toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author Hauser, M.D.; Kralik, J.; Botto-Mahan, C.; Garrett, M.; Oser, J. openurl 
  Title Self-recognition in primates: phylogeny and the salience of species-typical features Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 92 Issue 23 Pages (down) 10811-10814  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Cognition; Discrimination (Psychology); Exploratory Behavior; Female; Hair Color; Male; Phylogeny; Psychology, Comparative; Research Design; Saguinus/*psychology; *Self Concept; Species Specificity; Touch; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract Self-recognition has been explored in nonlinguistic organisms by recording whether individuals touch a dye-marked area on visually inaccessible parts of their face while looking in a mirror or inspect parts of their body while using the mirror's reflection. Only chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and humans over the age of approximately 2 years consistently evidence self-directed mirror-guided behavior without experimenter training. To evaluate the inferred phylogenetic gap between hominoids and other animals, a modified dye-mark test was conducted with cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), a New World monkey species. The white hair on the tamarins' head was color-dyed, thereby significantly altering a visually distinctive species-typical feature. Only individuals with dyed hair and prior mirror exposure touched their head while looking in the mirror. They looked longer in the mirror than controls, and some individuals used the mirror to observe visually inaccessible body parts. Prior failures to pass the mirror test may have been due to methodological problems, rather than to phylogenetic differences in the capacity for self-recognition. Specifically, an individual's sensitivity to experimentally modified parts of its body may depend crucially on the relative saliency of the modified part (e.g., face versus hair). Moreover, and in contrast to previous claims, we suggest that the mirror test may not be sufficient for assessing the concept of self or mental state attribution in nonlinguistic organisms.  
  Address Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7479889 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2825  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hauser MD; Kralik J; Bott-Mahan C; Garrett M; Oser J openurl 
  Title Self-recognition in primates: phylogeny and the salience of species-typical traits Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 92 Issue Pages (down) 10811  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3003  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ecker, C.; Marquand, A.; Mourao-Miranda, J.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.M.; Brammer, M.J.; Maltezos, S.; Murphy, C.M.; Robertson, D.; Williams, S.C.; Murphy, D.G.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Describing the Brain in Autism in Five Dimensions--Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Assisted Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Multiparameter Classification Approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication J. Neurosci. Abbreviated Journal J. Neurosci.  
  Volume 30 Issue 32 Pages (down) 10612-10623  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition with multiple causes, comorbid conditions, and a wide range in the type and severity of symptoms expressed by different individuals. This makes the neuroanatomy of autism inherently difficult to describe. Here, we demonstrate how a multiparameter classification approach can be used to characterize the complex and subtle structural pattern of gray matter anatomy implicated in adults with ASD, and to reveal spatially distributed patterns of discriminating regions for a variety of parameters describing brain anatomy. A set of five morphological parameters including volumetric and geometric features at each spatial location on the cortical surface was used to discriminate between people with ASD and controls using a support vector machine (SVM) analytic approach, and to find a spatially distributed pattern of regions with maximal classification weights. On the basis of these patterns, SVM was able to identify individuals with ASD at a sensitivity and specificity of up to 90% and 80%, respectively. However, the ability of individual cortical features to discriminate between groups was highly variable, and the discriminating patterns of regions varied across parameters. The classification was specific to ASD rather than neurodevelopmental conditions in general (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Our results confirm the hypothesis that the neuroanatomy of autism is truly multidimensional, and affects multiple and most likely independent cortical features. The spatial patterns detected using SVM may help further exploration of the specific genetic and neuropathological underpinnings of ASD, and provide new insights into the most likely multifactorial etiology of the condition.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1523/Jneurosci.5413-09.2010 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5191  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fraser, O.N.; Bugnyar, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do Ravens Show Consolation? Responses to Distressed Others Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 5 Issue 5 Pages (down) e10605  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from an uninvolved bystander to the conflict victim) may represent an expression of empathy in which the bystander consoles the victim to alleviate the victim's distress (“consolation”). However, alternative hypotheses for the function of bystander affiliation also exist. Determining whether ravens spontaneously offer consolation to distressed partners may not only help us to understand how animals deal with the costs of aggressive conflict, but may also play an important role in the empathy debate.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Methodology/Principal findings</title> <p>This study investigates the post-conflict behavior of ravens, applying the predictive framework for the function of bystander affiliation for the first time in a non-ape species. We found weak evidence for reconciliation (post-conflict affiliation between former opponents), but strong evidence for both bystander affiliation and solicited bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from the victim to a bystander). Bystanders involved in both interactions were likely to share a valuable relationship with the victim. Bystander affiliation offered to the victim was more likely to occur after intense conflicts. Renewed aggression was less likely to occur after the victim solicited affiliation from a bystander.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Conclusions/Significance</title> <p>Our findings suggest that in ravens, bystanders may console victims with whom they share a valuable relationship, thus alleviating the victims' post-conflict distress. Conversely victims may affiliate with bystanders after a conflict in order to reduce the likelihood of renewed aggression. These results stress the importance of relationship quality in determining the occurrence and function of post-conflict interactions, and show that ravens may be sensitive to the emotions of others.</p> </sec>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5195  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lee, R.D. doi  openurl
  Title Rethinking the evolutionary theory of aging: transfers, not births, shape senescence in social species Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 100 Issue 16 Pages (down) 9637-9642  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; *Aging; Animals; *Biological Evolution; Demography; Economics; Environment; Fertility; Humans; Life Expectancy; Longevity; Models, Theoretical; Parturition; Population Dynamics; Population Growth; Reproduction  
  Abstract The classic evolutionary theory of aging explains why mortality rises with age: as individuals grow older, less lifetime fertility remains, so continued survival contributes less to reproductive fitness. However, successful reproduction often involves intergenerational transfers as well as fertility. In the formal theory offered here, age-specific selective pressure on mortality depends on a weighted average of remaining fertility (the classic effect) and remaining intergenerational transfers to be made to others. For species at the optimal quantity-investment tradeoff for offspring, only the transfer effect shapes mortality, explaining postreproductive survival and why juvenile mortality declines with age. It also explains the evolution of lower fertility, longer life, and increased investments in offspring.  
  Address Department of Demography, University of California, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720-2120, USA. rlee@demog.berkeley.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12878733 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5465  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Finarelli, J.A.; Flynn, J.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Brain-size evolution and sociality in Carnivora Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 106 Issue 23 Pages (down) 9345-9349  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Increased encephalization, or larger brain volume relative to body mass, is a repeated theme in vertebrate evolution. Here we present an extensive sampling of relative brain sizes in fossil and extant taxa in the mammalian order Carnivora (cats, dogs, bears, weasels, and their relatives). By using Akaike Information Criterion model selection and endocranial volume and body mass data for 289 species (including 125 fossil taxa), we document clade-specific evolutionary transformations in encephalization allometries. These evolutionary transformations include multiple independent encephalization increases and decreases in addition to a remarkably static basal Carnivora allometry that characterizes much of the suborder Feliformia and some taxa in the suborder Caniformia across much of their evolutionary history, emphasizing that complex processes shaped the modern distribution of encephalization across Carnivora. This analysis also permits critical evaluation of the social brain hypothesis (SBH), which predicts a close association between sociality and increased encephalization. Previous analyses based on living species alone appeared to support the SBH with respect to Carnivora, but those results are entirely dependent on data from modern Canidae (dogs). Incorporation of fossil data further reveals that no association exists between sociality and encephalization across Carnivora and that support for sociality as a causal agent of encephalization increase disappears for this clade.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5337  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Johnstone, R.A. doi  openurl
  Title Eavesdropping and animal conflict Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 16 Pages (down) 9177-9180  
  Keywords *Aggression; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Conflict (Psychology); Models, Theoretical  
  Abstract Fights between pairs of animals frequently take place within a wider social context. The displays exchanged during conflict, and the outcome of an encounter, are often detectable by individuals who are not immediately involved. In at least some species, such bystanders are known to eavesdrop on contests between others, and to modify their behavior toward the contestants in response to the observed interaction. Here, I extend Maynard Smith's well known model of animal aggression, the Hawk-Dove game, to incorporate the possibility of eavesdroppers. I show that some eavesdropping is favored whenever the cost of losing an escalated fight exceeds the value of the contested resource, and that its equilibrium frequency is greatest when costs are relatively high. Eavesdropping reduces the risk of escalated conflict relative to that expected by chance, given the level of aggression in the population. However, it also promotes increased aggression, because it enhances the value of victory. The net result is that escalated conflicts are predicted to occur more frequently when eavesdropping is possible.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom. raj1003@hermes.cam.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11459936 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 497  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Krützen, M.; Mann, J.; Heithaus, M.R.; Connor, R.C.; Bejder, L.; Sherwin, W.B. url  openurl
  Title Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 102 Issue 25 Pages (down) 8939-8943  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In Shark Bay, wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) apparently use marine sponges as foraging tools. We demonstrate that genetic and ecological explanations for this behavior are inadequate; thus, “sponging” classifies as the first case of an existing material culture in a marine mammal species. Using mitochondrial DNA analyses, we show that sponging shows an almost exclusive vertical social transmission within a single matriline from mother to female offspring. Moreover, significant genetic relatedness among all adult spongers at the nuclear level indicates very recent coancestry, suggesting that all spongers are descendents of one recent “Sponging Eve.” Unlike in apes, tool use in this population is almost exclusively limited to a single matriline that is part of a large albeit open social network of frequently interacting individuals, adding a new dimension to charting cultural phenomena among animals.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1073/pnas.0500232102 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5916  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Tsong, T.Y. openurl 
  Title Conformational relaxations of urea- and guanidine hydrochloride-unfolded ferricytochrome c Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication The Journal of Biological Chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem  
  Volume 252 Issue 24 Pages (down) 8778-8780  
  Keywords *Cytochrome c Group; Guanidines/*pharmacology; Protein Conformation/drug effects; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Urea/*pharmacology  
  Abstract Several recent studies of protein the unfolded proteins. In urea- and guanidine HCl-unfolded ferricytochrome c (horse heart), an acid-induced spin state transformation of the heme group has been detected by the heme absorptions, Trp-59 fluorescence, and the intrinsic viscosity of protein. Kinetics of this second conformational transition, by the temperature jump and stopped flow methods, are complex. One rapid reaction (tau1), pH-independent, occurs in a 50-mus range; the second reaction (tau2), in a 1-ms range, depends linearly upon pH and is faster at the alkaline side; a third reaction (tau3), in a 1-s range, shows a sigmoidal transition at pH 5.1 and is faster at the acidic side. The results are consistent with a kinetic scheme which involves protein conformational changes in the transformation of the heme coordination state. The kinetics, along with previous equilibrium studies, indicate that ligand or charge interactions within a protein molecule are not completely prohibited even in strongly denaturing conditions, such as in high concentrations of urea and guanidine HCl. Thus, local structures of peptide chain associated with these interactions can exist in the unfolded protein.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-9258 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:200618 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3882  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Tang, A.C.; Reeb, B.C.; Romeo, R.D.; McEwen, B.S. url  openurl
  Title Modification of Social Memory, Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, and Brain Asymmetry by Neonatal Novelty Exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 23 Issue 23 Pages (down) 8254-8260  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Although corticosterone (a stress hormone) is known to influence social behavior and memory processes, little has been explored concerning its modulatory role in social recognition. In rats, social recognition memory for conspecifics typically lasts <2 hr when evaluated using a habituation paradigm. Using neonatal novelty exposure, a brief and transient early life stimulation method known to produce long-lasting changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we found that social recognition memory was prolonged to at least 24 hr during adulthood. This prolonged social memory was paralleled by a reduction in the basal blood concentration of corticosterone. The same neonatal stimulation also resulted in a functional asymmetry expressed as a greater right-turn preference in a novel environment. Rats that preferred to turn right showed better social recognition memory. These inter-related changes in basal blood corticosterone concentration, turning asymmetry, and social recognition memory suggest that stress hormones and brain asymmetry are likely candidates for modulating social memory. Furthermore, given that neonatal stimulation has been shown to improve learning and memory performance primarily under aversive learning situations, the neonatal novelty exposure-induced enhancement in social recognition broadens the impact of early life stimulation to include the social domain.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5754  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print