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Author Tebbich Sabine; Griffin Andrea S.; Peschl Markus F.; Sterelny Kim
Title From mechanisms to function: an integrated framework of animal innovation Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 371 Issue 1690 Pages (down) 20150195
Keywords
Abstract Animal innovations range from the discovery of novel food types to the invention of completely novel behaviours. Innovations can give access to new opportunities, and thus enable innovating agents to invade and create novel niches. This in turn can pave the way for morphological adaptation and adaptive radiation. The mechanisms that make innovations possible are probably as diverse as the innovations themselves. So too are their evolutionary consequences. Perhaps because of this diversity, we lack a unifying framework that links mechanism to function. We propose a framework for animal innovation that describes the interactions between mechanism, fitness benefit and evolutionary significance, and which suggests an expanded range of experimental approaches. In doing so, we split innovation into factors (components and phases) that can be manipulated systematically, and which can be investigated both experimentally and with correlational studies. We apply this framework to a selection of cases, showing how it helps us ask more precise questions and design more revealing experiments.
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Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
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Notes doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0195 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6557
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Author Mann Janet; Patterson Eric M.
Title Tool use by aquatic animals Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Phil. Trans. Biol. Sci.
Volume 368 Issue 1630 Pages (down) 20120424
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Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
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Notes doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0424 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6579
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Author Ihle, M.; Kempenaers, B.; Forstmeier, W.
Title Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication PLoS Biol Abbreviated Journal PLoS Biol
Volume 13 Issue 9 Pages (down) e1002248
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Abstract Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching) primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability), and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing). We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between “free-choice” and “forced” pairs.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5959
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Author Puga-Gonzalez, I.; Hildenbrandt, H.; Hemelrijk, C.K.
Title Emergent Patterns of Social Affiliation in Primates, a Model Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication PLoS Comput Biol Abbreviated Journal PLoS Comput Biol
Volume 5 Issue 12 Pages (down) e1000630
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Abstract Author Summary

<p>Individual primates distribute their affiliative behaviour (such as grooming) in complex patterns among their group members. For instance, they reciprocate grooming, direct it more to partners the higher the partner's rank, use it to reconcile fights and do so in particular with partners that are more valuable. For several types of patterns (such as reconciliation and exchange), a separate theory based on specific cognitive processes has been developed (such as individual recordkeeping, a tendency to exchange, selective attraction to the former opponent, and estimation of the value of a relationship). It is difficult to imagine how these separate theories can all be integrated scientifically and how these processes can be combined in the animal's mind. To solve this problem, we first surveyed the empirical patterns and then we developed an individual-based model (called GrooFiWorld) in which individuals group, compete and groom. The grooming rule is based on grooming out of fear of defeat and on the anxiety reducing effects of grooming. We show that in this context this rule alone can explain many of the patterns of affiliation as well as the differences between egalitarian and despotic species. Our model can be used as a null model to increase our understanding of affiliative patterns of primates.</p>
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5246
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Author Krueger, K.; Esch, L.; Byrne, R.
Title Animal behaviour in a human world: A crowdsourcing study on horses that open door and gate mechanisms Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0218954
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Abstract Anecdotal reports of horses opening fastened doors and gates are an intriguing way of exploring the possible scope of horses' problem-solving capacities. The species' natural environment has no analogues of the mechanisms involved. Scientific studies on the topic are missing, because the rate of occurrence is too low for exploration under controlled conditions. Therefore, we compiled from lay persons case reports of horses opening closed doors and gates. Additionally, we collected video documentations at the internet platform YouTube, taking care to select raw data footage of unedited, clearly described and clearly visible cases of animals with no distinct signs of training or reduced welfare. The data included individuals opening 513 doors or gates on hinges, 49 sliding doors, and 33 barred doors and gateways; mechanisms included 260 cases of horizontal and 155 vertical bars, 43 twist locks, 42 door handles, 34 electric fence handles, 40 carabiners, and 2 locks with keys. Opening was usually for escape, but also for access to food or stable-mates, or out of curiosity or playfulness. While 56 percent of the horses opened a single mechanism at one location, 44 percent opened several types of mechanism (median = 2, min. = 1, max. = 5) at different locations (median = 2, min. = 1, max. = 4). The more complex the mechanism was, the more movements were applied, varying from median 2 for door handles to 10 for carabiners. Mechanisms requiring head- or lip-twisting needed more movements, with significant variation between individuals. 74 horses reported in the questionnaire had options for observing the behaviour in stable mates, 183 did not, which indicates that the latter learned to open doors and gates either individually or from observing humans. Experience favours opening efficiency; subjects which opened several door types applied fewer movements per lock than horses which opened only one door type. We failed to identify a level of complexity of door-fastening mechanism that was beyond the learning capacity of the horse to open. Thus, all devices in frequent use, even carabiners and electric fence handles, are potentially vulnerable to opening by horses, something which needs to be considered in relation to keeping horses safely.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6580
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Author Broekhuis, F.; Madsen, E.K.; Keiwua, K.; Macdonald, D.W.
Title Using GPS collars to investigate the frequency and behavioural outcomes of intraspecific interactions among carnivores: A case study of male cheetahs in the Maasai Mara, Kenya Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages (down) e0213910
Keywords
Abstract Intraspecific interactions between individuals or groups of individuals of the same species are an important component of population dynamics. Interactions can be static, such as spatial overlap, or dynamic based on the interactions of movements, and can be mediated through communication, such as the deployment of scent marks. Interactions and their behavioural outcomes can be difficult to determine, especially for species that live at low densities. With the use of GPS collars we quantify both static and dynamic interactions between male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and the behavioural outcomes. The 99% home-ranges of males overlapped significantly while there was little overlap of the 50% home-ranges. Despite this overlap, male cheetahs rarely came into close proximity of one another, possibly because presence was communicated through frequent visits to marking posts. The minimum distance between individuals in a dyad ranged from 89m to 196m but the average proximity between individuals ranged from 17,145 ± 6,865m to 26,367 ± 11,288m. Possible interactions took place more frequently at night than by day and occurred mostly in the 50% home-range of one individual of a dyad or where cores of both individuals overlapped. After a possible encounter male cheetahs stayed in close proximity to each other for up to 6 hours, which could be the result of a territory defence strategy or the presence of a receptive female. We believe that one of the encounters between a singleton and a 5-male coalition resulted in the death of the singleton. Our results give new insights into cheetah interactions, which could help our understanding of ecological processes such as disease transmission.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6562
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Author Clayton, H.M.; Hampson, A.; Fraser, P.; White, A.; Egenvall, A.
Title Comparison of rider stability in a flapless saddle versus a conventional saddle Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0196960
Keywords
Abstract The purpose of a saddle is to improve the rider's safety, security, and comfort, while distributing the forces exerted by the rider and saddle over a large area of the horse's back without focal pressure points. This study investigates the effects on rider stability of an innovative saddle design that differs from a conventional saddle in having no flaps. Five horses were ridden by their regular rider in their usual saddle and in a flapless saddle. A pressure mat (60 Hz) placed between the saddle and the horse's back was used to determine the position of the center of pressure, which represents the centroid of pressure distribution on the horse's back. Data were recorded as five horses were ridden at collected and extended walk, trot and canter in a straight line. Data strings were split into strides with 5 strides analysed per horse/gait/type. For each stride the path of the rider's center of pressure was plotted, maximal and minimal values in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were extracted, and ranges of motion in anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were calculated. Differences between the conventional and flapless saddles were analysed using mixed models ANOVA. Speed and stride length of each gait did not differ between saddles. Compared with the conventional saddle, the flapless saddle was associated with significant reductions in range of motion of the rider's center of pressure in the mediolateral direction in all gaits and in the anteroposterior direction in collected trot, extended trot and extended canter. The improved stability was thought to result from the absence of saddle flaps allowing the rider's thighs to lie in more adducted positions, which facilitated the action of the lumbopelvic-hip musculature in stabilizing and controlling translations and rotations of the pelvis and trunk. The closer contact between rider and horse may also have augmented the transfer of haptic information.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6423
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Author Marr, I.; Preisler, V.; Farmer, K.; Stefanski, V.; Krueger, K.
Title Non-invasive stress evaluation in domestic horses (Equus caballus): impact of housing conditions on sensory laterality and immunoglobulin A Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal Royal Society Open Science
Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages (down) 191994
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Abstract The study aimed to evaluate sensory laterality and concentration of faecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) as non-invasive measures of stress in horses by comparing them with the already established measures of motor laterality and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs). Eleven three-year-old horses were exposed to known stressful situations (change of housing, initial training) to assess the two new parameters. Sensory laterality initially shifted significantly to the left and faecal FGMs were significantly increased on the change from group to individual housing and remained high through initial training. Motor laterality shifted significantly to the left after one week of individual stabling. Faecal IgA remained unchanged throughout the experiment. We therefore suggest that sensory laterality may be helpful in assessing acute stress in horses, especially on an individual level, as it proved to be an objective behavioural parameter that is easy to observe. Comparably, motor laterality may be helpful in assessing long-lasting stress. The results indicate that stress changes sensory laterality in horses, but further research is needed on a larger sample to evaluate elevated chronic stress, as it was not clear whether the horses of the present study experienced compromised welfare, which it has been proposed may affect faecal IgA.
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Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
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Notes doi: 10.1098/rsos.191994 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6608
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Author Santiago-Avila, F.J.; Cornman, A.M.; Treves, A.
Title Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages (down) e0189729
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Abstract Large carnivores, such as gray wolves, Canis lupus, are difficult to protect in mixed-use landscapes because some people perceive them as dangerous and because they sometimes threaten human property and safety. Governments may respond by killing carnivores in an effort to prevent repeated conflicts or threats, although the functional effectiveness of lethal methods has long been questioned. We evaluated two methods of government intervention following independent events of verified wolf predation on domestic animals (depredation) in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA between 1998-2014, at three spatial scales. We evaluated two intervention methods using log-rank tests and conditional Cox recurrent event, gap time models based on retrospective analyses of the following quasi-experimental treatments: (1) selective killing of wolves by trapping near sites of verified depredation, and (2) advice to owners and haphazard use of non-lethal methods without wolf-killing. The government did not randomly assign treatments and used a pseudo-control (no removal of wolves was not a true control), but the federal permission to intervene lethally was granted and rescinded independent of events on the ground. Hazard ratios suggest lethal intervention was associated with an insignificant 27% lower risk of recurrence of events at trapping sites, but offset by an insignificant 22% increase in risk of recurrence at sites up to 5.42 km distant in the same year, compared to the non-lethal treatment. Our results do not support the hypothesis that Michigan's use of lethal intervention after wolf depredations was effective for reducing the future risk of recurrence in the vicinities of trapping sites. Examining only the sites of intervention is incomplete because neighbors near trapping sites may suffer the recurrence of depredations. We propose two new hypotheses for perceived effectiveness of lethal methods: (a) killing predators may be perceived as effective because of the benefits to a small minority of farmers, and (b) if neighbors experience side-effects of lethal intervention such as displaced depredations, they may perceive the problem growing and then demand more lethal intervention rather than detecting problems spreading from the first trapping site. Ethical wildlife management guided by the “best scientific and commercial data available” would suggest suspending the standard method of trapping wolves in favor of non-lethal methods (livestock guarding dogs or fladry) that have been proven effective in preventing livestock losses in Michigan and elsewhere.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6502
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Author Pawluski, J.; Jego, P.; Henry, S.; Bruchet, A.; Palme, R.; Coste, C.; Hausberger, M.
Title Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 12 Issue 9 Pages (down) e0182257
Keywords
Abstract The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions...) on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares), from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia) also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks), early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6516
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