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Author Amé, J.-M.; Halloy, J.; Rivault, C.; Detrain, C.; Deneubourg, J.L. doi  openurl
  Title Collegial decision making based on social amplification leads to optimal group formation Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 103 Issue 15 Pages (down) 5835-5840  
  Keywords Animals; Blattellidae/*physiology; Choice Behavior; Decision Making; Leadership; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract Group-living animals are often faced with choosing between one or more alternative resource sites. A central question in such collective decision making includes determining which individuals induce the decision and when. This experimental and theoretical study of shelter selection by cockroach groups demonstrates that choices can emerge through nonlinear interaction dynamics between equal individuals without perfect knowledge or leadership. We identify a simple mechanism whereby a decision is taken on the move with limited information and signaling and without comparison of available opportunities. This mechanism leads to optimal mean benefit for group individuals. Our model points to a generic self-organized collective decision-making process independent of animal species.  
  Address Service d'Ecologie Sociale CP231, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F. D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16581903 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2042  
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Author Ballew, R.M.; Sabelko, J.; Gruebele, M. openurl 
  Title Direct observation of fast protein folding: the initial collapse of apomyoglobin Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 93 Issue 12 Pages (down) 5759-5764  
  Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry; Circular Dichroism; Horses; Kinetics; Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry; Myoglobin/*chemistry; *Protein Folding; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Spectrophotometry, Infrared; Temperature  
  Abstract The rapid refolding dynamics of apomyoglobin are followed by a new temperature-jump fluorescence technique on a 15-ns to 0.5-ms time scale in vitro. The apparatus measures the protein-folding history in a single sweep in standard aqueous buffers. The earliest steps during folding to a compact state are observed and are complete in under 20 micros. Experiments on mutants and consideration of steady-state CD and fluorescence spectra indicate that the observed microsecond phase monitors assembly of an A x (H x G) helix subunit. Measurements at different viscosities indicate diffusive behavior even at low viscosities, in agreement with motions of a solvent-exposed protein during the initial collapse.  
  Address School of Chemical Sciences and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana, 61801, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:8650166 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3798  
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Author Chase, I.D.; Tovey, C.; Spangler-Martin, D.; Manfredonia, M. doi  openurl
  Title Individual differences versus social dynamics in the formation of animal dominance hierarchies Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 99 Issue 8 Pages (down) 5744-5749  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Fishes; Humans; *Social Behavior; *Social Dominance  
  Abstract Linear hierarchies, the classical pecking-order structures, are formed readily in both nature and the laboratory in a great range of species including humans. However, the probability of getting linear structures by chance alone is quite low. In this paper we investigate the two hypotheses that are proposed most often to explain linear hierarchies: they are predetermined by differences in the attributes of animals, or they are produced by the dynamics of social interaction, i.e., they are self-organizing. We evaluate these hypotheses using cichlid fish as model animals, and although differences in attributes play a significant part, we find that social interaction is necessary for high proportions of groups with linear hierarchies. Our results suggest that dominance hierarchy formation is a much richer and more complex phenomenon than previously thought, and we explore the implications of these results for evolutionary biology, the social sciences, and the use of animal models in understanding human social organization.  
  Address Department of Sociology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4356, USA. Ichase@notes.cc.sunysb.edu  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11960030 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 442  
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Author Sol, D.; Duncan, R.P.; Blackburn, T.M.; Cassey, P.; Lefebvre, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Big brains, enhanced cognition, and response of birds to novel environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 102 Issue 15 Pages (down) 5460-5465  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The widely held hypothesis that enlarged brains have evolved as an adaptation to cope with novel or altered environmental conditions lacks firm empirical support. Here, we test this hypothesis for a major animal group (birds) by examining whether large-brained species show higher survival than small-brained species when introduced to nonnative locations. Using a global database documenting the outcome of >600 introduction events, we confirm that avian species with larger brains, relative to their body mass, tend to be more successful at establishing themselves in novel environments. Moreover, we provide evidence that larger brains help birds respond to novel conditions by enhancing their innovation propensity rather than indirectly through noncognitive mechanisms. These findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that enlarged brains function, and hence may have evolved, to deal with changes in the environment.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.0408145102 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4739  
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Author Hampton, R.R. doi  openurl
  Title Rhesus monkeys know when they remember Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 9 Pages (down) 5359-5362  
  Keywords Animals; Choice Behavior/physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Cues; Food Preferences/psychology; Macaca mulatta/*physiology/*psychology; Male; Memory/*physiology; Probability; Psychological Tests; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity  
  Abstract Humans are consciously aware of some memories and can make verbal reports about these memories. Other memories cannot be brought to consciousness, even though they influence behavior. This conspicuous difference in access to memories is central in taxonomies of human memory systems but has been difficult to document in animal studies, suggesting that some forms of memory may be unique to humans. Here I show that rhesus macaque monkeys can report the presence or absence of memory. Although it is probably impossible to document subjective, conscious properties of memory in nonverbal animals, this result objectively demonstrates an important functional parallel with human conscious memory. Animals able to discern the presence and absence of memory should improve accuracy if allowed to decline memory tests when they have forgotten, and should decline tests most frequently when memory is attenuated experimentally. One of two monkeys examined unequivocally met these criteria under all test conditions, whereas the second monkey met them in all but one case. Probe tests were used to rule out “cueing” by a wide variety of environmental and behavioral stimuli, leaving detection of the absence of memory per se as the most likely mechanism underlying the monkeys' abilities to selectively decline memory tests when they had forgotten.  
  Address Section on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, Building 49, Room 1B-80, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. robert@ln.nimh.nih.gov  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11274360 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2824  
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Author Gulotta, M.; Gilmanshin, R.; Buscher, T.C.; Callender, R.H.; Dyer, R.B. openurl 
  Title Core formation in apomyoglobin: probing the upper reaches of the folding energy landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry  
  Volume 40 Issue 17 Pages (down) 5137-5143  
  Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry; Computer Simulation; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry; *Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Secondary; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Spectrometry, Fluorescence/instrumentation/methods; Thermodynamics; Tryptophan/chemistry  
  Abstract An acid-destabilized form of apomyoglobin, the so-called E state, consists of a set of heterogeneous structures that are all characterized by a stable hydrophobic core composed of 30-40 residues at the intersection of the A, G, and H helices of the protein, with little other secondary structure and no other tertiary structure. Relaxation kinetics studies were carried out to characterize the dynamics of core melting and formation in this protein. The unfolding and/or refolding response is induced by a laser-induced temperature jump between the folded and unfolded forms of E, and structural changes are monitored using the infrared amide I' absorbance at 1648-1651 cm(-1) that reports on the formation of solvent-protected, native-like helix in the core and by fluorescence emission changes from apomyoglobin's Trp14, a measure of burial of the indole group of this residue. The fluorescence kinetics data are monoexponential with a relaxation time of 14 micros. However, infrared kinetics data are best fit to a biexponential function with relaxation times of 14 and 59 micros. These relaxation times are very fast, close to the limits placed on folding reactions by diffusion. The 14 micros relaxation time is weakly temperature dependent and thus represents a pathway that is energetically downhill. The appearance of this relaxation time in both the fluorescence and infrared measurements indicates that this folding event proceeds by a concomitant formation of compact secondary and tertiary structures. The 59 micros relaxation time is much more strongly temperature dependent and has no fluorescence counterpart, indicating an activated process with a large energy barrier wherein nonspecific hydrophobic interactions between helix A and the G and H helices cause some helix burial but Trp14 remains solvent exposed. These results are best fit by a multiple-pathway kinetic model when U collapses to form the various folded core structures of E. Thus, the results suggest very robust dynamics for core formation involving multiple folding pathways and provide significant insight into the primary processes of protein folding.  
  Address Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:11318635 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3789  
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Author Polverini, E.; Cugini, G.; Annoni, F.; Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Gensch, T. doi  openurl
  Title Molten globule formation in apomyoglobin monitored by the fluorescent probe Nile Red Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry  
  Volume 45 Issue 16 Pages (down) 5111-5121  
  Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry/*metabolism; Binding Sites; Computer Simulation; Fluorescent Dyes/analysis; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry/*metabolism; Oxazines/*analysis/chemistry; Protein Binding; Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Tertiary  
  Abstract The interaction of nile red (NR) with apomyoglobin (ApoMb) in the native (pH 7) and molten globule (pH 4) states was investigated using experimental and computational methods. NR binds to hydrophobic locations in ApoMb with higher affinity (K(d) = 25 +/- 5 microM) in the native state than in the molten globule state (K(d) = 52 +/- 5 microM). In the molten globule state, NR is located in a more hydrophobic environment. The dye does not bind to the holoprotein, suggesting that the binding site is located at the heme pocket. In addition to monitoring steady-state properties, the fluorescence emission of NR is capable of tracking submillisecond, time-resolved structural rearrangements of the protein, induced by a nanosecond pH jump. Molecular dynamics simulations were run on ApoMb at neutral pH and at pH 4. The structure obtained for the molten globule state is consistent with the experimentally available structural data. The docking of NR with the crystal structure shows that the ligand binds into the binding pocket of the heme group, with an orientation bringing the planar ring system of NR to overlap with the position of two of the heme porphyrin rings in Mb. The docking of NR with the ApoMb structure at pH 4 shows that the dye binds to the heme pocket with a slightly less favorable binding energy, in keeping with the experimental K(d) value. Under these conditions, NR is positioned in a different orientation, reaching a more hydrophobic environment in agreement with the spectroscopic data.  
  Address Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Viale G. P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma, Italy  
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  ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16618100 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3763  
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Author Bergstrom, C.T.; Lachmann, M. openurl 
  Title Signaling among relatives. III. Talk is cheap Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages (down) 5100-5105  
  Keywords Animal Communication; Animals; Costs and Cost Analysis; *Evolution; Interpersonal Relations; Models, Biological  
  Abstract The Sir Philip Sidney game has been used by numerous authors to show how signal cost can facilitate honest signaling among relatives. Here, we demonstrate that, in this game, honest cost-free signals are possible as well, under very general conditions. Moreover, these cost-free signals are better for all participants than the previously explored alternatives. Recent empirical evidence suggests that begging is energetically inexpensive for nestling birds; this finding led some researchers to question the applicability of the costly signaling framework to nestling begging. Our results show that cost-free or inexpensive signals, as observed empirically, fall within the framework of signaling theory.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. carl@charles.stanford.edu  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:9560235 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 561  
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Author Duncan, I.J.; Petherick, J.C. openurl 
  Title The implications of cognitive processes for animal welfare Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 69 Issue 12 Pages (down) 5017-5022  
  Keywords *Animal Welfare; Animals; Animals, Domestic/*psychology; *Cognition  
  Abstract In general, codes that have been designed to safeguard the welfare of animals emphasize the importance of providing an environment that will ensure good health and a normal physiological and physical state, that is, they emphasize the animals' physical needs. If mental needs are mentioned, they are always relegated to secondary importance. The argument is put forward here that animal welfare is dependent solely on the cognitive needs of the animals concerned. In general, if these cognitive needs are met, they will protect the animals' physical needs. It is contended that in the few cases in which they do not safeguard the physical needs, it does not matter from a welfare point of view. The human example is given of being ill. It is argued that welfare is only adversely affected when a person feels ill, knows that he or she is ill, or even thinks that he or she is ill, all of which processes are cognitive ones. The implications for welfare of animals possessing certain cognitive abilities are discussed. For example, the extent to which animals are aware of their internal state while performing behavior known to be indicative of so-called states of suffering, such as fear, frustration, and pain, will determine how much they are actually suffering. With careful experimentation it may be possible to determine how negative they feel these states to be. Similarly, the extent to which animals think about items or events absent from their immediate environment will determine how frustrated they are in the absence of the real item or event but in the presence of the cognitive representation.  
  Address University of Guelph, Canada  
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  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:1808195 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2753  
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Author Kendrick, K.M. url  openurl
  Title How the sheep's brain controls the visual recognition of animals and humans Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 69 Issue 12 Pages (down) 5008-5016  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2940  
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