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Author Muscatello, G.; Anderson, G.A.; Gilkerson, J.R.; Browning, G.F.
Title Associations between the ecology of virulent Rhodococcus equi and the epidemiology of R. equi pneumonia on Australian thoroughbred farms Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Applied and Environmental Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Appl Environ Microbiol
Volume 72 Issue 9 Pages (down) 6152-6160
Keywords Actinomycetales Infections/epidemiology/microbiology/*veterinary; Air Microbiology; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Australia/epidemiology; Colony Count, Microbial; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; Ecosystem; Horse Diseases/epidemiology/*microbiology; Horses; Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology/microbiology/*veterinary; Rhodococcus equi/genetics/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity; Soil Microbiology; Virulence
Abstract The ecology of virulent strains of Rhodococcus equi on horse farms is likely to influence the prevalence and severity of R. equi pneumonia in foals. This study examined the association between the ecology of virulent R. equi and the epidemiology of R. equi pneumonia by collecting air and soil samples over two breeding seasons (28 farm-year combinations) on Thoroughbred breeding farms with different reported prevalences of R. equi pneumonia. Colony blotting and DNA hybridization were used to detect and measure concentrations of virulent R. equi. The prevalence of R. equi pneumonia was associated with the airborne burden of virulent R. equi (both the concentration and the proportion of R. equi bacteria that were virulent) but was not associated with the burden of virulent R. equi in the soil. Univariable screening and multivariable model building were used to evaluate the effect of environmental and management factors on virulent R. equi burdens. Lower soil moisture concentrations and lower pasture heights were significantly associated with elevated airborne concentrations of virulent R. equi, as were the holding pens and lanes, which typically were sandy, dry, and devoid of pasture cover. Few variables appeared to influence concentrations of virulent R. equi in soil. Acidic soil conditions may have contributed to an elevated proportion of virulent strains within the R. equi population. Environmental management strategies that aim to reduce the level of exposure of susceptible foals to airborne virulent R. equi are most likely to reduce the impact of R. equi pneumonia on endemically affected farms.
Address School of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. mug@unimelb.edu.au
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0099-2240 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16957241 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2622
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Author Reiss, D.; Marino, L.
Title Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: a case of cognitive convergence Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Volume 98 Issue 10 Pages (down) 5937-5942
Keywords Animals; *Cognition; Dolphins/*physiology; *Visual Perception
Abstract The ability to recognize oneself in a mirror is an exceedingly rare capacity in the animal kingdom. To date, only humans and great apes have shown convincing evidence of mirror self-recognition. Two dolphins were exposed to reflective surfaces, and both demonstrated responses consistent with the use of the mirror to investigate marked parts of the body. This ability to use a mirror to inspect parts of the body is a striking example of evolutionary convergence with great apes and humans.
Address Osborn Laboratories of Marine Sciences, New York Aquarium, Wildlife Conservation Society, Brooklyn, NY 11224, USA. dlr28@columbia.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:11331768 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2822
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Author Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Gwinner, E.
Title Long-term memory for a life on the move Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages (down) 5863-5866
Keywords Animals; Germany; Israel; Memory/*physiology; Models, Biological; Periodicity; Songbirds/*physiology
Abstract Evidence is accumulating that cognitive abilities are shaped by the specific ecological conditions to which animals are exposed. Long-distance migratory birds may provide a striking example of this. Field observations have shown that, at least in some species, a substantial proportion of individuals return to the same breeding, wintering, and stopover sites in successive years. This observation suggests that migrants have evolved special cognitive abilities that enable them to accomplish these feats. Here we show that memory of a particular feeding site persisted for at least 12 months in a long-distance migrant, whereas a closely related nonmigrant could remember such a site for only 2 weeks. Thus, it seems that the migratory lifestyle has influenced the learning and memorizing capacities of migratory birds. These results build a bridge between field observations suggesting special memorization feats of migratory birds and previous neuroanatomical results from the same two species indicating an increase in relative hippocampal size from the first to the second year of life in the migrant but not in the nonmigrant.
Address Max Planck Research Centre for Ornithology, Department of Biological Rhythms and Behaviour, Von-der-Tann-Strasse 7, 82346 Andechs, Germany. mettke-hofmann@erl.ornithol.mpg.de
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12719527 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 511
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Author Amé, J.-M.; Halloy, J.; Rivault, C.; Detrain, C.; Deneubourg, J.L.
Title Collegial decision making based on social amplification leads to optimal group formation Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Volume 103 Issue 15 Pages (down) 5835-5840
Keywords Animals; Blattellidae/*physiology; Choice Behavior; Decision Making; Leadership; *Social Behavior
Abstract Group-living animals are often faced with choosing between one or more alternative resource sites. A central question in such collective decision making includes determining which individuals induce the decision and when. This experimental and theoretical study of shelter selection by cockroach groups demonstrates that choices can emerge through nonlinear interaction dynamics between equal individuals without perfect knowledge or leadership. We identify a simple mechanism whereby a decision is taken on the move with limited information and signaling and without comparison of available opportunities. This mechanism leads to optimal mean benefit for group individuals. Our model points to a generic self-organized collective decision-making process independent of animal species.
Address Service d'Ecologie Sociale CP231, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F. D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
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ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16581903 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2042
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Author Ballew, R.M.; Sabelko, J.; Gruebele, M.
Title Direct observation of fast protein folding: the initial collapse of apomyoglobin Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Volume 93 Issue 12 Pages (down) 5759-5764
Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry; Circular Dichroism; Horses; Kinetics; Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry; Myoglobin/*chemistry; *Protein Folding; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Spectrophotometry, Infrared; Temperature
Abstract The rapid refolding dynamics of apomyoglobin are followed by a new temperature-jump fluorescence technique on a 15-ns to 0.5-ms time scale in vitro. The apparatus measures the protein-folding history in a single sweep in standard aqueous buffers. The earliest steps during folding to a compact state are observed and are complete in under 20 micros. Experiments on mutants and consideration of steady-state CD and fluorescence spectra indicate that the observed microsecond phase monitors assembly of an A x (H x G) helix subunit. Measurements at different viscosities indicate diffusive behavior even at low viscosities, in agreement with motions of a solvent-exposed protein during the initial collapse.
Address School of Chemical Sciences and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana, 61801, USA
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:8650166 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3798
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Author Chase, I.D.; Tovey, C.; Spangler-Martin, D.; Manfredonia, M.
Title Individual differences versus social dynamics in the formation of animal dominance hierarchies Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Volume 99 Issue 8 Pages (down) 5744-5749
Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Fishes; Humans; *Social Behavior; *Social Dominance
Abstract Linear hierarchies, the classical pecking-order structures, are formed readily in both nature and the laboratory in a great range of species including humans. However, the probability of getting linear structures by chance alone is quite low. In this paper we investigate the two hypotheses that are proposed most often to explain linear hierarchies: they are predetermined by differences in the attributes of animals, or they are produced by the dynamics of social interaction, i.e., they are self-organizing. We evaluate these hypotheses using cichlid fish as model animals, and although differences in attributes play a significant part, we find that social interaction is necessary for high proportions of groups with linear hierarchies. Our results suggest that dominance hierarchy formation is a much richer and more complex phenomenon than previously thought, and we explore the implications of these results for evolutionary biology, the social sciences, and the use of animal models in understanding human social organization.
Address Department of Sociology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4356, USA. Ichase@notes.cc.sunysb.edu
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:11960030 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 442
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Author Sol, D.; Duncan, R.P.; Blackburn, T.M.; Cassey, P.; Lefebvre, L.
Title Big brains, enhanced cognition, and response of birds to novel environments Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Volume 102 Issue 15 Pages (down) 5460-5465
Keywords
Abstract The widely held hypothesis that enlarged brains have evolved as an adaptation to cope with novel or altered environmental conditions lacks firm empirical support. Here, we test this hypothesis for a major animal group (birds) by examining whether large-brained species show higher survival than small-brained species when introduced to nonnative locations. Using a global database documenting the outcome of >600 introduction events, we confirm that avian species with larger brains, relative to their body mass, tend to be more successful at establishing themselves in novel environments. Moreover, we provide evidence that larger brains help birds respond to novel conditions by enhancing their innovation propensity rather than indirectly through noncognitive mechanisms. These findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that enlarged brains function, and hence may have evolved, to deal with changes in the environment.
Address
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Notes 10.1073/pnas.0408145102 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4739
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Author Hampton, R.R.
Title Rhesus monkeys know when they remember Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Volume 98 Issue 9 Pages (down) 5359-5362
Keywords Animals; Choice Behavior/physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Cues; Food Preferences/psychology; Macaca mulatta/*physiology/*psychology; Male; Memory/*physiology; Probability; Psychological Tests; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity
Abstract Humans are consciously aware of some memories and can make verbal reports about these memories. Other memories cannot be brought to consciousness, even though they influence behavior. This conspicuous difference in access to memories is central in taxonomies of human memory systems but has been difficult to document in animal studies, suggesting that some forms of memory may be unique to humans. Here I show that rhesus macaque monkeys can report the presence or absence of memory. Although it is probably impossible to document subjective, conscious properties of memory in nonverbal animals, this result objectively demonstrates an important functional parallel with human conscious memory. Animals able to discern the presence and absence of memory should improve accuracy if allowed to decline memory tests when they have forgotten, and should decline tests most frequently when memory is attenuated experimentally. One of two monkeys examined unequivocally met these criteria under all test conditions, whereas the second monkey met them in all but one case. Probe tests were used to rule out “cueing” by a wide variety of environmental and behavioral stimuli, leaving detection of the absence of memory per se as the most likely mechanism underlying the monkeys' abilities to selectively decline memory tests when they had forgotten.
Address Section on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, Building 49, Room 1B-80, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. robert@ln.nimh.nih.gov
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:11274360 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2824
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Author Gulotta, M.; Gilmanshin, R.; Buscher, T.C.; Callender, R.H.; Dyer, R.B.
Title Core formation in apomyoglobin: probing the upper reaches of the folding energy landscape Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry
Volume 40 Issue 17 Pages (down) 5137-5143
Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry; Computer Simulation; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry; *Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Secondary; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Spectrometry, Fluorescence/instrumentation/methods; Thermodynamics; Tryptophan/chemistry
Abstract An acid-destabilized form of apomyoglobin, the so-called E state, consists of a set of heterogeneous structures that are all characterized by a stable hydrophobic core composed of 30-40 residues at the intersection of the A, G, and H helices of the protein, with little other secondary structure and no other tertiary structure. Relaxation kinetics studies were carried out to characterize the dynamics of core melting and formation in this protein. The unfolding and/or refolding response is induced by a laser-induced temperature jump between the folded and unfolded forms of E, and structural changes are monitored using the infrared amide I' absorbance at 1648-1651 cm(-1) that reports on the formation of solvent-protected, native-like helix in the core and by fluorescence emission changes from apomyoglobin's Trp14, a measure of burial of the indole group of this residue. The fluorescence kinetics data are monoexponential with a relaxation time of 14 micros. However, infrared kinetics data are best fit to a biexponential function with relaxation times of 14 and 59 micros. These relaxation times are very fast, close to the limits placed on folding reactions by diffusion. The 14 micros relaxation time is weakly temperature dependent and thus represents a pathway that is energetically downhill. The appearance of this relaxation time in both the fluorescence and infrared measurements indicates that this folding event proceeds by a concomitant formation of compact secondary and tertiary structures. The 59 micros relaxation time is much more strongly temperature dependent and has no fluorescence counterpart, indicating an activated process with a large energy barrier wherein nonspecific hydrophobic interactions between helix A and the G and H helices cause some helix burial but Trp14 remains solvent exposed. These results are best fit by a multiple-pathway kinetic model when U collapses to form the various folded core structures of E. Thus, the results suggest very robust dynamics for core formation involving multiple folding pathways and provide significant insight into the primary processes of protein folding.
Address Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:11318635 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3789
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Author Polverini, E.; Cugini, G.; Annoni, F.; Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Gensch, T.
Title Molten globule formation in apomyoglobin monitored by the fluorescent probe Nile Red Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Biochemistry
Volume 45 Issue 16 Pages (down) 5111-5121
Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry/*metabolism; Binding Sites; Computer Simulation; Fluorescent Dyes/analysis; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry/*metabolism; Oxazines/*analysis/chemistry; Protein Binding; Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Tertiary
Abstract The interaction of nile red (NR) with apomyoglobin (ApoMb) in the native (pH 7) and molten globule (pH 4) states was investigated using experimental and computational methods. NR binds to hydrophobic locations in ApoMb with higher affinity (K(d) = 25 +/- 5 microM) in the native state than in the molten globule state (K(d) = 52 +/- 5 microM). In the molten globule state, NR is located in a more hydrophobic environment. The dye does not bind to the holoprotein, suggesting that the binding site is located at the heme pocket. In addition to monitoring steady-state properties, the fluorescence emission of NR is capable of tracking submillisecond, time-resolved structural rearrangements of the protein, induced by a nanosecond pH jump. Molecular dynamics simulations were run on ApoMb at neutral pH and at pH 4. The structure obtained for the molten globule state is consistent with the experimentally available structural data. The docking of NR with the crystal structure shows that the ligand binds into the binding pocket of the heme group, with an orientation bringing the planar ring system of NR to overlap with the position of two of the heme porphyrin rings in Mb. The docking of NR with the ApoMb structure at pH 4 shows that the dye binds to the heme pocket with a slightly less favorable binding energy, in keeping with the experimental K(d) value. Under these conditions, NR is positioned in a different orientation, reaching a more hydrophobic environment in agreement with the spectroscopic data.
Address Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Viale G. P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma, Italy
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-2960 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16618100 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3763
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