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Author Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N. doi  openurl
  Title Social intelligence, innovation, and enhanced brain size in primates Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 99 Issue 7 Pages (down) 4436-4441  
  Keywords Animals; Brain/*anatomy & histology; Evolution; *Intelligence; Learning; Primates/*anatomy & histology/*psychology; Social Behavior  
  Abstract Despite considerable current interest in the evolution of intelligence, the intuitively appealing notion that brain volume and “intelligence” are linked remains untested. Here, we use ecologically relevant measures of cognitive ability, the reported incidence of behavioral innovation, social learning, and tool use, to show that brain size and cognitive capacity are indeed correlated. A comparative analysis of 533 instances of innovation, 445 observations of social learning, and 607 episodes of tool use established that social learning, innovation, and tool use frequencies are positively correlated with species' relative and absolute “executive” brain volumes, after controlling for phylogeny and research effort. Moreover, innovation and social learning frequencies covary across species, in conflict with the view that there is an evolutionary tradeoff between reliance on individual experience and social cues. These findings provide an empirical link between behavioral innovation, social learning capacities, and brain size in mammals. The ability to learn from others, invent new behaviors, and use tools may have played pivotal roles in primate brain evolution.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, High Street, Madingley, Cambridge CB3 8AA, United Kingdom  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11891325 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2149  
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Author Harvey, P.H.; Clutton-Brock, T.H.; Mace, G.M. url  openurl
  Title Brain size and ecology in small mammals and primates Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal PNAS  
  Volume 77 Issue 7 Pages (down) 4387-4389  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5456  
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Author Houpt, K.A. url  openurl
  Title Investigating equine ingestive, maternal, and sexual behavior in the field and in the laboratory Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 69 Issue 10 Pages (down) 4161-4166  
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  Abstract Some of the techniques that may be used to study social, reproductive, and ingestive behavior in horses are described in this paper. One of the aspects of equine social behavior is the dominance hierarchy or patterns of agonistic behavior. Paired or group feeding from a single food source may be used to determine dominance hierarchies quickly. Focal animal studies of undisturbed groups of horses may also be used; this method takes longer, but may reveal affiliative as well as agonistic relationships among the horses. Reproductive behavior includes flehmen, the functional significance of which can be determined using combinations of field observations of harem groups and laboratory studies of stallions exposed to female urine or feces in the absence of the donor mare. Ingestive behavior may include food, salt, or water intake. Direct and indirect measurements of intake can be made and used to answer questions regarding the ability of horses to control their energy intake when the diet is diluted, the effect of feral equids on the ecology of an area, and the abilities of horses to compensate for dehydration and hypovolemia.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 667  
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Author Magat, M.; Brown, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci.  
  Volume 276 Issue 1676 Pages (down) 4155-4162  
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  Abstract Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5380  
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Author Seyfarth, R.M.; Cheney, D.L. doi  openurl
  Title What are big brains for? Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 99 Issue 7 Pages (down) 4141-4142  
  Keywords Animals; Brain/*anatomy & histology; *Intelligence; Learning; Primates/*anatomy & histology/*psychology; Social Behavior  
  Abstract  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. seyfarth@psych.upenn.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:11929989 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 692  
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Author Cheung, C.; Akiyama, T.E.; Ward, J.M.; Nicol, C.J.; Feigenbaum, L.; Vinson, C.; Gonzalez, F.J. doi  openurl
  Title Diminished hepatocellular proliferation in mice humanized for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Cancer research Abbreviated Journal Cancer Res  
  Volume 64 Issue 11 Pages (down) 3849-3854  
  Keywords Animals; Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology; Carcinogens/pharmacology; Cell Division; DNA Replication/drug effects; Fatty Acids/metabolism; Hepatocytes/cytology/drug effects/metabolism/*physiology; Humans; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Oxidation-Reduction; Peroxisome Proliferators/pharmacology; Pyrimidines/pharmacology; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics/*physiology; Species Specificity; Transcription Factors/genetics/*physiology  
  Abstract Lipid-lowering fibrate drugs function as agonists for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Sustained activation of PPARalpha leads to the development of liver tumors in rats and mice. However, humans appear to be resistant to the induction of peroxisome proliferation and the development of liver cancer by fibrate drugs. The molecular basis of this species difference is not known. To examine the mechanism determining species differences in peroxisome proliferator response between mice and humans, a PPARalpha-humanized mouse line was generated in which the human PPARalpha was expressed in liver under control of the tetracycline responsive regulatory system. The PPARalpha-humanized and wild-type mice responded to treatment with the potent PPARalpha ligand Wy-14643 as revealed by induction of genes encoding peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolizing enzymes and resultant decrease of serum triglycerides. However, surprisingly, only the wild-type mice and not the PPARalpha-humanized mice exhibited hepatocellular proliferation as revealed by elevation of cell cycle control genes, increased incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine into hepatocyte nuclei, and hepatomegaly. These studies establish that following ligand activation, the PPARalpha-mediated pathways controlling lipid metabolism are independent from those controlling the cell proliferation pathways. These findings also suggest that structural differences between human and mouse PPARalpha are responsible for the differential susceptibility to the development of hepatocarcinomas observed after treatment with fibrates. The PPARalpha-humanized mice should serve as models for use in drug development and human risk assessment and to determine the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis of peroxisome proliferators.  
  Address Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA  
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  ISSN 0008-5472 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15172993 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 74  
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Author Roth, L.S.V.; Balkenius, A.; Kelber, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Absolute Threshold of Colour Vision in the Horse Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 3 Issue 11 Pages (down) e3711 EP -  
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  Abstract <p>Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.</p>  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5625  
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Author Hieshima, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Hanamoto, H.; Nakayama, T.; Nagakubo, D.; Kanamaru, A.; Yoshie, O. url  openurl
  Title CC Chemokine Ligands 25 and 28 Play Essential Roles in Intestinal Extravasation of IgA Antibody-Secreting Cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication The Journal of Immunology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 173 Issue 6 Pages (down) 3668-3675  
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  Abstract CCL25 (also known as thymus-expressed chemokine) and CCL28 (also known as mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine) play important roles in mucosal immunity by recruiting IgA Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) into mucosal lamina propria. However, their exact roles in vivo still remain to be defined. In this study, we first demonstrated in mice that IgA ASCs in small intestine expressed CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR4 on the cell surface and migrated to their respective ligands CCL25, CCL28, and CXCL12 (also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1), whereas IgA ASCs in colon mainly expressed CCR10 and CXCR4 and migrated to CCL28 and CXCL12. Reciprocally, the epithelial cells of small intestine were immunologically positive for CCL25 and CCL28, whereas those of colon were positive for CCL28 and CXCL12. Furthermore, the venular endothelial cells in small intestine were positive for CCL25 and CCL28, whereas those in colon were positive for CCL28, suggesting their direct roles in extravasation of IgA ASCs. Consistently, in mice orally immunized with cholera toxin (CT), anti-CCL25 suppressed homing of CT-specific IgA ASCs into small intestine, whereas anti-CCL28 suppressed homing of CT-specific IgA ASCs into both small intestine and colon. Reciprocally, CT-specific ASCs and IgA titers in the blood were increased in mice treated with anti-CCL25 or anti-CCL28. Anti-CXCL12 had no such effects. Finally, both CCL25 and CCL28 were capable of enhancing α4 integrin-dependent adhesion of IgA ASCs to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 and VCAM-1. Collectively, CCL25 and CCL28 play essential roles in intestinal homing of IgA ASCs primarily by mediating their extravasation into intestinal lamina propria.  
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  Notes 10.4049/jimmunol.173.6.3668 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6011  
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Author Witte, T.H.; Knill, K.; Wilson, A.M. doi  openurl
  Title Determination of peak vertical ground reaction force from duty factor in the horse (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 207 Issue Pt 21 Pages (down) 3639-3648  
  Keywords *Acceleration; Animals; Biomechanics; Forelimb/physiology; *Gait; Hindlimb/physiology; Horses/*physiology; Locomotion/*physiology; Telemetry; Time Factors  
  Abstract Measurement of peak vertical ground reaction force (GRFz) from multiple limbs simultaneously during high-speed, over-ground locomotion would enhance our understanding of the locomotor mechanics of cursorial animals. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of predicting peak GRFz from duty factor (the proportion of the stride for which the limb is in contact with the ground). Foot-mounted uniaxial accelerometers, combined with UHF FM telemetry, are shown to be practical and accurate for the field measurement of stride timing variables, including duty factor. Direct comparison with the force plate produces a mean error of 2.3 ms and 3.5 ms for the timing of foot on and foot off, respectively, across all gaits. Predictions of peak GRFz from duty factor show mean errors (with positive values indicating an overestimate) of 0.8+/-0.04 N kg(-1) (13%; N=42; mean +/- S.E.M.) at walk, -0.3+/-0.06 N kg(-1) (3%; N=75) at trot, -2.3+/-0.27 N kg(-1) (16%; N=18) for the non-lead limb at canter and +2.1+/-0.7 N kg(-1) (19%; N=9) for the lead limb at canter. The substantial over- and underestimate seen at canter, in the lead and non-lead limbs, respectively, is attributed to the different functions performed by the two limbs in the asymmetrical gaits. The difference in load experienced by the lead and non-lead limbs decreased with increasing speed.  
  Address Structure and Motion Lab, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15371472 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3658  
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Author Siniscalchi, M.; Quaranta, A.; Rogers, L.J. doi  openurl
  Title Hemispheric specialization in dogs for processing different acoustic stimuli Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication PloS ONE Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages (down) e3349  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5415  
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