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Author Bourjade, M.; Thierry, B.; Hausberger, M.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Is <italic>Leadership</italic> a Reliable Concept in Animals? An Empirical Study in the Horse Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages (down) e0126344  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership – departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates – was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (<italic>Equus ferus przewalskii</italic>). We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus) and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5992  
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Author Roubová, V.; Konecná, M.; Smilauer, P.; Wallner, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Whom to Groom and for What? Patterns of Grooming in Female Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages (down) e0117298  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6415  
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Author Collins, G.H.; Petersen, S.L.; Carr, C.A.; Pielstick, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Testing VHF/GPS Collar Design and Safety in the Study of Free-Roaming Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 9 Issue 9 Pages (down) e103189  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6209  
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Author Peugnet, P.; Wimel, L.; Duchamp, G.; Sandersen, C.; Camous, S.; Guillaume, D.; Dahirel, M.; Dubois, C.; Jouneau, L.; Reigner, F.; Berthelot, V.; Chaffaux, S.; Tarrade, A.; Serteyn, D.; Chavatte-Palmer, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Enhanced or Reduced Fetal Growth Induced by Embryo Transfer into Smaller or Larger Breeds Alters Post-Natal Growth and Metabolism in Pre-Weaning Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 9 Issue 7 Pages (down) e102044 EP -  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>In equids, placentation is diffuse and nutrient supply to the fetus is determined by uterine size. This correlates with maternal size and affects intra-uterine development and subsequent post-natal growth, as well as insulin sensitivity in the newborn. Long-term effects remain to be described. In this study, fetal growth was enhanced or restricted through ET using pony (P), saddlebred (S) and draft (D) horses. Control P-P (n = 21) and S-S (n = 28) pregnancies were obtained by AI. Enhanced and restricted pregnancies were obtained by transferring P or S embryos into D mares (P-D, n = 6 and S-D, n = 8) or S embryos into P mares (S-P, n = 6), respectively. Control and experimental foals were raised by their dams and recipient mothers, respectively. Weight gain, growth hormones and glucose homeostasis were investigated in the foals from birth to weaning. Fetal growth was enhanced in P-D and these foals remained consistently heavier, with reduced T3 concentrations until weaning compared to P-P. P-D had lower fasting glucose from days 30 to 200 and higher insulin secretion than P-P after IVGTT on day 3. Euglycemic clamps in the immediate post-weaning period revealed no difference in insulin sensitivity between P-D and P-P. Fetal growth was restricted in S-P and these foals remained consistently lighter until weaning compared to S-D, with elevated T3 concentrations in the newborn compared to S-S. S-P exhibited higher fasting glycemia than S-S and S-D from days 30 to 200. They had higher maximum increment in plasma glucose than S-D after IVGTT on day 3 and clamps on day 200 demonstrated higher insulin sensitivity compared to S-D. Neither the restricted nor the enhanced fetal environment affected IGF-1 concentrations. Thus, enhanced and restricted fetal and post-natal environments had combined effects that persisted until weaning. They induced different adaptive responses in post-natal glucose metabolism: an early insulin-resistance was induced in enhanced P-D, while S-P developed increased insulin sensitivity.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5910  
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Author Li, J.; Zhou, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sex, Attractiveness, and Third-Party Punishment in Fairness Consideration Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 9 Issue 4 Pages (down) e94004 EP -  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5808  
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Author Pinho, G.M.; Gonçalves da Silva, A.; Hrbek, T.; Venticinque, E.M.; Farias, I.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Kinship and Social Behavior of Lowland Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in a Central Amazon Landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages (down) e92507  
  Keywords  
  Abstract We tested the hypothesis that tapirs tolerate individuals from adjacent and overlapping home ranges if they are related. We obtained genetic data from fecal samples collected in the Balbina reservoir landscape, central Amazon. Samples were genotyped at 14 microsatellite loci, of which five produced high quality informative genotypes. Based on an analysis of 32 individuals, we inferred a single panmictic population with high levels of heterozygosity. Kinship analysis identified 10 pairs of full siblings or parent-offspring, 10 pairs of half siblings and 25 unrelated pairs. In 10 cases, the related individuals were situated on opposite margins of the reservoir, suggesting that tapirs are capable of crossing the main river, even after damming. The polygamous model was the most likely mating system for Tapirus terrestris. Moran's I index of allele sharing between pairs of individuals geographically close (<3 km) was similar to that observed between individual pairs at larger distances (>3 km). Confirming this result, the related individuals were not geographically closer than unrelated ones (W = 188.5; p = 0.339). Thus, we found no evidence of a preference for being close to relatives and observed a tendency for dispersal. The small importance of relatedness in determining spatial distribution of individuals is unusual in mammals, but not unheard of. Finally, non-invasive sampling allowed efficient access to the genetic data, despite the warm and humid climate of the Amazon, which accelerates DNA degradation.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6138  
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Author Dalla Costa, E.; Minero, M.; Lebelt, D.; Stucke, D.; Canali, E.; Leach, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages (down) e92281 EP -  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <sec><title>Background</title><p>The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]).</p></sec><sec><title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title><p>Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n = 19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n = 21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups.</p></sec><sec><title>Conclusions</title><p>The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules.</p></sec>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5830  
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Author Svobodová, I.; Chaloupková, H.; Koncel, R.; Bartoš, L.; Hradecká, L.; Jebavý, L.š url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cortisol and Secretory Immunoglobulin A Response to Stress in German Shepherd Dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages (down) e90820 EP -  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>The aim of the study was to determine whether cortisol and secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) could be used as an indicator of acute stress in both young and adult dogs. Seventeen German shepherd puppies were exposed to the Puppy test (challenge test) at the age of seven weeks. This test has been routinely used to assess the future working ability of potential police dogs. In addition, ten adult females were subjected to 4 minutes of defense training under stressful conditions. Saliva was collected from the puppies and adult females before testing and 20 minutes after the start of testing, using a cotton swab held for 1–2 minutes in each dog's mouth. Cortisol concentrations increased after the test compared to the control sample both in puppies and the adult females. However adult females showed a significant decrease in sIgA after defense training while puppies showed a tendency of increase in sIgA. We propose that salivary cortisol could be used as an indicator of stress in puppies during early ontogeny. It is not yet clear whether sIgA could be used as a useful indicator of short-term stress in dogs.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5919  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Svobodová, I.; Chaloupková, H.; Kon?el, R.; Barto?, L.?k; Hradecká, L.; Jebavý, L.? url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cortisol and Secretory Immunoglobulin A Response to Stress in German Shepherd Dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages (down) e90820  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>The aim of the study was to determine whether cortisol and secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) could be used as an indicator of acute stress in both young and adult dogs. Seventeen German shepherd puppies were exposed to the Puppy test (challenge test) at the age of seven weeks. This test has been routinely used to assess the future working ability of potential police dogs. In addition, ten adult females were subjected to 4 minutes of defense training under stressful conditions. Saliva was collected from the puppies and adult females before testing and 20 minutes after the start of testing, using a cotton swab held for 1?2 minutes in each dog's mouth. Cortisol concentrations increased after the test compared to the control sample both in puppies and the adult females. However adult females showed a significant decrease in sIgA after defense training while puppies showed a tendency of increase in sIgA. We propose that salivary cortisol could be used as an indicator of stress in puppies during early ontogeny. It is not yet clear whether sIgA could be used as a useful indicator of short-term stress in dogs.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5963  
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Author Monfardini, E.; Hadj-Bouziane, F.; Meunier, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Model-Observer Similarity, Error Modeling and Social Learning in Rhesus Macaques Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages (down) e89825  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Monkeys readily learn to discriminate between rewarded and unrewarded items or actions by observing their conspecifics. However, they do not systematically learn from humans. Understanding what makes human-to-monkey transmission of knowledge work or fail could help identify mediators and moderators of social learning that operate regardless of language or culture, and transcend inter-species differences. Do monkeys fail to learn when human models show a behavior too dissimilar from the animals' own, or when they show a faultless performance devoid of error? To address this question, six rhesus macaques trained to find which object within a pair concealed a food reward were successively tested with three models: a familiar conspecific, a 'stimulus-enhancing' human actively drawing the animal's attention to one object of the pair without actually performing the task, and a 'monkey-like' human performing the task in the same way as the monkey model did. Reward was manipulated to ensure that all models showed equal proportions of errors and successes. The 'monkey-like' human model improved the animals' subsequent object discrimination learning as much as a conspecific did, whereas the 'stimulus-enhancing' human model tended on the contrary to retard learning. Modeling errors rather than successes optimized learning from the monkey and 'monkey-like' models, while exacerbating the adverse effect of the 'stimulus-enhancing' model. These findings identify error modeling as a moderator of social learning in monkeys that amplifies the models' influence, whether beneficial or detrimental. By contrast, model-observer similarity in behavior emerged as a mediator of social learning, that is, a prerequisite for a model to work in the first place. The latter finding suggests that, as preverbal infants, macaques need to perceive the model as 'like-me' and that, once this condition is fulfilled, any agent can become an effective model.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6195  
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