, as shown by a number of human studies, may lead to a variety of negative and durable effects, such as impaired psychological functioning (anxiety, depression…). Horses share with humans this characteristic of working on a daily basis and are submitted then to work stressors related to physical constraints and/or more “psychological” conflicts, such as potential controversial orders from the riders or the requirement to suppress emotions. On another hand, horses may perform abnormal repetitive behaviour (“stereotypies”) in response to adverse life conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether the type of work the horses are used for may have an impact on their tendency to show stereotypic behaviour (and its type) outside work. Observations in their box of 76 horses all living in the same conditions, belonging to one breed and one sex, revealed that the prevalence and types of stereotypies performed strongly depended upon the type of work they were used for. The stereotypies observed involved mostly mouth movements and head tossing/nodding. Work constraints probably added to unfavourable living conditions, favouring the emergence of chronic abnormal behaviours. This is especially remarkable as the 23 hours spent in the box were influenced by the one hour work performed every day. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of potential effects of work stressors on the emergence of abnormal behaviours in an animal species. It raises an important line of thought on the chronic impact of the work situation on the daily life of individuals.</p>  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5707  
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Author Kitchen A; Denton D; Brent L openurl 
  Title Self-recognition and abstraction abilities in the common chimpanzee studied with distorting mirrors Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 93 Issue Pages (down) 7405  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3011  
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Author Dusek, J.A.; Eichenbaum, H. openurl 
  Title The hippocampus and memory for orderly stimulus relations Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 94 Issue 13 Pages (down) 7109-7114  
  Keywords Animals; Attention; Discrimination (Psychology)/physiology; Hippocampus/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Male; Memory/*physiology; Rats  
  Abstract Human declarative memory involves a systematic organization of information that supports generalizations and inferences from acquired knowledge. This kind of memory depends on the hippocampal region in humans, but the extent to which animals also have declarative memory, and whether inferential expression of memory depends on the hippocampus in animals, remains a major challenge in cognitive neuroscience. To examine these issues, we used a test of transitive inference pioneered by Piaget to assess capacities for systematic organization of knowledge and logical inference in children. In our adaptation of the test, rats were trained on a set of four overlapping odor discrimination problems that could be encoded either separately or as a single representation of orderly relations among the odor stimuli. Normal rats learned the problems and demonstrated the relational memory organization through appropriate transitive inferences about items not presented together during training. By contrast, after disconnection of the hippocampus from either its cortical or subcortical pathway, rats succeeded in acquiring the separate discrimination problems but did not demonstrate transitive inference, indicating that they had failed to develop or could not inferentially express the orderly organization of the stimulus elements. These findings strongly support the view that the hippocampus mediates a general declarative memory capacity in animals, as it does in humans.  
  Address Department of Psychology, Boston University, 64 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:9192700 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 607  
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Author Ward, A.J.W.; Sumpter, D.J.T.; Couzin, I.D.; Hart, P.J.B.; Krause, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quorum decision-making facilitates information transfer in fish shoals Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 105 Issue 19 Pages (down) 6948-6953  
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  Abstract Despite the growing interest in collective phenomena such as “swarm intelligence” and “wisdom of the crowds,” little is known about the mechanisms underlying decision-making in vertebrate animal groups. How do animals use the behavior of others to make more accurate decisions, especially when it is not possible to identify which individuals possess pertinent information? One plausible answer is that individuals respond only when they see a threshold number of individuals perform a particular behavior. Here, we investigate the role of such “quorum responses” in the movement decisions of fish (three-spine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). We show that a quorum response to conspecifics can explain how sticklebacks make collective movement decisions, both in the absence and presence of a potential predation risk. Importantly our experimental work shows that a quorum response can reduce the likelihood of amplification of nonadaptive following behavior. Whereas the traveling direction of solitary fish was strongly influenced by a single replica conspecific, the replica was largely ignored by larger groups of four or eight sticklebacks under risk, and the addition of a second replica was required to exert influence on the movement decisions of such groups. Model simulations further predict that quorum responses by fish improve the accuracy and speed of their decision-making over that of independent decision-makers or those using a weak linear response. This study shows that effective and accurate information transfer in groups may be gained only through nonlinear responses of group members to each other, thus highlighting the importance of quorum decision-making.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.0710344105 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5252  
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Author Biegler, R.; McGregor, A.; Krebs, J.R.; Healy, S.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A larger hippocampus is associated with longer-lasting spatial memory Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages (down) 6941-6944  
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  Abstract Volumetric studies in a range of animals (London taxi-drivers, polygynous male voles, nest-parasitic female cowbirds, and a number of food-storing birds) have shown that the size of the hippocampus, a brain region essential to learning and memory, is correlated with tasks involving an extra demand for spatial learning and memory. In this paper, we report the quantitative advantage that food storers gain from such an enlargement. Coal tits () a food-storing species, performed better than great tits (), a nonstoring species, on a task that assessed memory persistence but not on a task that assessed memory resolution or on one that tested memory capacity. These results show that the advantage to the food-storing species associated with an enlarged hippocampus is one of memory persistence.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.121034798 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4743  
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Author Lergetporer, P.; Angerer, S.; Glätzle-Rützler, D.; Sutter, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 111 Issue 19 Pages (down) 6916-6921  
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  Abstract The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children’s cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner’s level of cooperation.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5805  
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Author Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Small, J.R.; Libertini, L.J.; Small, E.W. openurl 
  Title Kinetics of histidine deligation from the heme in GuHCl-unfolded Fe(III) cytochrome C studied by a laser-induced pH-jump technique Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of the American Chemical Society Abbreviated Journal J Am Chem Soc  
  Volume 123 Issue 27 Pages (down) 6649-6653  
  Keywords Animals; *Bacterial Proteins; Cytochrome c Group/*chemistry; Guanidine/*chemistry; Heme/*chemistry; Histidine/*chemistry; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; *Lasers; Ligands; Protein Folding  
  Abstract We have developed an instrumental setup that uses transient absorption to monitor protein folding/unfolding processes following a laser-induced, ultrafast release of protons from o-nitrobenzaldehyde. The resulting increase in [H(+)], which can be more than 100 microM, is complete within a few nanoseconds. The increase in [H(+)] lowers the pH of the solution from neutrality to approximately 4 at the highest laser pulse energy used. Protein structural rearrangements can be followed by transient absorption, with kinetic monitoring over a broad time range (approximately 10 ns to 500 ms). Using this pH-jump/transient absorption technique, we have examined the dissociation kinetics of non-native axial heme ligands (either histidine His26 or His33) in GuHCl-unfolded Fe(III) cytochrome c (cyt c). Deligation of the non-native ligands following the acidic pH-jump occurs as a biexponential process with different pre-exponential factors. The pre-exponential factors markedly depend on the extent of the pH-jump, as expected from differences in the pK(a) values of His26 and His33. The two lifetimes were found to depend on temperature but were not functions of either the magnitude of the pH-jump or the pre-pulse pH of the solution. The activation energies of the deligation processes support the suggestion that GuHCl-unfolded cyt c structures with non-native histidine axial ligands represent kinetic traps in unfolding.  
  Address Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, 43100 Parma, Italy  
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  ISSN 0002-7863 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:11439052 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3788  
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Author Haruta, N.; Kitagawa, T. openurl 
  Title Time-resolved UV resonance Raman investigation of protein folding using a rapid mixer: characterization of kinetic folding intermediates of apomyoglobin Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry  
  Volume 41 Issue 21 Pages (down) 6595-6604  
  Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry; Circular Dichroism; Holoenzymes/chemistry; Horses; Hydrochloric Acid/chemistry; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Imidazoles/chemistry; Kinetics; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry; Peptide Fragments/chemistry; *Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Secondary; Spectrum Analysis, Raman/*methods; Tryptophan/*chemistry; Ultraviolet Rays; Whales  
  Abstract The 244-nm excited transient UV resonance Raman spectra are observed for the refolding intermediates of horse apomyoglobin (h-apoMb) with a newly constructed mixed flow cell system, and the results are interpreted on the basis of the spectra observed for the equilibrium acid unfolding of the same protein. The dead time of mixing, which was determined with the appearance of UV Raman bands of imidazolium upon mixing of imidazole with acid, was 150 micros under the flow rate that was adopted. The pH-jump experiments of h-apoMb from pH 2.2 to 5.6 conducted with this device demonstrated the presence of three folding intermediates. On the basis of the analysis of W3 and W7 bands of Trp7 and Trp14, the first intermediate, formed before 250 micros, involved incorporation of Trp14 into the alpha-helix from a random coil. The frequency shift of the W3 band of Trp14 observed for this process was reproduced with a model peptide of the A helix when it forms the alpha-helix. In the second intermediate, formed around 1 ms after the start of refolding, the surroundings of both Trp7 and Trp14 were significantly hydrophobic, suggesting the formation of the hydrophobic core. In the third intermediate appearing around 3 ms, the hydrophobicity was relaxed to the same level as that of the pH 4 equilibrium intermediate, which was investigated in detail with the stationary state technique. The change from the third intermediate to the native state needs more time than 40 ms, while the appearance of the native spectrum after the mixing of the same solutions was confirmed separately.  
  Address School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12022863 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3785  
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