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Author Gavrilova, O.; Haluzik, M.; Matsusue, K.; Cutson, J.J.; Johnson, L.; Dietz, K.R.; Nicol, C.J.; Vinson, C.; Gonzalez, F.J.; Reitman, M.L. doi  openurl
  Title Liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma contributes to hepatic steatosis, triglyceride clearance, and regulation of body fat mass Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication The Journal of biological chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem  
  Volume 278 Issue 36 Pages (down) 34268-34276  
  Keywords Adipose Tissue/*metabolism; Animals; Blotting, Southern; Blotting, Western; Female; Hypoglycemia/genetics; Insulin Resistance/genetics; Lipid Metabolism; Liver/*metabolism; Liver Diseases/genetics/*metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; RNA/metabolism; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/*genetics/*physiology; Recombination, Genetic; Thiazoles/pharmacology; *Thiazolidinediones; Time Factors; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*physiology; Triglycerides/*metabolism  
  Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that mediates the antidiabetic effects of thiazolidinediones. PPAR gamma is present in adipose tissue and becomes elevated in fatty livers, but the roles of specific tissues in thiazolidinedione actions are unclear. We studied the function of liver PPAR gamma in both lipoatrophic A-ZIP/F-1 (AZIP) and wild type mice. In AZIP mice, ablation of liver PPAR gamma reduced the hepatic steatosis but worsened the hyperlipidemia, triglyceride clearance, and muscle insulin resistance. Inactivation of AZIP liver PPAR gamma also abolished the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of rosiglitazone, demonstrating that, in the absence of adipose tissue, the liver is a primary and major site of thiazolidinedione action. In contrast, rosiglitazone remained effective in non-lipoatrophic mice lacking liver PPAR gamma, suggesting that adipose tissue is the major site of thiazolidinedione action in typical mice with adipose tissue. Interestingly, mice without liver PPAR gamma, but with adipose tissue, developed relative fat intolerance, increased adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Thus, liver PPAR gamma regulates triglyceride homeostasis, contributing to hepatic steatosis, but protecting other tissues from triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance.  
  Address Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. oksanag@bdg10.niddk.nih.gov  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-9258 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12805374 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 81  
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Author Sueur, C.; Deneubourg, J.-L.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title From Social Network (Centralized vs. Decentralized) to Collective Decision-Making (Unshared vs. Shared Consensus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages (down) e32566 EP -  
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  Abstract <p>Relationships we have with our friends, family, or colleagues influence our personal decisions, as well as decisions we make together with others. As in human beings, despotism and egalitarian societies seem to also exist in animals. While studies have shown that social networks constrain many phenomena from amoebae to primates, we still do not know how consensus emerges from the properties of social networks in many biological systems. We created artificial social networks that represent the continuum from centralized to decentralized organization and used an agent-based model to make predictions about the patterns of consensus and collective movements we observed according to the social network. These theoretical results showed that different social networks and especially contrasted ones – star network vs. equal network – led to totally different patterns. Our model showed that, by moving from a centralized network to a decentralized one, the central individual seemed to lose its leadership in the collective movement's decisions. We, therefore, showed a link between the type of social network and the resulting consensus. By comparing our theoretical data with data on five groups of primates, we confirmed that this relationship between social network and consensus also appears to exist in animal societies.</p>  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5712  
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Author von Rohr, C.R.; Koski, S.E.; Burkart, J.M.; Caws, C.; Fraser, O.N.; Ziltener, A.; van Schaik, C.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impartial Third-Party Interventions in Captive Chimpanzees: A Reflection of Community Concern Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages (down) e32494 EP -  
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  Abstract <p>Because conflicts among social group members are inevitable, their management is crucial for group stability. The rarest and most interesting form of conflict management is policing, i.e., <italic>impartial interventions by bystanders</italic>, which is of considerable interest due to its potentially moral nature. Here, we provide descriptive and quantitative data on policing in captive chimpanzees. First, we report on a high rate of policing in one captive group characterized by recently introduced females and a rank reversal between two males. We explored the influence of various factors on the occurrence of policing. The results show that only the alpha and beta males acted as arbitrators using manifold tactics to control conflicts, and that their interventions strongly depended on conflict complexity. Secondly, we compared the policing patterns in three other captive chimpanzee groups. We found that although rare, policing was more prevalent at times of increased social instability, both high-ranking males and females performed policing, and conflicts of all sex-dyad combinations were policed. These results suggest that the primary function of policing is to increase group stability. It may thus reflect prosocial behaviour based upon “community concern.” However, policing remains a rare behaviour and more data are needed to test the generality of this hypothesis.</p>  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5806  
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Author Newman, M.E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mixing patterns in networks Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics Abbreviated Journal Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys  
  Volume 67 Issue 2 Pt 2 Pages (down) 026126  
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  Abstract We study assortative mixing in networks, the tendency for vertices in networks to be connected to other vertices that are like (or unlike) them in some way. We consider mixing according to discrete characteristics such as language or race in social networks and scalar characteristics such as age. As a special example of the latter we consider mixing according to vertex degree, i.e., according to the number of connections vertices have to other vertices: do gregarious people tend to associate with other gregarious people? We propose a number of measures of assortative mixing appropriate to the various mixing types, and apply them to a variety of real-world networks, showing that assortative mixing is a pervasive phenomenon found in many networks. We also propose several models of assortatively mixed networks, both analytic ones based on generating function methods, and numerical ones based on Monte Carlo graph generation techniques. We use these models to probe the properties of networks as their level of assortativity is varied. In the particular case of mixing by degree, we find strong variation with assortativity in the connectivity of the network and in the resilience of the network to the removal of vertices.  
  Address Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1539-3755 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12636767 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5215  
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Author Gorodnichenko, Y.; Roland, G. url  openurl
  Title Individualism, innovation, and long-run growth Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 108 Issue Supplement 4 Pages (down) 21316-21319  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1101933108 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5941  
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Author Young, H.P. url  openurl
  Title The dynamics of social innovation Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 108 Issue Supplement 4 Pages (down) 21285-21291  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1100973108 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5940  
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Author Pruvost, M.; Bellone, R.; Benecke, N.; Sandoval-Castellanos, E.; Cieslak, M.; Kuznetsova, T.; Morales-Muñiz, A.; O'Connor, T.; Reissmann, M.; Hofreiter, M.; Ludwig, A. url  openurl
  Title Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 108 Issue 46 Pages (down) 18626-18630  
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  Abstract Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings “The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,” depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ~25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as “leopard” in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1108982108 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5700  
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Author Sankey, C.; Henry, S.; André, N.; Richard-Yris, M.-A.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do Horses Have a Concept of Person? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages (down) e18331 EP -  
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  Abstract <sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Animals' ability for cross-modal recognition has recently received much interest. Captive or domestic animals seem able to perceive cues of human attention and appear to have a multisensory perception of humans.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title> <p>Here, we used a task where horses have to remain immobile under a vocal order to test whether they are sensitive to the attentional state of the experimenter, but also whether they behave and respond differently to the familiar order when tested by a familiar or an unknown person. Horses' response varied according to the person's attentional state when the order was given by an unknown person: obedience levels were higher when the person giving the order was looking at the horse than when he was not attentive. More interesting is the finding that whatever the condition, horses monitored much more and for longer times the unknown person, as if they were surprised to hear the familiar order given by an unknown voice.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusion/Significance</title> <p>These results suggest that recognition of humans may lie in a global, integrated, multisensory representation of specific individuals, that includes visual and vocal identity, but also expectations on the individual's behaviour in a familiar situation.</p> </sec>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5708  
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Author Warmuth, V.; Eriksson, A.; Bower, M.A.; Cañon, J.; Cothran, G.; Distl, O.; Glowatzki-Mullis, M.-L.; Hunt, H.; Luís, C.; do Mar Oom, M.; Yupanqui, I.T.; Zabek, T.; Manica, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages (down) e18194 EP -  
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  Abstract <p>The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5710  
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Author Plotnik, J.M.; de Waal, F.B.M.; Reiss, D. doi  openurl
  Title Self-recognition in an Asian elephant Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 103 Issue 45 Pages (down) 17053-17057  
  Keywords Animals; Asia; *Behavior, Animal; Cognition; Elephants/*psychology; Female; Photic Stimulation  
  Abstract Considered an indicator of self-awareness, mirror self-recognition (MSR) has long seemed limited to humans and apes. In both phylogeny and human ontogeny, MSR is thought to correlate with higher forms of empathy and altruistic behavior. Apart from humans and apes, dolphins and elephants are also known for such capacities. After the recent discovery of MSR in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), elephants thus were the next logical candidate species. We exposed three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to a large mirror to investigate their responses. Animals that possess MSR typically progress through four stages of behavior when facing a mirror: (i) social responses, (ii) physical inspection (e.g., looking behind the mirror), (iii) repetitive mirror-testing behavior, and (iv) realization of seeing themselves. Visible marks and invisible sham-marks were applied to the elephants' heads to test whether they would pass the litmus “mark test” for MSR in which an individual spontaneously uses a mirror to touch an otherwise imperceptible mark on its own body. Here, we report a successful MSR elephant study and report striking parallels in the progression of responses to mirrors among apes, dolphins, and elephants. These parallels suggest convergent cognitive evolution most likely related to complex sociality and cooperation.  
  Address Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, and Department of Psychology, Emory University, 532 North Kligo Circle, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17075063 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 408  
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