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Author (up) Alexander, F.; Macpherson, M.J.D.; Oxford, A.E. openurl 
  Title Fermentative activities of some members of the normal coccal flora of the horse's large intestine Type Journal Article
  Year 1952 Publication Journal of comparative pathology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Pathol  
  Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 252-259  
  Keywords *Horses; *Intestines; *Streptococcus; *Horses; *Intestines; *Streptococcus  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-9975 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12999997 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 125  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Alexander, F.; Nicholson, J.D. openurl 
  Title The blood and saliva clearances of phenobarbitone and pentobarbitone in the horse Type Journal Article
  Year 1968 Publication Biochemical pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Biochem Pharmacol  
  Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 203-210  
  Keywords Animals; Female; *Horses; Injections, Intravenous; Male; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Pentobarbital/blood/*metabolism; Phenobarbital/blood/*metabolism; Protein Binding; *Saliva; Time Factors  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-2952 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:5647047 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 117  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Alexander, R, MCN et al doi  openurl
  Title Fast locomotion of some african ungulates Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal J Zool  
  Volume 183 Issue 3 Pages 291-300  
  Keywords  
  Abstract ABSTRACT

Ten species of ungulate were filmed, galloping in their natural habitat. They ranged in size from Thomson's gazelle (about 20 kg) to giraffe (about 1000 kg). They were pursued to make them run as fast as possible. The films have been analysed to determine speed, stride frequency, stride and step lengths, and duty factors. The dependence of these quantities on body size is discussed.

Summary:

Fast locomotion of zebra, giraffe, warthog and seven species of Bovidae has been studied. The animals were filmed from a pursuing vehicle while galloping in their natural habitat.

Stride frequency was more closely correlated with limb length (represented by hip height) than with body mass. Mean stride frequency was proportional to (hip height)-0·51 and maximum stride frequency to (hip height) -0·63.

Maximum speed was between 10 and 14 m s -1 for all species except buffalo (7 m s -1). It was not significantly correlated with body mass.

Since the small species ran at least as fast as the large ones they attained higher Froude numbers. Relative stride length was approximately 1·8 (Froude number)0·39 for all species, irrespective of size. Relative step length was approximately 0·65 (Froude number)0·2, both for the fore feet and for the hind ones. The vertical forces exerted by the feet are proportional to (body weight)×(Froude number)0·2 so the forces at maximum speed are larger multiples of body weight for small species than for large ones.
 
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  Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 130  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Alexander, S.L.; Irvine, C.H. url  openurl
  Title The effect of social stress on adrenal axis activity in horses: the importance of monitoring corticosteroid-binding globulin capacity Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 157 Issue 3 Pages 425-432  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Plasma cortisol is largely bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), which regulates its bioavailability by restricting exit from capillaries. Levels of CBG may be altered by several factors including stress and this can influence the amount of cortisol reaching cells. This study investigated the effect of social instability on plasma concentrations of CBG, total and free (not protein bound) cortisol in horses. Horses new to our research herd ('newcomers') were confined in a small yard with four dominant resident horses for 3-4 h daily for 3-4 (n = 5) or 9-14 (n = 3) days. Jugular blood was collected in the mornings from newcomers before the period of stress began ('pre-stress'), and then before each day's stress. Residents were bled before stress on the first and thirteenth day. Residents always behaved aggressively towards newcomers. By the end of the stress period, all newcomers were subordinate to residents. In newcomers (n = 8) after 3-4 days of social stress, CBG binding capacity had fallen (P = 0.0025), while free cortisol concentrations had risen (P = 0.0016) from pre-stress values. In contrast, total cortisol did not change. In residents, CBG had decreased slightly but significantly (P = 0.0162) after 12 days of stress. Residents and newcomers did not differ in pre-stress CBG binding capacity, total or free cortisol concentrations. However, by the second week of stress, CBG binding capacity was lower (P = 0.015) and free cortisol higher (P = 0.030) in newcomers (n = 3) than in residents. Total cortisol did not differ between the groups. In conclusion social stress clearly affected the adrenal axis of subordinate newcomer horses, lowering the binding capacity of CBG and raising free cortisol concentrations. However, no effect of stress could be detected when only total cortisol was measured. Therefore, to assess adrenal axis status accurately in horses, it is essential to monitor the binding capacity of CBG and free cortisol concentrations in addition to total cortisol levels.  
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  Notes 10.1677/joe.0.1570425 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5844  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Alexandridis, A. openurl 
  Title Pferdgestützte Bewegungstherapie bei Essstörungen Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Mensch und Pferd Abbreviated Journal mup  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 13-26  
  Keywords Pferdgestütze Bewegungstherapie, Essstörungen, Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, „Binge-Eating“-Störung, Natural Horsemanship  
  Abstract Inhalte und Methoden des Natural Horsemanship (nach Pat Parelli) werden beschrieben
und in der Verbindung mit aktuellen bewegungstherapeutischen Behandlungsmethoden
bei Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa und „Binge-Eating“-Störung dargestellt.
Diese Zusammenführung ergibt eine pferdgestützte bewegungstherapeutische Methode
zur Behandlung von Essstörungen, welche anhand konkreter Praxisbeispiele
beschrieben wird. Der Ausblick auf eine laufende Evaluationsstudie schließt den Artikel
ab.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5965  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Allcroft, D. J.; Tolkamp, B. J.; Glasbey, C. A.; Kyriazakis, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The importance of `memory' in statistical models for animal feeding behaviour Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 67 Issue 1 Pages 99-109  
  Keywords Cow; Feeding data; Bouts; Memory; Satiety; Latent structure; Model comparison  
  Abstract We investigate models for animal feeding behaviour, with the aim of improving understanding of how animals organise their behaviour in the short term. We consider three classes of model: hidden Markov, latent Gaussian and semi-Markov. Each can predict the typical `clustered' feeding behaviour that is generally observed, however they differ in the extent to which `memory' of previous behaviour is allowed to affect future behaviour. The hidden Markov model has `lack of memory', the current behavioural state being dependent on the previous state only. The latent Gaussian model assumes feeding/non-feeding periods to occur by the thresholding of an underlying continuous variable, thereby incorporating some `short-term memory'. The semi-Markov model, by taking into account the duration of time spent in the previous state, can be said to incorporate `longer-term memory'. We fit each of these models to a dataset of cow feeding behaviour. We find the semi-Markov model (longer-term memory) to have the best fit to the data and the hidden Markov model (lack of memory) the worst. We argue that in view of effects of satiety on short-term feeding behaviour of animal species in general, biologically suitable models should allow `memory' to play a role. We conclude that our findings are equally relevant for the analysis of other types of short-term behaviour that are governed by satiety-like principles.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2350  
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Author (up) Allen, C. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Transitive inference in animals: Reasoning or conditioned associations? Type Book Chapter
  Year 2006 Publication Rational Animals? Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 175-186  
  Keywords  
  Abstract It is widely accepted that many species of nonhuman animals appear to engage in transitive inference,
producing appropriate responses to novel pairings of non-adjacent members of an ordered series
without previous experience of these pairings. Some researchers have taken this capability as
providing direct evidence that these animals reason. Others resist such declarations, favouring instead
explanations in terms of associative conditioning. Associative accounts of transitive inference have
been refined in application to a simple 5-element learning task that is the main paradigm for
laboratory investigations of the phenomenon, but it remains unclear how well those accounts
generalise to more information-rich environments such as social hierarchies which may contain scores
of individuals, and where rapid learning is important. The case of transitive inference is an example of
a more general dispute between proponents of associative accounts and advocates of more cognitive
accounts of animal behaviour. Examination of the specific details of transitive inference suggests
some lessons for the wider debate.
 
  Address Texas A&M University  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Oxford Editor Hurley, S.; Nudds, M.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-0-19-852827-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 611  
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Author (up) Allen, C. openurl 
  Title Assessing animal cognition: ethological and philosophical perspectives Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 76 Issue 1 Pages 42-47  
  Keywords Agriculture; Animal Welfare; Animals; Animals, Domestic/physiology/*psychology; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; *Ethology; *Philosophy; Research  
  Abstract Developments in the scientific and philosophical study of animal cognition and mentality are of great importance to animal scientists who face continued public scrutiny of the treatment of animals in research and agriculture. Because beliefs about animal minds, animal cognition, and animal consciousness underlie many people's views about the ethical treatment of nonhuman animals, it has become increasingly difficult for animal scientists to avoid these issues. Animal scientists may learn from ethologists who study animal cognition and mentality from an evolutionary and comparative perspective and who are at the forefront of the development of naturalistic and laboratory techniques of observation and experimentation that are capable of revealing the cognitive and mental properties of nonhuman animals. Despite growing acceptance of the ethological study of animal cognition, there are critics who dispute the scientific validity of the field, especially when the topic is animal consciousness. Here, a proper understanding of developments in the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of science can help to place cognitive studies on a firm methodological and philosophical foundation. Ultimately, this is an interdisciplinary task, involving scientists and philosophers. Animal scientists are well-positioned to contribute to the study of animal cognition because they typically have access to a large pool of potential research subjects whose habitats are more controlled than in most field studies while being more natural than most laboratory psychology experiments. Despite some formidable questions remaining for analysis, the prospects for progress in assessing animal cognition are bright.  
  Address Department of Philosophy, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843-4237, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:9464883 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2750  
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Author (up) Allen, C.; Bekoff, M. doi  openurl
  Title Animal Minds, Cognitive Ethology, and Ethics Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication The Journal of Ethics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages 299-317  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3400  
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Author (up) Allen, D.; Tanner, K. doi  openurl
  Title Putting the horse back in front of the cart: using visions and decisions about high-quality learning experiences to drive course design Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication CBE Life Sciences Education Abbreviated Journal CBE Life Sci Educ  
  Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 85-89  
  Keywords Curriculum/*standards; *Decision Making; *Learning; Models, Educational; Schools; Teaching/*methods/*standards  
  Abstract  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. deallen@udel.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1931-7913 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17548870 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3999  
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