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Author Forster, H.V.; Pan, L.G.; Bisgard, G.E.; Flynn, C.; Hoffer, R.E. openurl 
  Title Changes in breathing when switching from nares to tracheostomy breathing in awake ponies Type
  Year 1985 Publication Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) Abbreviated Journal J Appl Physiol  
  Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 1214-1221  
  Keywords Airway Resistance; Animals; Chemoreceptors/physiology; Consciousness; Exertion; Horses/*physiology; Lung Compliance; Pulmonary Gas Exchange; Pulmonary Stretch Receptors/physiology; *Respiration; Respiratory Dead Space; *Tracheotomy  
  Abstract We assessed the consequences of respiratory unloading associated with tracheostomy breathing (TBr). Three normal and three carotid body-denervated (CBD) ponies were prepared with chronic tracheostomies that at rest reduced physiological dead space (VD) from 483 +/- 60 to 255 +/- 30 ml and lung resistance from 1.5 +/- 0.14 to 0.5 +/- 0.07 cmH2O . l-1 . s. At rest and during steady-state mild-to-heavy exercise arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) was approximately 1 Torr higher during nares breathing (NBr) than during TBr. Pulmonary ventilation and tidal volume (VT) were greater and alveolar ventilation was less during NBr than TBr. Breathing frequency (f) did not differ between NBr and TBr at rest, but f during exercise was greater during TBr than during NBr. These responses did not differ between normal and CBD ponies. We also assessed the consequences of increasing external VD (300 ml) and resistance (R, 0.3 cmH2O . l-1 . s) by breathing through a tube. At rest and during mild exercise tube breathing caused PaCO2 to transiently increase 2-3 Torr, but 3-5 min later PaCO2 usually was within 1 Torr of control. Tube breathing did not cause f to change. When external R was increased 1 cmH2O . l-1 . s by breathing through a conventional air collection system, f did not change at rest, but during exercise f was lower than during unencumbered breathing. These responses did not differ between normal, CBD, and hilar nerve-denervated ponies, and they did not differ when external VD or R were added at either the nares or tracheostomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  
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  ISSN 8750-7587 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:4055600 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 100  
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Author Hendricks, J.C.; Morrison, A.R. openurl 
  Title Normal and abnormal sleep in mammals Type
  Year 1981 Publication Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Vet Med Assoc  
  Volume 178 Issue 2 Pages 121-126  
  Keywords Animals; Cat Diseases/physiopathology; Cats; Cattle; Dog Diseases/physiopathology; Dogs; Dreams; Horses/physiology; Humans; Narcolepsy/physiopathology/veterinary; Sleep/*physiology; Sleep Apnea Syndromes/physiopathology/veterinary; Sleep Disorders/physiopathology/*veterinary; Sleep, REM/physiology  
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  ISSN 0003-1488 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7204232 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 101  
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Author Hillidge, C.J.; Lees, P. openurl 
  Title Cardiac output in the conscious and anaesthetised horse Type
  Year 1975 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 16-21  
  Keywords Anesthesia, Inhalation/*veterinary; Animals; Carbon Dioxide/blood; *Cardiac Output/veterinary; *Consciousness; Electrocardiography/veterinary; Ether, Ethyl; Female; Halothane; Heart Rate; Heart Ventricles/physiology; Horses/*physiology; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Male; Oxygen/blood; Posture  
  Abstract Cardiac output in the horse was measured before and at predetermined times during 2-hour periods of thiopentone-halothane and thiopentone-diethyl ether anaesthesia. Left ventricular stroke volume was decreased to a similar extent during anaesthesia with each volatile agent, but a greater reduction in cardiac output occurred during halothane anaesthesia. This finding reflected the differing effects of halothane and ether on heart rate, a slight bradycardia occurring with the former agent while ether produced a small degree of tachycardia. The latter effect was attributed to enhanced sympathoadrenal activity. Changes in cardiac output and stroke volume were considered in relation to other factors, including arterial blood pH and tensions of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Positive correlations between some of these variables and cardiac function were established. With both volatile agents the reductions in stroke volume and cardiac output were related to the duration of anaesthesia, being greatest during the early stages. Possible reasons for the tendency of stroke volume and cardiac output to return towards control levels are discussed.  
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  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:234842 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 102  
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Author Lees, P.; Tavernor, W.D. openurl 
  Title Influence of halothane and catecholamines on heart rate and rhythm in the horse Type
  Year 1970 Publication British journal of pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Br J Pharmacol  
  Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 149-159  
  Keywords Anesthesia, Inhalation; Animals; Arrhythmia/*chemically induced; Atropine/pharmacology; Catecholamines/*pharmacology; Consciousness; Epinephrine/administration & dosage; Ethers; Female; Halothane/*pharmacology; Heart Rate/*drug effects; Horses; Hypercapnia/physiopathology; Isoproterenol/pharmacology; Male; Norepinephrine/pharmacology; Propranolol/pharmacology  
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  ISSN 0007-1188 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:5420092 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 103  
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Author Tavernor, W.D.; Lees, P. openurl 
  Title A pharmacological investigation of the influence of suxamethonium on cardiac function in the horse Type
  Year 1968 Publication Experientia Abbreviated Journal Experientia  
  Volume 24 Issue 6 Pages 582-583  
  Keywords Animals; Arrhythmia/chemically induced; Consciousness; Halothane; Heart/innervation; Heart Rate/*drug effects; Horses/*physiology; Oxygen; Propranolol/pharmacology; Receptors, Sensory/drug effects; Stimulation, Chemical; Succinylcholine/antagonists & inhibitors/*pharmacology; Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology; Tachycardia/chemically induced; Thiopental  
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  ISSN 0014-4754 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:5697737 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 104  
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Author Churcher, C. S. openurl 
  Title Oldest Ass Recovered from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and the Origin of Asses Type
  Year 1982 Publication Journal of Paleontology Abbreviated Journal J. Paleontol.  
  Volume 56 Issue 5 Pages 1124-1132  
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  Abstract Abstract

An isolated right metatarsal III from an adult small monodactyl equid was recovered in situ from the middle of Bed II at Evelyn Fuchs-Hans Reck Korongo, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania in 1963. Interosseous contacts for splint metatarsals II and IV are less evident than in any modern comparative Equus metapodials in Leiden, Holland, London, England or in the field in Africa: horses (E. caballus), zebras (E. burchellii, E. grevyi, E. quagga) and asses (E. a. asinus, E. a. africanus), of which the horses and asses were domesticates. The specimen is provisionally assigned to Equus (Asinus) asinus. The estimated height at the shoulders is less than a meter for the animal in life, comparable to a small donkey.
 
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 105  
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Author Tegetmeier, W.B.; Sutherland, C.L. url  openurl
  Title Horses, asses, zebras, mules and mule breeding Type
  Year 1895 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Abstract A scholarly review of the entire horse family with separate chapters on Prejevalsky`s horse, the African wild ass, the wild ass of Somaliland, the Asiatic wild ass, the mountain zebra, Grevy`s zebra, Burchell`s zebra, the Quagga, hybrid Equidae, the Poitou mule, the American mule and others.

Rare.
 
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 106  
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Author AKELEY, CE url  openurl
  Title The wild Ass of Somaliland Type
  Year 1914 Publication American Museum Journal Abbreviated Journal Amer Mus J  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages 113-117  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 107  
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Author Alexander, F. openurl 
  Title Effect of phenylbutazone on electrolyte metabolism in ponies Type
  Year 1982 Publication The Veterinary record Abbreviated Journal Vet. Rec.  
  Volume 110 Issue 12 Pages 271-272  
  Keywords Animals; Chlorides/metabolism; Electrolytes/*metabolism; Horses/*metabolism; Male; Phenylbutazone/*pharmacology; Sodium/metabolism  
  Abstract Phenylbutazone administered in therapeutic doses to ponies decreased urinary sodium and chloride excretion. The volume and osmolality of the urine was unaffected as was potassium excretion. Faecal excretion of chloride decreased and that of potassium increased, while faecal sodium excretion was unaffected. Plasma pH, bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide decreased after phenylbutazone administration. Packed cell volume, plasma sodium, potassium, carbon dioxide tension and chloride were unchanged.  
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  ISSN 0042-4900 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:7080416 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 109  
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Author Alexander, F. openurl 
  Title The effect of some anti-diarrhoeal drugs on intestinal transit and faecal excretion of water and electrolytes in the horse Type
  Year 1978 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 10 Issue 4 Pages 229-234  
  Keywords Animals; Antidiarrheals/*pharmacology; Atropine/pharmacology; Electrolytes/*analysis/urine; Feces/*analysis; Gastrointestinal Motility/*drug effects; Horses/*metabolism/physiology; Loperamide/pharmacology; Male; Meperidine/pharmacology; Morphine/pharmacology; Opium/pharmacology; Water/*analysis  
  Abstract The effect of morphine, Tinct. opii, loperamide, pethidine and atropine on intestinal transit and the faecal and urinary excretion of water and electrolytes was studied in ponies. The rate of passage of a particulate marker was slowed by morphine, hastened then slowed by loperamide and Tinct. opii, and hastened by atropine. The liquid marker was slowed by Tinct. opii and hastened then slowed by the other drugs. Only loperamide decreased the faecal sodium excretion. This drug also decreased faecal water and weight; it appeared worthy of clinical trial in diarrhoea. Tinct. opii decreased by morphine, pethidine and atropine increased faecal water.  
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  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:738263 Approved  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 110  
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