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Author Petersen, J.L.; Mickelson, J.R.; Cothran, E.G.; Andersson, L.S.; Axelsson, J.; Bailey, E.; Bannasch, D.; Binns, M.M.; Borges, A.S.; Brama, P.; da Câmara Machado, A.; Distl, O.; Felicetti, M.; Fox-Clipsham, L.; Graves, K.T.; Guérin, G.; Haase, B.; Hasegawa, T.; Hemmann, K.; Hill, E.W.; Leeb, T.; Lindgren, G.; Lohi, H.; Lopes, M.S.; McGivney, B.A.; Mikko, S.; Orr, N.; Penedo, M.C.T.; Piercy, R.J.; Raekallio, M.; Rieder, S.; Røed, K.H.; Silvestrelli, M.; Swinburne, J.; Tozaki, T.; Vaudin, M.; M. Wade, C.; McCue, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Genetic Diversity in the Modern Horse Illustrated from Genome-Wide SNP Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages (down) e54997  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Horses were domesticated from the Eurasian steppes 5,000-6,000 years ago. Since then, the use of horses for transportation, warfare, and agriculture, as well as selection for desired traits and fitness, has resulted in diverse populations distributed across the world, many of which have become or are in the process of becoming formally organized into closed, breeding populations (breeds). This report describes the use of a genome-wide set of autosomal SNPs and 814 horses from 36 breeds to provide the first detailed description of equine breed diversity. FST calculations, parsimony, and distance analysis demonstrated relationships among the breeds that largely reflect geographic origins and known breed histories. Low levels of population divergence were observed between breeds that are relatively early on in the process of breed development, and between those with high levels of within-breed diversity, whether due to large population size, ongoing outcrossing, or large within-breed phenotypic diversity. Populations with low within-breed diversity included those which have experienced population bottlenecks, have been under intense selective pressure, or are closed populations with long breed histories. These results provide new insights into the relationships among and the diversity within breeds of horses. In addition these results will facilitate future genome-wide association studies and investigations into genomic targets of selection.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6214  
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Author Briefer Freymond, S.; Briefer, E.F.; Niederhäusern, R.V.; Bachmann, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Pattern of Social Interactions after Group Integration: A Possibility to Keep Stallions in Group Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages (down) e54688 EP -  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>Horses are often kept in individual stables, rather than in outdoor groups, despite such housing system fulfilling many of their welfare needs, such as the access to social partners. Keeping domestic stallions in outdoor groups would mimic bachelor bands that are found in the wild. Unfortunately, the high level of aggression that unfamiliar stallions display when they first <italic>encounter each other</italic> discourages owners from keeping them in groups. However, this level of aggression is likely to be particularly important only during group integration, when the dominance hierarchy is being established, whereas relatively low aggression rates have been observed among stable feral bachelor bands. We investigated the possibility of housing breeding stallions owned by the Swiss National Stud in groups on a large pasture (5 stallions in 2009 and 8 stallions in 2010). We studied the pattern of agonistic, ritual and affiliative interactions after group integration (17–23 days), and the factors influencing these interactions (time after group integration, dominance rank, age or experience of group housing). We found that stallions displayed generally more ritual than agonistic and than affiliative interactions. The frequency of agonistic and ritual interactions decreased quickly within the first three to four days. The frequency of affiliative interactions increased slowly with time before decreasing after 9–14 days. A stable hierarchy could be measured after 2–3 months. The highest-ranking males had less ritual interactions than the lowest-ranking. Males had also less agonistic, ritual and affiliative interactions if they had already been housed in a group the previous year. Therefore, we found that breeding stallions could be housed together on a large pasture, because the frequency of agonistic interactions decreased quickly and remained at a minimal level from the fourth day following group integration. This housing system could potentially increase horse welfare and reduce labour associated with horse management.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5656  
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Author Meagher, R.K.; Mason, G.J. doi  openurl
  Title Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 7 Issue 11 Pages (down) e49180  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized <italic>a priori</italic> as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic ‘scrabbling’ or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment.</p>  
  Address  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5635  
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Author Fureix, C.; Jego, P.; Henry, S.; Lansade, L.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Towards an Ethological Animal Model of Depression? A Study on Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages (down) e39280 EP -  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <sec><title>Background</title><p>Recent reviews question current animal models of depression and emphasise the need for ethological models of mood disorders based on animals living under natural conditions. Domestic horses encounter chronic stress, including potential stress at work, which can induce behavioural disorders (<italic>e.g.</italic> “apathy”). Our pioneering study evaluated the potential of domestic horses in their usual environment to become an ethological model of depression by testing this models’ face validity (<italic>i.e.</italic> behavioural similarity with descriptions of human depressive states).</p></sec><sec><title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title><p>We observed the spontaneous behaviour of 59 working horses in their home environment, focusing on immobility bouts of apparent unresponsiveness when horses displayed an atypical posture (termed <italic>withdrawn</italic> hereafter), evaluated their responsiveness to their environment and their anxiety levels, and analysed cortisol levels. Twenty-four percent of the horses presented the withdrawn posture, also characterized by gaze, head and ears fixity, a profile that suggests a spontaneous expression of “behavioural despair”. When compared with control “non-withdrawn” horses from the same stable, withdrawn horses appeared more indifferent to environmental stimuli in their home environment but reacted more emotionally in more challenging situations. They exhibited lower plasma cortisol levels. Withdrawn horses all belonged to the same breed and females were over-represented.</p></sec><sec><title>Conclusions/Significance</title><p>Horse might be a useful potential candidate for an animal model of depression. Face validity of this model appeared good, and potential genetic input and high prevalence of these disorders in females add to the convergence. At a time when current animal models of depression are questioned and the need for novel models is expressed, this study suggests that novel models and biomarkers could emerge from ethological approaches in home environments.</p></sec>  
  Address  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5709  
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Author Gavrilova, O.; Haluzik, M.; Matsusue, K.; Cutson, J.J.; Johnson, L.; Dietz, K.R.; Nicol, C.J.; Vinson, C.; Gonzalez, F.J.; Reitman, M.L. doi  openurl
  Title Liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma contributes to hepatic steatosis, triglyceride clearance, and regulation of body fat mass Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication The Journal of biological chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem  
  Volume 278 Issue 36 Pages (down) 34268-34276  
  Keywords Adipose Tissue/*metabolism; Animals; Blotting, Southern; Blotting, Western; Female; Hypoglycemia/genetics; Insulin Resistance/genetics; Lipid Metabolism; Liver/*metabolism; Liver Diseases/genetics/*metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; RNA/metabolism; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/*genetics/*physiology; Recombination, Genetic; Thiazoles/pharmacology; *Thiazolidinediones; Time Factors; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*physiology; Triglycerides/*metabolism  
  Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that mediates the antidiabetic effects of thiazolidinediones. PPAR gamma is present in adipose tissue and becomes elevated in fatty livers, but the roles of specific tissues in thiazolidinedione actions are unclear. We studied the function of liver PPAR gamma in both lipoatrophic A-ZIP/F-1 (AZIP) and wild type mice. In AZIP mice, ablation of liver PPAR gamma reduced the hepatic steatosis but worsened the hyperlipidemia, triglyceride clearance, and muscle insulin resistance. Inactivation of AZIP liver PPAR gamma also abolished the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of rosiglitazone, demonstrating that, in the absence of adipose tissue, the liver is a primary and major site of thiazolidinedione action. In contrast, rosiglitazone remained effective in non-lipoatrophic mice lacking liver PPAR gamma, suggesting that adipose tissue is the major site of thiazolidinedione action in typical mice with adipose tissue. Interestingly, mice without liver PPAR gamma, but with adipose tissue, developed relative fat intolerance, increased adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Thus, liver PPAR gamma regulates triglyceride homeostasis, contributing to hepatic steatosis, but protecting other tissues from triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance.  
  Address Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. oksanag@bdg10.niddk.nih.gov  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-9258 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12805374 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 81  
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Author Sueur, C.; Deneubourg, J.-L.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title From Social Network (Centralized vs. Decentralized) to Collective Decision-Making (Unshared vs. Shared Consensus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages (down) e32566 EP -  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>Relationships we have with our friends, family, or colleagues influence our personal decisions, as well as decisions we make together with others. As in human beings, despotism and egalitarian societies seem to also exist in animals. While studies have shown that social networks constrain many phenomena from amoebae to primates, we still do not know how consensus emerges from the properties of social networks in many biological systems. We created artificial social networks that represent the continuum from centralized to decentralized organization and used an agent-based model to make predictions about the patterns of consensus and collective movements we observed according to the social network. These theoretical results showed that different social networks and especially contrasted ones – star network vs. equal network – led to totally different patterns. Our model showed that, by moving from a centralized network to a decentralized one, the central individual seemed to lose its leadership in the collective movement's decisions. We, therefore, showed a link between the type of social network and the resulting consensus. By comparing our theoretical data with data on five groups of primates, we confirmed that this relationship between social network and consensus also appears to exist in animal societies.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5712  
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Author von Rohr, C.R.; Koski, S.E.; Burkart, J.M.; Caws, C.; Fraser, O.N.; Ziltener, A.; van Schaik, C.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impartial Third-Party Interventions in Captive Chimpanzees: A Reflection of Community Concern Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages (down) e32494 EP -  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>Because conflicts among social group members are inevitable, their management is crucial for group stability. The rarest and most interesting form of conflict management is policing, i.e., <italic>impartial interventions by bystanders</italic>, which is of considerable interest due to its potentially moral nature. Here, we provide descriptive and quantitative data on policing in captive chimpanzees. First, we report on a high rate of policing in one captive group characterized by recently introduced females and a rank reversal between two males. We explored the influence of various factors on the occurrence of policing. The results show that only the alpha and beta males acted as arbitrators using manifold tactics to control conflicts, and that their interventions strongly depended on conflict complexity. Secondly, we compared the policing patterns in three other captive chimpanzee groups. We found that although rare, policing was more prevalent at times of increased social instability, both high-ranking males and females performed policing, and conflicts of all sex-dyad combinations were policed. These results suggest that the primary function of policing is to increase group stability. It may thus reflect prosocial behaviour based upon “community concern.” However, policing remains a rare behaviour and more data are needed to test the generality of this hypothesis.</p>  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5806  
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Author Burn, C.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Vicious Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study of Canine Tail-Chasing and Human Responses to It, Using a Free Video-Sharing Website Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 6 Issue 11 Pages (down) e26553  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Tail-chasing is widely celebrated as normal canine behaviour in cultural references. However, all previous scientific studies of tail-chasing or 'spinning' have comprised small clinical populations of dogs with neurological, compulsive or other pathological conditions; most were ultimately euthanased. Thus, there is great disparity between scientific and public information on tail-chasing. I gathered data on the first large (n = 400), non-clinical tail-chasing population, made possible through a vast, free, online video repository, YouTube[TM]. The demographics of this online population are described and discussed. Approximately one third of tail-chasing dogs showed clinical signs, including habitual (daily or 'all the time') or perseverative (difficult to distract) performance of the behaviour. These signs were observed across diverse breeds. Clinical signs appeared virtually unrecognised by the video owners and commenting viewers; laughter was recorded in 55% of videos, encouragement in 43%, and the commonest viewer descriptors were that the behaviour was 'funny' (46%) or 'cute' (42%). Habitual tail-chasers had 6.5+/-2.3 times the odds of being described as 'Stupid' than other dogs, and perseverative dogs were 6.8+/-2.1 times more frequently described as 'Funny' than distractible ones were. Compared with breed- and age-matched control videos, tail-chasing videos were significantly more often indoors and with a computer/television screen switched on. These findings highlight that tail-chasing is sometimes pathological, but can remain untreated, or even be encouraged, because of an assumption that it is 'normal' dog behaviour. The enormous viewing figures that YouTube[TM] attracts (mean+/-s.e. = 863+/-197 viewings per tail-chasing video) suggest that this perception will be further reinforced, without effective intervention.  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6378  
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Author Newman, M.E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mixing patterns in networks Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics Abbreviated Journal Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys  
  Volume 67 Issue 2 Pt 2 Pages (down) 026126  
  Keywords  
  Abstract We study assortative mixing in networks, the tendency for vertices in networks to be connected to other vertices that are like (or unlike) them in some way. We consider mixing according to discrete characteristics such as language or race in social networks and scalar characteristics such as age. As a special example of the latter we consider mixing according to vertex degree, i.e., according to the number of connections vertices have to other vertices: do gregarious people tend to associate with other gregarious people? We propose a number of measures of assortative mixing appropriate to the various mixing types, and apply them to a variety of real-world networks, showing that assortative mixing is a pervasive phenomenon found in many networks. We also propose several models of assortatively mixed networks, both analytic ones based on generating function methods, and numerical ones based on Monte Carlo graph generation techniques. We use these models to probe the properties of networks as their level of assortativity is varied. In the particular case of mixing by degree, we find strong variation with assortativity in the connectivity of the network and in the resilience of the network to the removal of vertices.  
  Address Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1539-3755 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12636767 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5215  
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Author Gorodnichenko, Y.; Roland, G. url  openurl
  Title Individualism, innovation, and long-run growth Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 108 Issue Supplement 4 Pages (down) 21316-21319  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1101933108 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5941  
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