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Author Gulotta, M.; Gilmanshin, R.; Buscher, T.C.; Callender, R.H.; Dyer, R.B. openurl 
  Title Core formation in apomyoglobin: probing the upper reaches of the folding energy landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry  
  Volume 40 Issue 17 Pages (down) 5137-5143  
  Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry; Computer Simulation; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry; *Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Secondary; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Spectrometry, Fluorescence/instrumentation/methods; Thermodynamics; Tryptophan/chemistry  
  Abstract An acid-destabilized form of apomyoglobin, the so-called E state, consists of a set of heterogeneous structures that are all characterized by a stable hydrophobic core composed of 30-40 residues at the intersection of the A, G, and H helices of the protein, with little other secondary structure and no other tertiary structure. Relaxation kinetics studies were carried out to characterize the dynamics of core melting and formation in this protein. The unfolding and/or refolding response is induced by a laser-induced temperature jump between the folded and unfolded forms of E, and structural changes are monitored using the infrared amide I' absorbance at 1648-1651 cm(-1) that reports on the formation of solvent-protected, native-like helix in the core and by fluorescence emission changes from apomyoglobin's Trp14, a measure of burial of the indole group of this residue. The fluorescence kinetics data are monoexponential with a relaxation time of 14 micros. However, infrared kinetics data are best fit to a biexponential function with relaxation times of 14 and 59 micros. These relaxation times are very fast, close to the limits placed on folding reactions by diffusion. The 14 micros relaxation time is weakly temperature dependent and thus represents a pathway that is energetically downhill. The appearance of this relaxation time in both the fluorescence and infrared measurements indicates that this folding event proceeds by a concomitant formation of compact secondary and tertiary structures. The 59 micros relaxation time is much more strongly temperature dependent and has no fluorescence counterpart, indicating an activated process with a large energy barrier wherein nonspecific hydrophobic interactions between helix A and the G and H helices cause some helix burial but Trp14 remains solvent exposed. These results are best fit by a multiple-pathway kinetic model when U collapses to form the various folded core structures of E. Thus, the results suggest very robust dynamics for core formation involving multiple folding pathways and provide significant insight into the primary processes of protein folding.  
  Address Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11318635 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3789  
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Author Polverini, E.; Cugini, G.; Annoni, F.; Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Gensch, T. doi  openurl
  Title Molten globule formation in apomyoglobin monitored by the fluorescent probe Nile Red Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry  
  Volume 45 Issue 16 Pages (down) 5111-5121  
  Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry/*metabolism; Binding Sites; Computer Simulation; Fluorescent Dyes/analysis; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry/*metabolism; Oxazines/*analysis/chemistry; Protein Binding; Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Tertiary  
  Abstract The interaction of nile red (NR) with apomyoglobin (ApoMb) in the native (pH 7) and molten globule (pH 4) states was investigated using experimental and computational methods. NR binds to hydrophobic locations in ApoMb with higher affinity (K(d) = 25 +/- 5 microM) in the native state than in the molten globule state (K(d) = 52 +/- 5 microM). In the molten globule state, NR is located in a more hydrophobic environment. The dye does not bind to the holoprotein, suggesting that the binding site is located at the heme pocket. In addition to monitoring steady-state properties, the fluorescence emission of NR is capable of tracking submillisecond, time-resolved structural rearrangements of the protein, induced by a nanosecond pH jump. Molecular dynamics simulations were run on ApoMb at neutral pH and at pH 4. The structure obtained for the molten globule state is consistent with the experimentally available structural data. The docking of NR with the crystal structure shows that the ligand binds into the binding pocket of the heme group, with an orientation bringing the planar ring system of NR to overlap with the position of two of the heme porphyrin rings in Mb. The docking of NR with the ApoMb structure at pH 4 shows that the dye binds to the heme pocket with a slightly less favorable binding energy, in keeping with the experimental K(d) value. Under these conditions, NR is positioned in a different orientation, reaching a more hydrophobic environment in agreement with the spectroscopic data.  
  Address Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Viale G. P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma, Italy  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16618100 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3763  
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Author Bergstrom, C.T.; Lachmann, M. openurl 
  Title Signaling among relatives. III. Talk is cheap Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages (down) 5100-5105  
  Keywords Animal Communication; Animals; Costs and Cost Analysis; *Evolution; Interpersonal Relations; Models, Biological  
  Abstract The Sir Philip Sidney game has been used by numerous authors to show how signal cost can facilitate honest signaling among relatives. Here, we demonstrate that, in this game, honest cost-free signals are possible as well, under very general conditions. Moreover, these cost-free signals are better for all participants than the previously explored alternatives. Recent empirical evidence suggests that begging is energetically inexpensive for nestling birds; this finding led some researchers to question the applicability of the costly signaling framework to nestling begging. Our results show that cost-free or inexpensive signals, as observed empirically, fall within the framework of signaling theory.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. carl@charles.stanford.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:9560235 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 561  
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Author Duncan, I.J.; Petherick, J.C. openurl 
  Title The implications of cognitive processes for animal welfare Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 69 Issue 12 Pages (down) 5017-5022  
  Keywords *Animal Welfare; Animals; Animals, Domestic/*psychology; *Cognition  
  Abstract In general, codes that have been designed to safeguard the welfare of animals emphasize the importance of providing an environment that will ensure good health and a normal physiological and physical state, that is, they emphasize the animals' physical needs. If mental needs are mentioned, they are always relegated to secondary importance. The argument is put forward here that animal welfare is dependent solely on the cognitive needs of the animals concerned. In general, if these cognitive needs are met, they will protect the animals' physical needs. It is contended that in the few cases in which they do not safeguard the physical needs, it does not matter from a welfare point of view. The human example is given of being ill. It is argued that welfare is only adversely affected when a person feels ill, knows that he or she is ill, or even thinks that he or she is ill, all of which processes are cognitive ones. The implications for welfare of animals possessing certain cognitive abilities are discussed. For example, the extent to which animals are aware of their internal state while performing behavior known to be indicative of so-called states of suffering, such as fear, frustration, and pain, will determine how much they are actually suffering. With careful experimentation it may be possible to determine how negative they feel these states to be. Similarly, the extent to which animals think about items or events absent from their immediate environment will determine how frustrated they are in the absence of the real item or event but in the presence of the cognitive representation.  
  Address University of Guelph, Canada  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:1808195 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2753  
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Author Kendrick, K.M. url  openurl
  Title How the sheep's brain controls the visual recognition of animals and humans Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 69 Issue 12 Pages (down) 5008-5016  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2940  
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Author Curtis, S.E.; Stricklin, W.R. openurl 
  Title The importance of animal cognition in agricultural animal production systems: an overview Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 69 Issue 12 Pages (down) 5001-5007  
  Keywords *Agriculture; Animal Population Groups/*psychology; *Animal Welfare; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Cognition; Heat; Helplessness, Learned; Housing, Animal/standards; Immobilization; Nesting Behavior; Pain/psychology/veterinary  
  Abstract To describe and then fulfill agricultural animals' needs, we must learn more about their fundamental psychological and behavioral processes. How does this animal feel? Is that animal suffering? Will we ever be able to know these things? Scientists specializing in animal cognition say that there are numerous problems but that they can be overcome. Recognition by scientists of the notion of animal awareness has been increasing in recent years, because of the work of Griffin and others. Feeling, thinking, remembering, and imagining are cognitive processes that are factors in the economic and humane production of agricultural animals. It has been observed that the animal welfare debate depends on two controversial questions: Do animals have subjective feelings? If they do, can we find indicators that reveal them? Here, indirect behavioral analysis approaches must be taken. Moreover, the linear additivity of several stressor effects on a variety of animal traits suggests that some single phenomenon is acting as a “clearinghouse” for many or all of the stresses acting on an animal at any given time, and this phenomenon might be psychological stress. Specific situations animals may encounter in agricultural production settings are discussed with respect to the animals' subjective feelings.  
  Address University of Illinois, Urbana 61801  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:1808193 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2754  
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Author Bourjade, M.; de Boyer des Roches, A.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Adult-Young Ratio, a Major Factor Regulating Social Behaviour of Young: A Horse Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages (down) e4888  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Adults play an important role in regulating the social behaviour of young individuals. However, a few pioneer studies suggest that, more than the mere presence of adults, their proportions in social groups affect the social development of young. Here, we hypothesized that aggression rates and social cohesion were correlated to adult-young ratios. Our biological model was naturally-formed groups of Przewalski horses, <italic>Equus f. przewalskii</italic>, varying in composition.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title> <p>We investigated the social interactions and spatial relationships of 12 one- and two-year-old Przewalski horses belonging to five families with adult-young ratios (AYR) ranging from 0.67 to 1.33. We found striking variations of aggression rates and spatial relationships related to the adult-young ratio: the lower this ratio, the more the young were aggressive, the more young and adults segregated and the tighter the young bonded to other young.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Conclusion/Significance</title> <p>This is the first study demonstrating a correlation between adult-young ratios and aggression rates and social cohesion of young individuals in a naturalistic setting. The increase of aggression and the emergence of social segregation in groups with lower proportions of adults could reflect a related decrease of the influence of adults as regulators of the behaviour of young. This social regulation has both theoretical and practical implications for understanding the modalities of the influence of adults during ontogeny and for recommending optimal settings, as for instance, for schooling or animal group management.</p> </sec>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5334  
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Author Griffin, D.R. doi  openurl
  Title Animals know more than we used to think Type Editorial
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 9 Pages (down) 4833-4834  
  Keywords Animal Communication; Animals; Attention/physiology; Brain/physiology; Choice Behavior/physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Humans; Macaca mulatta/physiology/*psychology; Memory/*physiology; Optic Disk/physiology; Psychological Tests  
  Abstract  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11320232 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2823  
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Author Stich, K.P.; Winter, Y. url  openurl
  Title Lack of generalization of object discrimination between spatial contexts by a bat Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication J. Exp. Biol. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 209 Issue 23 Pages (down) 4802-4808  
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  Abstract Discrimination and generalization are important elements of cognition in the daily lives of animals. Nectar-feeding bats detect flowers by olfaction and probably vision, but also use echolocation and echo-perception of flowers in immediate target surroundings. The echo received from an interference-rich flower corolla is a function of a bat's own relative position in space. This raises the question how easily a free-flying bat will generalize an echo stimulus from a learning situation to a new spatial context where differences in relative flight approach trajectories may lead to an unfamiliar spectral composition of the self-generated echoes. We trained free-flying Glossophaga soricina in echoacoustic discrimination in a two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) paradigm at location A. We then tested at location B for spontaneous transfer of discrimination ability. Bats did not spontaneously transfer the discrimination ability acquired at A to location B. This lack of spontaneous generalization may have been caused by factors of the underlying learning mechanisms. 2-AFC tasks may not be representative of the natural foraging behaviour of flower-visiting bats. In contrast to insect-eating bats that constantly evaluate the environment to detect unpredictable prey, the spatial stability of flowers may allow flower visitors to rely on spatial memory to guide foraging. The 2-AFC task requires the disregard (learned irrelevance) of salient spatial location cues that are different at each new location. In Glossophaga, a conjunction between spatial context and 2-AFC discrimination learning may have inhibited the transfer of learned irrelevance of spatial location in the 2-AFC task to new spatial locations. Alternatively, the bats may have learnt the second discrimination task completely anew, and were faster only because of an acquired learning set. We suggest a dissociation between 2-AFC task acquisition and novel object discrimination learning to resolve the issue.  
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  Notes 10.1242/jeb.02574 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2962  
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Author Arnold, W.; Ruf, T.; Kuntz, R. doi  openurl
  Title Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) II. Energy expenditure Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication The Journal of experimental biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 209 Issue Pt 22 Pages (down) 4566-4573  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild/*physiology; Body Temperature; Body Temperature Regulation; Eating; *Energy Metabolism; Female; Heart Rate; Horses/*physiology; Male; Motor Activity; Pregnancy; Reproduction; *Seasons  
  Abstract Many large mammals show pronounced seasonal fluctuations of metabolic rate (MR). It has been argued, based on studies in ruminants, that this variation merely results from different levels of locomotor activity (LA), and heat increment of feeding (HI). However, a recent study in red deer (Cervus elaphus) identified a previously unknown mechanism in ungulates--nocturnal hypometabolism--that contributed significantly to reduced energy expenditure, mainly during late winter. The relative contribution of these different mechanisms to seasonal adjustments of MR is still unknown, however. Therefore, in the study presented here we quantified for the first time the independent contribution of thermoregulation, LA and HI to heart rate (f(H)) as a measure of MR in a free-roaming large ungulate, the Przewalski horse or Takhi (Equus ferus przewalskii Poljakow). f(H) varied periodically throughout the year with a twofold increase from a mean of 44 beats min(-1) during December and January to a spring peak of 89 beats min(-1) at the beginning of May. LA increased from 23% per day during December and January to a mean level of 53% per day during May, and declined again thereafter. Daily mean subcutaneous body temperature (T(s)) declined continuously during winter and reached a nadir at the beginning of April (annual range was 5.8 degrees C), well after the annual low of air temperature and LA. Lower T(s) during winter contributed considerably to the reduction in f(H). In addition to thermoregulation, f(H) was affected by reproduction, LA, HI and unexplained seasonal variation, presumably reflecting to some degree changes in organ mass. The observed phase relations of seasonal changes indicate that energy expenditure was not a consequence of energy uptake but is under endogenous control, preparing the organism well in advance of seasonal energetic demands.  
  Address Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1, 1160 Vienna, Austria. walter.arnold@vu-wien.ac.at  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17079726 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1782  
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