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Author Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Animal behavior and animal welfare Type
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Vet Med Assoc  
  Volume 198 Issue 8 Pages 1355-1360  
  Keywords *Animal Welfare; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Cats/*psychology; Hoof and Claw/surgery; Horses/*psychology; Housing, Animal  
  Abstract The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment.  
  Address New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-1488 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:2061151 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 40  
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Author Houpt, K.A.; Zahorik, D.M.; Swartzman-Andert, J.A. openurl 
  Title Taste aversion learning in horses Type
  Year 1990 Publication Journal of animal science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 68 Issue 8 Pages 2340-2344  
  Keywords Animal Feed; Animals; *Avoidance Learning; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; *Food Preferences; Horses/physiology/*psychology; *Taste  
  Abstract The ability of ponies to learn to avoid a relatively novel food associated with illness was tested in three situations: when illness occurred immediately after consuming a feed; when illness occurred 30 min after consuming a feed; and when illness was contingent upon eating one of three feeds offered simultaneously. Apomorphine was used to produce illness. The feeds associated with illness were corn, alfalfa pellets, sweet feed and a complete pelleted feed. The ponies learned to avoid all the fees except the complete feed when apomorphine injection immediately followed consumption of the feed. However, the ponies did not learn to avoid a feed if apomorphine was delayed 30 min after feed consumption. They could learn to avoid alfalfa pellets, but not corn, when these feeds were presented with the familiar “safe foods,” oats and soybean meal. Ponies apparently are able to learn a taste aversion, but there were constraints on this learning ability. Under the conditions of this study, they did not learn to avoid a food that made them sick long after consumption of the food, and they had more difficulty learning to avoid highly palatable feeds.  
  Address Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:2401656 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 41  
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Author Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Ingestive behavior Type
  Year 1990 Publication The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice Abbreviated Journal Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract  
  Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 319-337  
  Keywords Animals; Eating/*physiology; Feeding Behavior/*physiology; Horses/*physiology  
  Abstract In summary, horses spend 60% or more of their time eating when grazing or when feed is available free choice. Grasses are their preferred food, but they supplement the grass with herbs and woody plants. Sweetened mixtures of oats and corn are the most preferred concentrate. Horses can increase or decrease the time spent eating and amount eaten to maintain caloric intake. Their intake is stimulated by drugs such as diazepam and by the presence of other horses. Horses stop eating when gastric osmolality increases; increases in plasma osmolality, protein, and glucose accompany digestion. Foals eat several times an hour and begin sampling solid food at the same time that their dam is eating. Several areas of particular importance to the equine industry have not been investigated. These areas include the effect of exercise on short- and long-term food intake and the influence of reproductive state on the feeding of mares.  
  Address Department of Physiology, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0749-0739 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:2202495 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 42  
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Author Krzeminska, W. openurl 
  Title [The child learns about the world] Type
  Year 1979 Publication Pielegniarka i polozna Abbreviated Journal Pieleg Polozna  
  Volume Issue 7 Pages 24-25  
  Keywords Child; *Child Development; Child, Preschool; Humans; *Learning  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Polish Summary Language Original Title Dziecko poznaje swiat  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-4148 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:260249 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 43  
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Author Stahlbaum, C.C.; Houpt, K.A. doi  openurl
  Title The role of the Flehmen response in the behavioral repertoire of the stallion Type
  Year 1989 Publication Physiology & behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 1207-1214  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm; Discrimination (Psychology)/physiology; Estrus; Feces; Female; Horses/*physiology; Male; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Smell/*physiology; Taste/physiology; Urine  
  Abstract The role of the Flehmen response in equine behavior was investigated under field and laboratory conditions. In Experiment 1, a field study made of five stallions on pasture with between three and eighteen mares each during the season indicated the following: 1) The Flehmen response was most frequently preceded by nasal, rather than oral, investigation of substances; 2) The stallions' rate of Flehmen varied with the estrous cycles of the mares; 3) The rate of Flehmen response did not show a variation with time of day; and 4) The Flehmen response was most frequently followed by marking behaviors rather than courtship behaviors. The results suggest that the Flehmen response is not an immediate component of sexual behavior, e.g., courtship of the stallion but may be involved in the overall monitoring of the mare's estrous cycle. Therefore the Flehmen response may contribute to the chemosensory priming of the stallion for reproduction. In Experiment 2 stallions were presented with urine or feces of mares in various stages of the reproductive cycle as well as with their own or other males' urine or feces. The occurrence of sniffing and Flehmen was used to determine the discriminatory ability of the stallions. Stallions can differentiate the sex of a horse on the basis of its feces alone, but cannot differentiate on the basis of urine. This ability may explain the function of fecal marking behavior of stallions.  
  Address New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:2813545 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 44  
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Author Houpt, K.A.; Thornton, S.N.; Allen, W.R. openurl 
  Title Vasopressin in dehydrated and rehydrated ponies Type
  Year 1989 Publication Physiology & behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 659-661  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Dehydration/*blood; Drinking Behavior/*physiology; Female; Horses/*blood; Osmolar Concentration; Reaction Time; Time Factors; Vasopressins/*blood  
  Abstract Six pony mares deprived of water for 24 hours showed significant increases in plasma vasopressin (2.8 pg/ml) and osmolality (9 mosmol/kg). When water was made available the ponies drank rapidly (5 of 6 drank to satiety within 90 seconds) and corrected their fluid deficits precisely. Vasopressin did not return to predehydration levels until osmolality did after 15 minutes of access to water. The horse differs from rodents and humans, but is similar to pigs in that vasopressin levels do not fall before osmolality returns to normal. Oropharyngeal factors, therefore, may not be as important in vasopressin release in horses as in other species.  
  Address New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853-6401  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:2756059 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 45  
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Author Shaw, E.B.; Houpt, K.A.; Holmes, D.F. openurl 
  Title Body temperature and behaviour of mares during the last two weeks of pregnancy Type
  Year 1988 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 199-202  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Body Temperature; Circadian Rhythm; Eating; Female; Horses/*physiology; Labor, Obstetric/*physiology; Motor Activity; Pregnancy; Pregnancy, Animal/*physiology  
  Abstract Average daily core body temperature and behavioural patterns of pregnant mares were studied, in search of definitive signs of parturition within 24 h of the event. Nineteen pony mares were sampled twice daily for core body temperature. A significant temperature drop, averaging 0.1 degrees C (0.2 degrees F) was observed during the day prior to parturition. Between 18.00 h and 06.00 h, during the two weeks before parturition, Thoroughbred and Standardbred mares (n = 52) spent an average 66.8 per cent of their time standing, 27.0 per cent eating, 4.9 per cent lying in sternal recumbency, 1.0 per cent lying in lateral recumbency, and 0.3 per cent walking. On the night before parturition, mares spent significantly less time lying in sternal recumbency than on previous nights and on the night of parturition all behaviour patterns except eating were significantly different from the nights of the two weeks before parturition. There was an increase in walking (5.3 per cent), lying in sternal recumbency (8 per cent) and lying in lateral recumbency (5.3 per cent) whereas standing (53.3 per cent) was decreased. In 58 observed pregnancies, 54 mares (97 per cent) foaled in a recumbent position and 50 mares (86 per cent) foaled between 18.00 h and 06.00 h.  
  Address Department of Physiology, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:3402416 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 46  
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Author Houpt, K.A.; Perry, P.J.; Hintz, H.F.; Houpt, T.R. openurl 
  Title Effect of meal frequency on fluid balance and behavior of ponies Type
  Year 1988 Publication Physiology & behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 42 Issue 5 Pages 401-407  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Blood Proteins/analysis; *Eating; Female; Hematocrit; Horses/blood/*physiology; Osmolar Concentration; *Water-Electrolyte Balance  
  Abstract Twelve ponies were fed their total daily ration either as one large meal or divided into six small meals. Pre- and post-feeding behavior was recorded six times a day. Blood samples were taken for 30 min before and two hr after the meal. Plasma protein increased from 7.0 to a peak of 7.3 g/dl with small meals and from 7.3 to 8.1 g/dl with large meals, and returned to pre-feeding levels by 90 min post-feeding. Hematocrit rose from 33.3 to 34.1% with small meals and from 33.0 to 36.0% with large meals. These rapid and short-lived increases indicate a decrease in plasma volume. Plasma osmolality rose with feeding from 283 to 285 mosmoles/kg with small meals and from 281 to 288 mosmoles/kg with large meals. Water availability had no significant effect on blood changes. Digestibility and rate of passage were measured with chromic oxide, but there were no differences. Vocalizing (neighing) and walking occurred more often before than after feeding, while eating bedding and engaging in other oral behaviors were more frequent after feeding.  
  Address Department of Physiology, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:3393599 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 47  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Stable vices and trailer problems Type
  Year 1986 Publication The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice Abbreviated Journal Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract  
  Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 623-633  
  Keywords Aerophagy/veterinary; Aggression; Animals; *Animals, Domestic; *Behavior, Animal; Fear; Frustration; Habits; *Horses; Locomotion; Mastication; Social Environment; Transportation  
  Abstract Stable vices include oral vices such as cribbing, wood chewing, and coprophagia, as well as stall walking, weaving, pawing, and stall kicking. Some of these behaviors are escape behaviors; others are forms of self-stimulation. Most can be eliminated by pasturing rather than stall confinement. Trailering problems include failure to load, scrambling in the moving trailer, struggling in the stationary trailer, and refusal to unload. Gradual habituation to entering the trailer, the presence of another horse, or a change in trailer type can be used to treat these problems.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0749-0739 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:3492249 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 48  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Crowell-Davis, S.L.; Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Maternal behavior Type
  Year 1986 Publication The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice Abbreviated Journal Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract  
  Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 557-571  
  Keywords Aggression; Animals; Animals, Wild; Female; *Horses; Lactation; *Maternal Behavior; Pregnancy; *Pregnancy, Animal; Rejection (Psychology)  
  Abstract Parturition in mares is rapid and is followed by a brief period of sensitivity to imprinting on a foal. There is large individual variation in normal maternal style, but normal mothers actively defend their foal, remain near the foal when it is sleeping, tolerate or assist nursing, and do not injure their own foal. Disturbance of a mare and foal during the early imprinting period can predispose a mare to rejection of her foal; therefore, it should be avoided. There are a variety of forms of foal rejection and numerous etiologies. Therefore, each case should be evaluated individually.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0749-0739 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes PMID:3492245 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 49  
Permanent link to this record
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