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Author Fraser, O.N.; Bugnyar, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do Ravens Show Consolation? Responses to Distressed Others Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 5 Issue 5 Pages (down) e10605  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from an uninvolved bystander to the conflict victim) may represent an expression of empathy in which the bystander consoles the victim to alleviate the victim's distress (“consolation”). However, alternative hypotheses for the function of bystander affiliation also exist. Determining whether ravens spontaneously offer consolation to distressed partners may not only help us to understand how animals deal with the costs of aggressive conflict, but may also play an important role in the empathy debate.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Methodology/Principal findings</title> <p>This study investigates the post-conflict behavior of ravens, applying the predictive framework for the function of bystander affiliation for the first time in a non-ape species. We found weak evidence for reconciliation (post-conflict affiliation between former opponents), but strong evidence for both bystander affiliation and solicited bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from the victim to a bystander). Bystanders involved in both interactions were likely to share a valuable relationship with the victim. Bystander affiliation offered to the victim was more likely to occur after intense conflicts. Renewed aggression was less likely to occur after the victim solicited affiliation from a bystander.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Conclusions/Significance</title> <p>Our findings suggest that in ravens, bystanders may console victims with whom they share a valuable relationship, thus alleviating the victims' post-conflict distress. Conversely victims may affiliate with bystanders after a conflict in order to reduce the likelihood of renewed aggression. These results stress the importance of relationship quality in determining the occurrence and function of post-conflict interactions, and show that ravens may be sensitive to the emotions of others.</p> </sec>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5195  
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Author Lee, R.D. doi  openurl
  Title Rethinking the evolutionary theory of aging: transfers, not births, shape senescence in social species Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 100 Issue 16 Pages (down) 9637-9642  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; *Aging; Animals; *Biological Evolution; Demography; Economics; Environment; Fertility; Humans; Life Expectancy; Longevity; Models, Theoretical; Parturition; Population Dynamics; Population Growth; Reproduction  
  Abstract The classic evolutionary theory of aging explains why mortality rises with age: as individuals grow older, less lifetime fertility remains, so continued survival contributes less to reproductive fitness. However, successful reproduction often involves intergenerational transfers as well as fertility. In the formal theory offered here, age-specific selective pressure on mortality depends on a weighted average of remaining fertility (the classic effect) and remaining intergenerational transfers to be made to others. For species at the optimal quantity-investment tradeoff for offspring, only the transfer effect shapes mortality, explaining postreproductive survival and why juvenile mortality declines with age. It also explains the evolution of lower fertility, longer life, and increased investments in offspring.  
  Address Department of Demography, University of California, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720-2120, USA. rlee@demog.berkeley.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12878733 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5465  
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Author Finarelli, J.A.; Flynn, J.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Brain-size evolution and sociality in Carnivora Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 106 Issue 23 Pages (down) 9345-9349  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Increased encephalization, or larger brain volume relative to body mass, is a repeated theme in vertebrate evolution. Here we present an extensive sampling of relative brain sizes in fossil and extant taxa in the mammalian order Carnivora (cats, dogs, bears, weasels, and their relatives). By using Akaike Information Criterion model selection and endocranial volume and body mass data for 289 species (including 125 fossil taxa), we document clade-specific evolutionary transformations in encephalization allometries. These evolutionary transformations include multiple independent encephalization increases and decreases in addition to a remarkably static basal Carnivora allometry that characterizes much of the suborder Feliformia and some taxa in the suborder Caniformia across much of their evolutionary history, emphasizing that complex processes shaped the modern distribution of encephalization across Carnivora. This analysis also permits critical evaluation of the social brain hypothesis (SBH), which predicts a close association between sociality and increased encephalization. Previous analyses based on living species alone appeared to support the SBH with respect to Carnivora, but those results are entirely dependent on data from modern Canidae (dogs). Incorporation of fossil data further reveals that no association exists between sociality and encephalization across Carnivora and that support for sociality as a causal agent of encephalization increase disappears for this clade.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5337  
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Author Johnstone, R.A. doi  openurl
  Title Eavesdropping and animal conflict Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 16 Pages (down) 9177-9180  
  Keywords *Aggression; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Conflict (Psychology); Models, Theoretical  
  Abstract Fights between pairs of animals frequently take place within a wider social context. The displays exchanged during conflict, and the outcome of an encounter, are often detectable by individuals who are not immediately involved. In at least some species, such bystanders are known to eavesdrop on contests between others, and to modify their behavior toward the contestants in response to the observed interaction. Here, I extend Maynard Smith's well known model of animal aggression, the Hawk-Dove game, to incorporate the possibility of eavesdroppers. I show that some eavesdropping is favored whenever the cost of losing an escalated fight exceeds the value of the contested resource, and that its equilibrium frequency is greatest when costs are relatively high. Eavesdropping reduces the risk of escalated conflict relative to that expected by chance, given the level of aggression in the population. However, it also promotes increased aggression, because it enhances the value of victory. The net result is that escalated conflicts are predicted to occur more frequently when eavesdropping is possible.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom. raj1003@hermes.cam.ac.uk  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:11459936 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 497  
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Author Krützen, M.; Mann, J.; Heithaus, M.R.; Connor, R.C.; Bejder, L.; Sherwin, W.B. url  openurl
  Title Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 102 Issue 25 Pages (down) 8939-8943  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In Shark Bay, wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) apparently use marine sponges as foraging tools. We demonstrate that genetic and ecological explanations for this behavior are inadequate; thus, “sponging” classifies as the first case of an existing material culture in a marine mammal species. Using mitochondrial DNA analyses, we show that sponging shows an almost exclusive vertical social transmission within a single matriline from mother to female offspring. Moreover, significant genetic relatedness among all adult spongers at the nuclear level indicates very recent coancestry, suggesting that all spongers are descendents of one recent “Sponging Eve.” Unlike in apes, tool use in this population is almost exclusively limited to a single matriline that is part of a large albeit open social network of frequently interacting individuals, adding a new dimension to charting cultural phenomena among animals.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.0500232102 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5916  
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Author Tsong, T.Y. openurl 
  Title Conformational relaxations of urea- and guanidine hydrochloride-unfolded ferricytochrome c Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication The Journal of Biological Chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem  
  Volume 252 Issue 24 Pages (down) 8778-8780  
  Keywords *Cytochrome c Group; Guanidines/*pharmacology; Protein Conformation/drug effects; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Urea/*pharmacology  
  Abstract Several recent studies of protein the unfolded proteins. In urea- and guanidine HCl-unfolded ferricytochrome c (horse heart), an acid-induced spin state transformation of the heme group has been detected by the heme absorptions, Trp-59 fluorescence, and the intrinsic viscosity of protein. Kinetics of this second conformational transition, by the temperature jump and stopped flow methods, are complex. One rapid reaction (tau1), pH-independent, occurs in a 50-mus range; the second reaction (tau2), in a 1-ms range, depends linearly upon pH and is faster at the alkaline side; a third reaction (tau3), in a 1-s range, shows a sigmoidal transition at pH 5.1 and is faster at the acidic side. The results are consistent with a kinetic scheme which involves protein conformational changes in the transformation of the heme coordination state. The kinetics, along with previous equilibrium studies, indicate that ligand or charge interactions within a protein molecule are not completely prohibited even in strongly denaturing conditions, such as in high concentrations of urea and guanidine HCl. Thus, local structures of peptide chain associated with these interactions can exist in the unfolded protein.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-9258 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:200618 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3882  
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Author Nakamura, K.; Takimoto-Inose, A.; Hasegawa, T. doi  openurl
  Title Cross-modal perception of human emotion in domestic horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages (down) 8660  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Humans have domesticated many kinds of animals in their history. Dogs and horses have particularly close relationships with humans as cooperative partners. However, fewer scientific studies have been conducted on cognition in horses compared to dogs. Studies have shown that horses cross-modally distinguish human facial expressions and recognize familiar people, which suggests that they also cross-modally distinguish human emotions. In the present study, we used the expectancy violation method to investigate whether horses cross-modally perceive human emotions. Horses were shown a picture of a human facial expression on a screen, and they then heard a human voice from the speaker before the screen. The emotional values of the visual and auditory stimuli were the same in the congruent condition and different in the incongruent condition. Horses looked at the speaker significantly longer in the incongruent condition than in the congruent condition when they heard their caretaker's voices but not when they heard the stranger voice. In addition, they responded significantly more quickly to the voice in the incongruent condition than in the congruent one. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that horses cross-modally recognized the emotional states of their caretakers and strangers.  
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  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Nakamura2018 Serial 6391  
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Author Tang, A.C.; Reeb, B.C.; Romeo, R.D.; McEwen, B.S. url  openurl
  Title Modification of Social Memory, Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, and Brain Asymmetry by Neonatal Novelty Exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 23 Issue 23 Pages (down) 8254-8260  
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  Abstract Although corticosterone (a stress hormone) is known to influence social behavior and memory processes, little has been explored concerning its modulatory role in social recognition. In rats, social recognition memory for conspecifics typically lasts <2 hr when evaluated using a habituation paradigm. Using neonatal novelty exposure, a brief and transient early life stimulation method known to produce long-lasting changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we found that social recognition memory was prolonged to at least 24 hr during adulthood. This prolonged social memory was paralleled by a reduction in the basal blood concentration of corticosterone. The same neonatal stimulation also resulted in a functional asymmetry expressed as a greater right-turn preference in a novel environment. Rats that preferred to turn right showed better social recognition memory. These inter-related changes in basal blood corticosterone concentration, turning asymmetry, and social recognition memory suggest that stress hormones and brain asymmetry are likely candidates for modulating social memory. Furthermore, given that neonatal stimulation has been shown to improve learning and memory performance primarily under aversive learning situations, the neonatal novelty exposure-induced enhancement in social recognition broadens the impact of early life stimulation to include the social domain.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5754  
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Author Leadbeater, E.; Dawson, E.H. url  openurl
  Title A social insect perspective on the evolution of social learning mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 114 Issue 30 Pages (down) 7838-7845  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The social world offers a wealth of opportunities to learn from others, and across the animal kingdom individuals capitalize on those opportunities. Here, we explore the role of natural selection in shaping the processes that underlie social information use, using a suite of experiments on social insects as case studies. We illustrate how an associative framework can encompass complex, context-specific social learning in the insect world and beyond, and based on the hypothesis that evolution acts to modify the associative process, suggest potential pathways by which social information use could evolve to become more efficient and effective. Social insects are distant relatives of vertebrate social learners, but the research we describe highlights routes by which natural selection could coopt similar cognitive raw material across the animal kingdom.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1620744114 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6189  
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Author Hausberger, M.; Gautier, E.; Biquand, V.; Lunel, C.; Jégo, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Could Work Be a Source of Behavioural Disorders? A Study in Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 4 Issue 10 Pages (down) e7625 EP -  
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  Abstract <p>Stress at work, as shown by a number of human studies, may lead to a variety of negative and durable effects, such as impaired psychological functioning (anxiety, depression…). Horses share with humans this characteristic of working on a daily basis and are submitted then to work stressors related to physical constraints and/or more “psychological” conflicts, such as potential controversial orders from the riders or the requirement to suppress emotions. On another hand, horses may perform abnormal repetitive behaviour (“stereotypies”) in response to adverse life conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether the type of work the horses are used for may have an impact on their tendency to show stereotypic behaviour (and its type) outside work. Observations in their box of 76 horses all living in the same conditions, belonging to one breed and one sex, revealed that the prevalence and types of stereotypies performed strongly depended upon the type of work they were used for. The stereotypies observed involved mostly mouth movements and head tossing/nodding. Work constraints probably added to unfavourable living conditions, favouring the emergence of chronic abnormal behaviours. This is especially remarkable as the 23 hours spent in the box were influenced by the one hour work performed every day. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of potential effects of work stressors on the emergence of abnormal behaviours in an animal species. It raises an important line of thought on the chronic impact of the work situation on the daily life of individuals.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5707  
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