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Author Young, H.P. url  openurl
  Title The dynamics of social innovation Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 108 Issue Supplement 4 Pages (down) 21285-21291  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1100973108 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5940  
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Author Pruvost, M.; Bellone, R.; Benecke, N.; Sandoval-Castellanos, E.; Cieslak, M.; Kuznetsova, T.; Morales-Muñiz, A.; O'Connor, T.; Reissmann, M.; Hofreiter, M.; Ludwig, A. url  openurl
  Title Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 108 Issue 46 Pages (down) 18626-18630  
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  Abstract Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings “The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,” depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ~25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as “leopard” in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1108982108 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5700  
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Author Sankey, C.; Henry, S.; André, N.; Richard-Yris, M.-A.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do Horses Have a Concept of Person? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages (down) e18331 EP -  
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  Abstract <sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Animals' ability for cross-modal recognition has recently received much interest. Captive or domestic animals seem able to perceive cues of human attention and appear to have a multisensory perception of humans.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title> <p>Here, we used a task where horses have to remain immobile under a vocal order to test whether they are sensitive to the attentional state of the experimenter, but also whether they behave and respond differently to the familiar order when tested by a familiar or an unknown person. Horses' response varied according to the person's attentional state when the order was given by an unknown person: obedience levels were higher when the person giving the order was looking at the horse than when he was not attentive. More interesting is the finding that whatever the condition, horses monitored much more and for longer times the unknown person, as if they were surprised to hear the familiar order given by an unknown voice.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusion/Significance</title> <p>These results suggest that recognition of humans may lie in a global, integrated, multisensory representation of specific individuals, that includes visual and vocal identity, but also expectations on the individual's behaviour in a familiar situation.</p> </sec>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5708  
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Author Warmuth, V.; Eriksson, A.; Bower, M.A.; Cañon, J.; Cothran, G.; Distl, O.; Glowatzki-Mullis, M.-L.; Hunt, H.; Luís, C.; do Mar Oom, M.; Yupanqui, I.T.; Zabek, T.; Manica, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages (down) e18194 EP -  
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  Abstract <p>The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.</p>  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5710  
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Author Plotnik, J.M.; de Waal, F.B.M.; Reiss, D. doi  openurl
  Title Self-recognition in an Asian elephant Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 103 Issue 45 Pages (down) 17053-17057  
  Keywords Animals; Asia; *Behavior, Animal; Cognition; Elephants/*psychology; Female; Photic Stimulation  
  Abstract Considered an indicator of self-awareness, mirror self-recognition (MSR) has long seemed limited to humans and apes. In both phylogeny and human ontogeny, MSR is thought to correlate with higher forms of empathy and altruistic behavior. Apart from humans and apes, dolphins and elephants are also known for such capacities. After the recent discovery of MSR in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), elephants thus were the next logical candidate species. We exposed three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to a large mirror to investigate their responses. Animals that possess MSR typically progress through four stages of behavior when facing a mirror: (i) social responses, (ii) physical inspection (e.g., looking behind the mirror), (iii) repetitive mirror-testing behavior, and (iv) realization of seeing themselves. Visible marks and invisible sham-marks were applied to the elephants' heads to test whether they would pass the litmus “mark test” for MSR in which an individual spontaneously uses a mirror to touch an otherwise imperceptible mark on its own body. Here, we report a successful MSR elephant study and report striking parallels in the progression of responses to mirrors among apes, dolphins, and elephants. These parallels suggest convergent cognitive evolution most likely related to complex sociality and cooperation.  
  Address Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, and Department of Psychology, Emory University, 532 North Kligo Circle, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:17075063 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 408  
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Author Weisbecker, V.; Goswami, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Brain size, life history, and metabolism at the marsupial/placental dichotomy Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 107 Issue 37 Pages (down) 16216-16221  
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  Abstract The evolution of mammalian brain size is directly linked with the evolution of the brain's unique structure and performance. Both maternal life history investment traits and basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlate with relative brain size, but current hypotheses regarding the details of these relationships are based largely on placental mammals. Using encephalization quotients, partial correlation analyses, and bivariate regressions relating brain size to maternal investment times and BMR, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of brain size evolution in marsupials and placentals, whose reproduction and metabolism differ extensively. Our results show that the misconception that marsupials are systematically smaller-brained than placentals is driven by the inclusion of one large-brained placental clade, Primates. Marsupial and placental brain size partial correlations differ in that marsupials lack a partial correlation of BMR with brain size. This contradicts hypotheses stating that the maintenance of relatively larger brains requires higher BMRs. We suggest that a positive BMR–brain size correlation is a placental trait related to the intimate physiological contact between mother and offspring during gestation. Marsupials instead achieve brain sizes comparable to placentals through extended lactation. Comparison with avian brain evolution suggests that placental brain size should be constrained due to placentals’ relative precociality, as has been hypothesized for precocial bird hatchlings. We propose that placentals circumvent this constraint because of their focus on gestation, as opposed to the marsupial emphasis on lactation. Marsupials represent a less constrained condition, demonstrating that hypotheses regarding placental brain size evolution cannot be generalized to all mammals.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5338  
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Author Wascher, C.A.F.; Fraser, O.N.; Kotrschal, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Heart Rate during Conflicts Predicts Post-Conflict Stress-Related Behavior in Greylag Geese Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 5 Issue 12 Pages (down) e15751  
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  Abstract Background
Social stressors are known to be among the most potent stressors in group-living animals. This is not only manifested in individual physiology (heart rate, glucocorticoids), but also in how individuals behave directly after a conflict. Certain ‘stress-related behaviors’ such as autopreening, body shaking, scratching and vigilance have been suggested to indicate an individual's emotional state. Such behaviors may also alleviate stress, but the behavioral context and physiological basis of those behaviors is still poorly understood.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We recorded beat-to-beat heart rates (HR) of 22 greylag geese in response to agonistic encounters using fully implanted sensor-transmitter packages. Additionally, for 143 major events we analyzed the behavior shown by our focal animals in the first two minutes after an interaction. Our results show that the HR during encounters and characteristics of the interaction predicted the frequency and duration of behaviors shown after a conflict.
Conclusions/Significance
To our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the physiological and behavioral responses to single agonistic encounters and to link this to post conflict behavior. Our results demonstrate that ‘stress-related behaviors’ are flexibly modulated by the characteristics of the preceding aggressive interaction and reflect the individual's emotional strain, which is linked to autonomic arousal. We found no support for the stress-alleviating hypothesis, but we propose that stress-related behaviors may play a role in communication with other group members, particularly with pair-partners.
 
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5298  
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Author Horner, V.; Whiten, A.; Flynn, E.; de Waal, F.B.M. doi  openurl
  Title Faithful replication of foraging techniques along cultural transmission chains by chimpanzees and children Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 103 Issue 37 Pages (down) 13878-13883  
  Keywords Animals; Child, Preschool; Humans; *Imitative Behavior; Pan troglodytes/*psychology  
  Abstract Observational studies of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have revealed population-specific differences in behavior, thought to represent cultural variation. Field studies have also reported behaviors indicative of cultural learning, such as close observation of adult skills by infants, and the use of similar foraging techniques within a population over many generations. Although experimental studies have shown that chimpanzees are able to learn complex behaviors by observation, it is unclear how closely these studies simulate the learning environment found in the wild. In the present study we have used a diffusion chain paradigm, whereby a behavior is passed from one individual to the next in a linear sequence in an attempt to simulate intergenerational transmission of a foraging skill. Using a powerful three-group, two-action methodology, we found that alternative methods used to obtain food from a foraging device (“lift door” versus “slide door”) were accurately transmitted along two chains of six and five chimpanzees, respectively, such that the last chimpanzee in the chain used the same method as the original trained model. The fidelity of transmission within each chain is remarkable given that several individuals in the no-model control group were able to discover either method by individual exploration. A comparative study with human children revealed similar results. This study is the first to experimentally demonstrate the linear transmission of alternative foraging techniques by non-human primates. Our results show that chimpanzees have a capacity to sustain local traditions across multiple simulated generations.  
  Address Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9JP, United Kingdom  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16938863 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 159  
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Author Cameron, E.Z.; Setsaas, T.H.; Linklater, W.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social bonds between unrelated females increase reproductive success in feral horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 106 Issue 33 Pages (down) 13850-13853  
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  Abstract In many mammals, females form close social bonds with members of their group, usually between kin. Studies of social bonds and their fitness benefits have not been investigated outside primates, and are confounded by the relatedness between individuals in primate groups. Bonds may arise from kin selection and inclusive fitness rather than through direct benefits of association. However, female equids live in long-term social groups with unrelated members. We present 4 years of behavioral data, which demonstrate that social integration between unrelated females increases both foal birth rates and survival, independent of maternal habitat quality, social group type, dominance status, and age. Also, we show that such social integration reduces harassment by males. Consequently, social integration has strong direct fitness consequences between nonrelatives, suggesting that social bonds can evolve based on these direct benefits alone. Our results support recent studies highlighting the importance of direct benefits in maintaining cooperative behavior, while controlling for the confounding influence of kinship.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.0900639106 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5152  
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Author Karenina, K.; Giljov, A.; Baranov, V.; Osipova, L.; Krasnova, V.; Malashichev, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Visual Laterality of Calf–Mother Interactions in Wild Whales Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 5 Issue 11 Pages (down) e13787  
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  Abstract Background
Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs) swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere.
Conclusions/Significance
Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right) brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is supported by evidence from other vertebrates.
 
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5297  
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