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Author Seghrouchni, M.; Elkasraoui, H.; Piro, M.; Alyakine, H.; Bouayad, H.; Chakir, J.; Tligui, N.; Elallali, K.; Azrib, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Osteoarticular radiographic findings of the distal forelimbs in Tbourida Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Heliyon Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue 9 Pages e02514  
  Keywords Animal science; Pathophysiology; Animal behavior; Animal breeding; Veterinary medicine; Veterinary science; Horse; Radiographic findings; Forelimb; X-ray; Tbourida  
  Abstract Tbourida is a traditional Moroccan equestrian sport in which 15 horses gallop 200 m in a line while riders fire into the sky with muskets. The stop is the finale and representative demands of this equestrian event. Such particular sudden stop after a fast gallop requires a hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Indeed, it is well known that Tbourida show predisposes horses to different injuries of the hard and soft tissues of the distal forelimbs. Yet, there is a paucity of research that examined such lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time the type and the prevalence of osteoarticular findings in the distal forelimbs of Tbourida horses using radiographic images. The study was conducted on 127 Tbourida horses aged between 2.5 and 15 years old with 6-year-old horses being the most affected. Data analysis showed that 93,7% of horses exhibit degenerative joint lesions of the fetlock, 86,6% showed ossification of the ungual cartilage, 78,7% had enthesophytes associated with the deep digital flexor tendons, 81,1% had enthesophytes associated with the suspensory ligament branches, and 19,6% showed a particular exostosis on the first phalanx. This large number of lesions reflects how this sport is difficult for horses and also argues that animals are suffering from a lack of welfare and care in their husbandry management.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2405-8440 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6672  
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Author Carson, K.; Wood-Gush, D.G.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Equine behaviour: I. A review of the literature on social and dam--Foal behaviour Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Applied Animal Ethology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 165-178  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In most cases, the social organisation of each of the seven species of Equidae existing today outside captivity is either territorial or non-territorial. The striking differences found between these two types of organisation in the social grouping and bonds, mating behaviour, leadership and dominance hierarchies of the animals are examined. It is thought that the non-territorial species show a less primitive type of organisation than the territorial animals. Infant Equidae are precocious animals and are able to follow their dams soon after birth. They stay close by their dams and travel with the herd from an early age and are therefore classified as “followers”, in contrast to the species which have a period of hiding after birth. Dams recognise their foals immediately after birth, whereas it takes 2 or 3 days for a foal to form an attachment to its dam. Being in close proximity to their dams, foals are able to nurse frequently and, unless artificially weaned, a foal will nurse until its dam foals again. Foals start to graze during their first week and as they grow older they spend more time grazing and less time nursing and resting. It is normal for foals to be corprophagic until one month old, and this provides them with bacteria essential for the digestion of fibre. Play behaviour is solitary in very young foals, but after 4 weeks of age, foals play together, with male foals playing more than females and showing more aggressive, fighting movements in play.  
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  ISSN 0304-3762 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6671  
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Author Krueger, K.; Schwarz, S.; Marr, I.; Farmer, K. doi  openurl
  Title Laterality in Horse Training: Psychological and Physical Balance and Coordination and Strength Rather Than Straightness Type Magazine Article
  Year 2022 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal Animals  
  Volume 12 Issue 8 Pages 1042  
  Keywords balance; body asymmetry; equitation; horse; motor laterality; sensory laterality; stress; welfare  
  Abstract For centuries, a goal of training in many equestrian disciplines has been to straighten the horse, which is considered a key element in achieving its responsiveness and suppleness. However, laterality is a naturally occurring phenomenon in horses and encompasses body asymmetry, motor laterality and sensory laterality. Furthermore, forcibly counterbalancing motor laterality has been considered a cause of psychological imbalance in humans. Perhaps asymmetry and laterality should rather be accepted, with a focus on training psychological and physical balance, coordination and equal strength on both sides instead of enforcing “straightness”. To explore this, we conducted a review of the literature on the function and causes of motor and sensory laterality in horses, especially in horses when trained on the ground or under a rider. The literature reveals that body asymmetry is innate but does not prevent the horse from performing at a high level under a rider. Motor laterality is equally distributed in feral horses, while in domestic horses, age, breed, training and carrying a rider may cause left leg preferences. Most horses initially observe novel persons and potentially threatening objects or situations with their left sensory organs. Pronounced preferences for the use of left sensory organs or limbs indicate that the horse is experiencing increased emotionality or stress, and long-term insufficiencies in welfare, housing or training may result in left shifts in motor and sensory laterality and pessimistic mentalities. Therefore, increasing laterality can be regarded as an indicator for insufficiencies in housing, handling and training. We propose that laterality be recognized as a welfare indicator and that straightening the horse should be achieved by conducting training focused on balance, coordination and equal strength on both sides.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Animals  
  Series Volume 12 Series Issue 8 Edition  
  ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6670  
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Author Wallner, B.; Palmieri, N.; Vogl, C.; Rigler, D.; Bozlak, E.; Druml, T.; Jagannathan, V.; Leeb, T.; Fries, R.; Tetens, J.; Thaller, G.; Metzger, J.; Distl, O.; Lindgren, G.; Rubin, C.-J.; Andersson, L.; Schaefer, R.; McCue, M.; Neuditschko, M.; Rieder, S.; Schlötterer, C.; Brem, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Y Chromosome Uncovers the Recent Oriental Origin of Modern Stallions Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology  
  Volume 27 Issue 13 Pages 2029-2035.e5  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The Y chromosome directly reflects male genealogies, but the extremely low Y chromosome sequence diversity in horses has prevented the reconstruction of stallion genealogies [1, 2]. Here, we resolve the first Y chromosome genealogy of modern horses by screening 1.46 Mb of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in 52 horses from 21 breeds. Based on highly accurate pedigree data, we estimated the de novo mutation rate of the horse MSY and showed that various modern horse Y chromosome lineages split much later than the domestication of the species. Apart from few private northern European haplotypes, all modern horse breeds clustered together in a roughly 700-year-old haplogroup that was transmitted to Europe by the import of Oriental stallions. The Oriental horse group consisted of two major subclades: the Original Arabian lineage and the Turkoman horse lineage. We show that the English Thoroughbred MSY was derived from the Turkoman lineage and that English Thoroughbred sires are largely responsible for the predominance of this haplotype in modern horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.086 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6669  
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Author Voigtlaender-Schnabel, S.; Vogel, L.; Greiner, B.; Wiezorek, S.; Schuette, P.; Solmsen, E.-H.; Martin; H.; Hempel, E.; Gruentjens, T.; Bathen, M.; Herold, P.; Krueger, K. openurl 
  Title Reactions of horses to wildlife and livestock guarding dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Carnivore Damage Prevention News Abbreviated Journal CDPNews  
  Volume 24 Issue Pages 49-58  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6668  
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Author Schwarz, S.; Marr, I.; Farmer, K.; Graf, K.; Stefanski, V.; Krueger, K. doi  openurl
  Title Does Carrying a Rider Change Motor and Sensory Laterality in Horses? Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal Animals  
  Volume 12 Issue 8 Pages 992  
  Keywords laterality; horse; rider; sensory laterality; motor laterality; novel object; side preference  
  Abstract Laterality in horses has been studied in recent decades. Although most horses are kept for riding purposes, there has been almost no research on how laterality may be affected by carrying a rider. In this study, 23 horses were tested for lateral preferences, both with and without a rider, in three different experiments. The rider gave minimal aids and rode on a long rein to allow the horse free choice. Firstly, motor laterality was assessed by observing forelimb preference when stepping over a pole. Secondly, sensory laterality was assessed by observing perceptual side preferences when the horse was confronted with (a) an unfamiliar person or (b) a novel object. After applying a generalised linear model, this preliminary study found that a rider increased the strength of motor laterality (p = 0.01) but did not affect sensory laterality (p = 0.8). This suggests that carrying a rider who is as passive as possible does not have an adverse effect on a horse�s stress levels and mental state.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6667  
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Author Lucidi, P.; Bacco, G.; Sticco, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Benvenuti, M.; Bernabò, N.; Trentini, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of motor laterality in foals and young horses (Equus caballus) through an analysis of derailment at trot Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 109 Issue Pages 8-13  
  Keywords Horse; Laterality; Longeing; Sidedness  
  Abstract The conflicting results regarding the study of motor laterality in horses may indicate that there does not exist a proper method to assess the degree and the direction of motor bias in these animals. Unfortunately, even less is known about the development of laterality in horses, and to what extent early manipulations can still exert their effects in adulthood. We propose a new method that can be easily applied at a very early age thus avoiding testing adult horses eventually biased by human handling and/or training. Forty-six horses (29 nine-month-old foals and 17 two-year old horses) were handled since birth bilaterally and housed in groups in wide areas. At the time of the analysis, in order to minimize environmental and sensorial disturbances, each horse was tested in a round pen individually or as dyad mother-foal. The ability/inability to properly execute a circle at trot was then recorded, assuming the direction of derailment, i.e. the cutting of the circle, as an indicator of motor bias. From the results of the study it is arguable that motor laterality in horses is acquired over time: in fact foals tested while their mothers were being subjected to longeing showed a higher percentage of ambidextrous animals, while two-year-old horses appeared biased toward the right (p<0.05). Results are discussed in the light of the scientific knowledge about equine biomechanics, taking into account horses' locomotion that leads to the advancement of the body mass through the activation of a kinetic chain that originates from the hindquarters.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6666  
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Author Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do horses with poor welfare show 'pessimistic' cognitive biases? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Science of Nature Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 104 Issue 1 Pages 8  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations (e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions (e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food ('positive' location) or unpalatable food ('negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1432-1904 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Henry2017 Serial 6665  
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Author Boissy, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Fear and Fearfulness in Animals Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication The Quarterly Review of Biology Abbreviated Journal The Quarterly Review of Biology  
  Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 165-191  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Persistence of individual differences in animal behavior in reactions to various environmental challenges could reflect basic divergences in temperament, which might be used to predict details of adaptive response. Although studies have been carried out on fear and anxiety in various species, including laboratory, domestic and wild animals, no consistent definition of fearfulness as a basic trait of temperament has emerged. After a classification of the events that may produce a state of fear, this article describes the great variability in behavior and in physiological patterns generally associated with emotional reactivity. The difficulties of proposing fearfulness-the general capacity to react to a variety of potentially threatening situations-as a valid basic internal variable are then discussed. Although there are many studies showing covariation among the psychobiological responses to different environmental challenges, other studies find no such correlations and raise doubts about the interpretation of fearfulness as a basic personality trait. After a critical assessment of methodologies used in fear and anxiety studies, it is suggested that discrepancies among results are mainly due to the modulation of emotional responses in animals, which depend on numerous genetic and epigenetic factors. It is difficult to compare results obtained by different methods from animals reared under various conditions and with different genetic origins. The concept of fearfulness as an inner trait is best supported by two kinds of investigations. First, an experimental approach combining ethology and experimental psychology produces undeniable indicators of emotional reactivity. Second, genetic lines selected for psychobiological traits prove useful in establishing between behavioral and neuroendocrine aspects of emotional reactivity. It is suggested that fearfulness could be considered a basic feature of the temperament of each individual, one that predisposes it to respond similarly to a variety of potentially alarming challenges, but is nevertheless continually modulated during development by the interaction of genetic traits of reactivity with environmental factors, particularly in the juvenile period. Such interaction may explain much of the interindividual variability observed in adaptive responses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher The University of Chicago Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0033-5770 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1086/418981 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6664  
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Author Byström, A.; Clayton, H.M.; Hernlund, E.; Rhodin, M.; Egenvall, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Equestrian and biomechanical perspectives on laterality in the horse Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Comparative Exercise Physiology Abbreviated Journal Comp. Exerc. Physiol.  
  Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 35-45  
  Keywords  
  Abstract It has been suggested that one of the underlying causes of asymmetrical performance and left/right bias in sound riding horses is laterality originating in the cerebral cortices described in many species. The aim of this paper is to review the published evidence for inherent biomechanical laterality in horses deemed to be clinically sound and relate these findings to descriptions of sidedness in equestrian texts. There are no established criteria to determine if a horse is left or right dominant but the preferred limb has been defined as the forelimb that is more frequently protracted during stance and when grazing. Findings on left-right differences in forelimb hoof shape and front hoof angles have been linked to asymmetric forelimb ground reaction forces. Asymmetries interpreted as motor laterality have been found among foals and unhandled youngsters, and the consistency or extent of asymmetries seems to increase with age. Expressions of laterality also vary with breed, sex, training and handling, stress, and body shape but there are no studies of the possible link between laterality and lameness. In a recent study of a group of seven dressage horses, a movement pattern in many ways similar to descriptions of sidedness in the equestrian literature, e.g. one hind limb being more protracted and placed more laterally than the other, has been documented. The role of innate laterality versus painful conditions, training, human handedness and simply habit remains to be determined. Understanding the biomechanical manifestations of laterality in healthy horses, including individual variation, would yield a potential basis for how laterality should be taken into account in relation to training/riding and rehabilitation of lameness.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wageningen Academic Publishers Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1755-2540 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.3920/CEP190022 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6663  
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