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Author Kitchen A; Denton D; Brent L openurl 
  Title Self-recognition and abstraction abilities in the common chimpanzee studied with distorting mirrors Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 93 Issue Pages (down) 7405  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3011  
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Author Dusek, J.A.; Eichenbaum, H. openurl 
  Title The hippocampus and memory for orderly stimulus relations Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 94 Issue 13 Pages (down) 7109-7114  
  Keywords Animals; Attention; Discrimination (Psychology)/physiology; Hippocampus/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Male; Memory/*physiology; Rats  
  Abstract Human declarative memory involves a systematic organization of information that supports generalizations and inferences from acquired knowledge. This kind of memory depends on the hippocampal region in humans, but the extent to which animals also have declarative memory, and whether inferential expression of memory depends on the hippocampus in animals, remains a major challenge in cognitive neuroscience. To examine these issues, we used a test of transitive inference pioneered by Piaget to assess capacities for systematic organization of knowledge and logical inference in children. In our adaptation of the test, rats were trained on a set of four overlapping odor discrimination problems that could be encoded either separately or as a single representation of orderly relations among the odor stimuli. Normal rats learned the problems and demonstrated the relational memory organization through appropriate transitive inferences about items not presented together during training. By contrast, after disconnection of the hippocampus from either its cortical or subcortical pathway, rats succeeded in acquiring the separate discrimination problems but did not demonstrate transitive inference, indicating that they had failed to develop or could not inferentially express the orderly organization of the stimulus elements. These findings strongly support the view that the hippocampus mediates a general declarative memory capacity in animals, as it does in humans.  
  Address Department of Psychology, Boston University, 64 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:9192700 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 607  
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Author Ward, A.J.W.; Sumpter, D.J.T.; Couzin, I.D.; Hart, P.J.B.; Krause, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quorum decision-making facilitates information transfer in fish shoals Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 105 Issue 19 Pages (down) 6948-6953  
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  Abstract Despite the growing interest in collective phenomena such as “swarm intelligence” and “wisdom of the crowds,” little is known about the mechanisms underlying decision-making in vertebrate animal groups. How do animals use the behavior of others to make more accurate decisions, especially when it is not possible to identify which individuals possess pertinent information? One plausible answer is that individuals respond only when they see a threshold number of individuals perform a particular behavior. Here, we investigate the role of such “quorum responses” in the movement decisions of fish (three-spine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). We show that a quorum response to conspecifics can explain how sticklebacks make collective movement decisions, both in the absence and presence of a potential predation risk. Importantly our experimental work shows that a quorum response can reduce the likelihood of amplification of nonadaptive following behavior. Whereas the traveling direction of solitary fish was strongly influenced by a single replica conspecific, the replica was largely ignored by larger groups of four or eight sticklebacks under risk, and the addition of a second replica was required to exert influence on the movement decisions of such groups. Model simulations further predict that quorum responses by fish improve the accuracy and speed of their decision-making over that of independent decision-makers or those using a weak linear response. This study shows that effective and accurate information transfer in groups may be gained only through nonlinear responses of group members to each other, thus highlighting the importance of quorum decision-making.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.0710344105 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5252  
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Author Biegler, R.; McGregor, A.; Krebs, J.R.; Healy, S.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A larger hippocampus is associated with longer-lasting spatial memory Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages (down) 6941-6944  
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  Abstract Volumetric studies in a range of animals (London taxi-drivers, polygynous male voles, nest-parasitic female cowbirds, and a number of food-storing birds) have shown that the size of the hippocampus, a brain region essential to learning and memory, is correlated with tasks involving an extra demand for spatial learning and memory. In this paper, we report the quantitative advantage that food storers gain from such an enlargement. Coal tits () a food-storing species, performed better than great tits (), a nonstoring species, on a task that assessed memory persistence but not on a task that assessed memory resolution or on one that tested memory capacity. These results show that the advantage to the food-storing species associated with an enlarged hippocampus is one of memory persistence.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.121034798 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4743  
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Author Lergetporer, P.; Angerer, S.; Glätzle-Rützler, D.; Sutter, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 111 Issue 19 Pages (down) 6916-6921  
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  Abstract The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children’s cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner’s level of cooperation.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5805  
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Author Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Small, J.R.; Libertini, L.J.; Small, E.W. openurl 
  Title Kinetics of histidine deligation from the heme in GuHCl-unfolded Fe(III) cytochrome C studied by a laser-induced pH-jump technique Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of the American Chemical Society Abbreviated Journal J Am Chem Soc  
  Volume 123 Issue 27 Pages (down) 6649-6653  
  Keywords Animals; *Bacterial Proteins; Cytochrome c Group/*chemistry; Guanidine/*chemistry; Heme/*chemistry; Histidine/*chemistry; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; *Lasers; Ligands; Protein Folding  
  Abstract We have developed an instrumental setup that uses transient absorption to monitor protein folding/unfolding processes following a laser-induced, ultrafast release of protons from o-nitrobenzaldehyde. The resulting increase in [H(+)], which can be more than 100 microM, is complete within a few nanoseconds. The increase in [H(+)] lowers the pH of the solution from neutrality to approximately 4 at the highest laser pulse energy used. Protein structural rearrangements can be followed by transient absorption, with kinetic monitoring over a broad time range (approximately 10 ns to 500 ms). Using this pH-jump/transient absorption technique, we have examined the dissociation kinetics of non-native axial heme ligands (either histidine His26 or His33) in GuHCl-unfolded Fe(III) cytochrome c (cyt c). Deligation of the non-native ligands following the acidic pH-jump occurs as a biexponential process with different pre-exponential factors. The pre-exponential factors markedly depend on the extent of the pH-jump, as expected from differences in the pK(a) values of His26 and His33. The two lifetimes were found to depend on temperature but were not functions of either the magnitude of the pH-jump or the pre-pulse pH of the solution. The activation energies of the deligation processes support the suggestion that GuHCl-unfolded cyt c structures with non-native histidine axial ligands represent kinetic traps in unfolding.  
  Address Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, 43100 Parma, Italy  
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  ISSN 0002-7863 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:11439052 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3788  
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Author Haruta, N.; Kitagawa, T. openurl 
  Title Time-resolved UV resonance Raman investigation of protein folding using a rapid mixer: characterization of kinetic folding intermediates of apomyoglobin Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry  
  Volume 41 Issue 21 Pages (down) 6595-6604  
  Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry; Circular Dichroism; Holoenzymes/chemistry; Horses; Hydrochloric Acid/chemistry; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Imidazoles/chemistry; Kinetics; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry; Peptide Fragments/chemistry; *Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Secondary; Spectrum Analysis, Raman/*methods; Tryptophan/*chemistry; Ultraviolet Rays; Whales  
  Abstract The 244-nm excited transient UV resonance Raman spectra are observed for the refolding intermediates of horse apomyoglobin (h-apoMb) with a newly constructed mixed flow cell system, and the results are interpreted on the basis of the spectra observed for the equilibrium acid unfolding of the same protein. The dead time of mixing, which was determined with the appearance of UV Raman bands of imidazolium upon mixing of imidazole with acid, was 150 micros under the flow rate that was adopted. The pH-jump experiments of h-apoMb from pH 2.2 to 5.6 conducted with this device demonstrated the presence of three folding intermediates. On the basis of the analysis of W3 and W7 bands of Trp7 and Trp14, the first intermediate, formed before 250 micros, involved incorporation of Trp14 into the alpha-helix from a random coil. The frequency shift of the W3 band of Trp14 observed for this process was reproduced with a model peptide of the A helix when it forms the alpha-helix. In the second intermediate, formed around 1 ms after the start of refolding, the surroundings of both Trp7 and Trp14 were significantly hydrophobic, suggesting the formation of the hydrophobic core. In the third intermediate appearing around 3 ms, the hydrophobicity was relaxed to the same level as that of the pH 4 equilibrium intermediate, which was investigated in detail with the stationary state technique. The change from the third intermediate to the native state needs more time than 40 ms, while the appearance of the native spectrum after the mixing of the same solutions was confirmed separately.  
  Address School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan  
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  ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12022863 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3785  
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Author Gácsi, M.; Gyoöri, B.; Virányi, Z.; Kubinyi, E.; Range, F.; Belényi, B.; Miklósi, Á. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Explaining Dog Wolf Differences in Utilizing Human Pointing Gestures: Selection for Synergistic Shifts in the Development of Some Social Skills Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 4 Issue 8 Pages (down) e6584  
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  Abstract <sec> <title>Background</title> <p>The comparison of human related communication skills of socialized canids may help to understand the evolution and the epigenesis of gesture comprehension in humans. To reconcile previously contradicting views on the origin of dogs' outstanding performance in utilizing human gestures, we suggest that dog-wolf differences should be studied in a more complex way.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title> <p>We present data both on the performance and the behaviour of dogs and wolves of different ages in a two-way object choice test. Characteristic behavioural differences showed that for wolves it took longer to establish eye contact with the pointing experimenter, they struggled more with the handler, and pups also bit her more before focusing on the human's signal. The performance of similarly hand-reared 8-week-old dogs and wolves did not differ in utilizing the simpler proximal momentary pointing. However, when tested with the distal momentary pointing, 4-month-old pet dogs outperformed the same aged hand reared wolves. Thus early and intensive socialisation does not diminish differences between young dogs and wolves in behaviour and performance. Socialised adult wolves performed similarly well as dogs in this task without pretraining. The success of adult wolves was accompanied with increased willingness to cooperate.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Conclusion/Significance</title> <p>Thus, we provide evidence for the first time that socialised adult wolves are as successful in relying on distal momentary pointing as adult pet dogs. However, the delayed emergence of utilising human distal momentary pointing in wolves shows that these wild canines react to a lesser degree to intensive socialisation in contrast to dogs, which are able to control agonistic behaviours and inhibition of actions in a food related task early in development. We suggest a “synergistic” hypothesis, claiming that positive feedback processes (both evolutionary and epigenetic) have increased the readiness of dogs to attend to humans, providing the basis for dog-human communication.</p> </sec>  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5196  
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Author Scheffer, M.; van Nes, E.H. doi  openurl
  Title Self-organized similarity, the evolutionary emergence of groups of similar species Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 103 Issue 16 Pages (down) 6230-6235  
  Keywords Animals; *Competitive Behavior; *Ecosystem; *Evolution; *Models, Biological  
  Abstract Ecologists have long been puzzled by the fact that there are so many similar species in nature. Here we show that self-organized clusters of look-a-likes may emerge spontaneously from coevolution of competitors. The explanation is that there are two alternative ways to survive together: being sufficiently different or being sufficiently similar. Using a model based on classical competition theory, we demonstrate a tendency for evolutionary emergence of regularly spaced lumps of similar species along a niche axis. Indeed, such lumpy patterns are commonly observed in size distributions of organisms ranging from algae, zooplankton, and beetles to birds and mammals, and could not be well explained by earlier theory. Our results suggest that these patterns may represent self-constructed niches emerging from competitive interactions. A corollary of our findings is that, whereas in species-poor communities sympatric speciation and invasion of open niches is possible, species-saturated communities may be characterized by convergent evolution and invasion by look-a-likes.  
  Address Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen, The Netherlands. marten.scheffer@wur.nl  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16585519 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 510  
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Author Muscatello, G.; Anderson, G.A.; Gilkerson, J.R.; Browning, G.F. doi  openurl
  Title Associations between the ecology of virulent Rhodococcus equi and the epidemiology of R. equi pneumonia on Australian thoroughbred farms Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Applied and Environmental Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Appl Environ Microbiol  
  Volume 72 Issue 9 Pages (down) 6152-6160  
  Keywords Actinomycetales Infections/epidemiology/microbiology/*veterinary; Air Microbiology; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Australia/epidemiology; Colony Count, Microbial; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; Ecosystem; Horse Diseases/epidemiology/*microbiology; Horses; Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology/microbiology/*veterinary; Rhodococcus equi/genetics/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity; Soil Microbiology; Virulence  
  Abstract The ecology of virulent strains of Rhodococcus equi on horse farms is likely to influence the prevalence and severity of R. equi pneumonia in foals. This study examined the association between the ecology of virulent R. equi and the epidemiology of R. equi pneumonia by collecting air and soil samples over two breeding seasons (28 farm-year combinations) on Thoroughbred breeding farms with different reported prevalences of R. equi pneumonia. Colony blotting and DNA hybridization were used to detect and measure concentrations of virulent R. equi. The prevalence of R. equi pneumonia was associated with the airborne burden of virulent R. equi (both the concentration and the proportion of R. equi bacteria that were virulent) but was not associated with the burden of virulent R. equi in the soil. Univariable screening and multivariable model building were used to evaluate the effect of environmental and management factors on virulent R. equi burdens. Lower soil moisture concentrations and lower pasture heights were significantly associated with elevated airborne concentrations of virulent R. equi, as were the holding pens and lanes, which typically were sandy, dry, and devoid of pasture cover. Few variables appeared to influence concentrations of virulent R. equi in soil. Acidic soil conditions may have contributed to an elevated proportion of virulent strains within the R. equi population. Environmental management strategies that aim to reduce the level of exposure of susceptible foals to airborne virulent R. equi are most likely to reduce the impact of R. equi pneumonia on endemically affected farms.  
  Address School of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. mug@unimelb.edu.au  
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  ISSN 0099-2240 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16957241 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2622  
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