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Author (up) Acuna, B.D.; Sanes, J.N.; Donoghue, J.P. doi  openurl
  Title Cognitive mechanisms of transitive inference Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation cerebrale Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 146 Issue 1 Pages 1-10  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Attention/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Learning/physiology; Linear Models; Male; Photic Stimulation; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology  
  Abstract We examined how the brain organizes interrelated facts during learning and how the facts are subsequently manipulated in a transitive inference (TI) paradigm (e.g., if A<B and B<C, then A<C). This task determined features such as learned facts and behavioral goals, but the learned facts could be organized in any of several ways. For example, if one learns a list by operating on paired items, the pairs may be stored individually as separate facts and reaction time (RT) should decrease with learning. Alternatively, the pairs may be stored as a single, unified list, which may yield a different RT pattern. We characterized RT patterns that occurred as participants learned, by trial and error, the predetermined order of 11 shapes. The task goal was to choose the shape occurring closer to the end of the list, and feedback about correctness was provided during this phase. RT increased even as its variance decreased during learning, suggesting that the learnt knowledge became progressively unified into a single representation, requiring more time to manipulate as participants acquired relational knowledge. After learning, non-adjacent (NA) list items were presented to examine how participants reasoned in a TI task. The task goal also required choosing from each presented pair the item occurring closer to the list end, but without feedback. Participants could solve the TI problems by applying formal logic to the previously learnt pairs of adjacent items; alternatively, they could manipulate a single, unified representation of the list. Shorter RT occurred for NA pairs having more intervening items, supporting the hypothesis that humans employ unified mental representations during TI. The response pattern does not support mental logic solutions of applying inference rules sequentially, which would predict longer RT with more intervening items. We conclude that the brain organizes information in such a way that reflects the relations among the items, even if the facts were learned in an arbitrary order, and that this representation is subsequently used to make inferences.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Box 1953, Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02912, USA  
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  ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12192572 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 602  
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Author (up) Adachi, I.; Kuwahata, H.; Fujita, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dogs recall their owner's face upon hearing the owner's voice Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 17-21  
  Keywords Cross-modal representation – Natural concepts – Dogs  
  Abstract Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;We tested whether dogs have a cross-modal representation of human individuals. We presented domestic dogs with a photo of either the owner's or a stranger's face on the LCD monitor after playing back a voice of one of those persons. A voice and a face matched in half of the trials (Congruent condition) and mismatched in the other half (Incongruent condition). If our subjects activate visual images of the voice, their expectation would be contradicted in Incongruent condition. It would result in the subjects` longer looking times in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. Our subject dogs looked longer at the visual stimulus in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. This suggests that dogs actively generate their internal representation of the owner's face when they hear the owner calling them. This is the first demonstration that nonhuman animals do not merely associate auditory and visual stimuli but also actively generate a visual image from auditory information. Furthermore, our subject also looked at the visual stimulus longer in Incongruent condition in which the owner's face followed an unfamiliar person's voice than in Congruent condition in which the owner's face followed the owner's voice. Generating a particular visual image in response to an unfamiliar voice should be difficult, and any expected images from the voice ought to be more obscure or less well defined than that of the owners. However, our subjects looked longer at the owner's face in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. This may indicate that dogs may have predicted that it should not be the owner when they heard the unfamiliar person's voice.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 4222  
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Author (up) Adamo, S.A.; Ehgoetz, K.; Sangster, C.; Whitehorne, I. url  openurl
  Title Signaling to the Enemy? Body Pattern Expression and Its Response to External Cues During Hunting in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda) Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Biol. Bull. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 210 Issue 3 Pages 192-200  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Abstract. Cuttlefish can rapidly alter their appearance by using neurally controlled chromatophore organs. This ability may provide a window into their cognitive capacity. We test whether the changes in body pattern that occur during hunting depend on context. If they do, then it may be possible to use these changes to study cephalopod cognition while the animal is engaged in ecologically relevant tasks. We found consistent individual differences in the tendency of cuttlefish to hunt with the first two arms raised. We also found that cuttlefish usually darken their skin after they seize a prey item. This darkening is observed regardless of the identity of the prey (fish, crab, or shrimp), prey context (buried in sand, in a bare tank, or on top of a rock pile), or the presence of a sudden stimulus. The sudden stimulus was created by presenting an overhead model bird to the cuttlefish. The model induced components of the Deimatic Display, which is a form of antipredator behavior, suggesting that the model was perceived as a potential threat. Passing Cloud displays and the Darkening of the arms were significantly reduced after exposure to the model bird. The effect of a potential predator on body pattern expression during hunting suggests it may be possible to use these changes as a sensitive indicator of ecologically relevant learning. N1 -  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2960  
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Author (up) Adams, E.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bayesian analysis of linear dominance hierarchies Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages 1191-1201  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Studies on social animals often seek to identify dominance hierarchies, in which individuals are ranked according to competitive abilities based on counts of wins and losses in pairwise encounters. I illustrate Bayesian approaches, based on the method of paired comparisons, for determining ranks and for estimating relationships between dominance ability and other attributes. Bayesian inference combines prior probability distributions for each unknown parameter with likelihood functions to produce the joint posterior probability distribution for the quantities of interest. In contrast to nonparametric techniques for inferring ranks, Bayesian models yield measures of certainty for each inference and allow rigorous estimates of correlations between ranks and covariates even when there is considerable uncertainty as to the ranks themselves. A possible objection to the Bayesian approach is that it appears to entail more restrictive assumptions than do simpler methods. However, simulations show that Bayesian inferences are more robust to deviations from these assumptions than are the results of nonparametric methods.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 451  
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Author (up) Addessi, E.; Visalberghi, E. doi  openurl
  Title Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 297-303  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3382  
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Author (up) Adelman, M.; Knijnik, J. doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title Gender and Equestrian Sport Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords British Equestrian Sport Canadian Show Jumping Cojones and Rejones Comparative Analysis Equestrian World through a Gender Lens Equestrianism during the 20th Century Fluid Masculinities on Brazilian Dressage Gender Studies and Equestrian Sport Horseracing and Gender in the United Kingdom Juvenile Equine Fiction for Girls Men and Horse Riding Spanish Mounted Bullfight Sport and Culture Swedish Equestrian Sports Women Riding Rodeo in Southern Brazil Women in Equestrian Polo  
  Abstract This volume brings together studies from various disciplines of the social sciences and humanities (Anthropology, Sociology, Cultural Studies, History and Literary theory) that examine the equestrian world as a historically gendered and highly dynamic field of contemporary sport and culture. From elite international dressage and jumping, polo and the turf, to the rodeo world of the Americas and popular forms of equestrian sport and culture, we are introduced to a range of issues as they unfold at local and global, national and international levels. Students and scholars of gender, culture and sport will find much of interest in this original look at contemporary issues such as “engendered” (women’s and men’s) dentities/subjectivities of equestrians, representations of girls, horses and the world of adventure in juvenile fiction; the current “feminization” of particular equestrian activities (and where boys and men stand in relation to this); how broad forms of social inequality and stratification play themselves out within gendered equestrian contexts; men and women and their relation to horses within the framework of current discussions on the relation of animals to humans (which may include not only love and care, but also exploitation and violence), among others. Singular contributions that incorporate a wide variety of classic and contemporary theoretical perspectives and empirical methodologies show how horse cultures around the globe contribute to historical and current constructions of embodied “femininities” and “masculinities”, reflecting a world that has been moving “beyond the binaries” while continuing to be enmeshed in their persistent and contradictory legacy. The final chapter makes a brave attempt at synthesizing individual chapters and moving forward from the evidences they provide, to suggest a compelling agenda for future research.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Dordrecht Editor  
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  ISSN ISBN 978-94-007-6823-9 Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6389  
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Author (up) Adler, L.L.; Adler, H.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ontogeny of observational learning in the dog (Canis familiaris) Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication Developmental Psychobiology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychobiol  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 267-271  
  Keywords Animals; Dogs/*physiology; Female; Learning/*physiology; Male; Vision, Ocular/physiology  
  Abstract A split-litter technique was used to test observational learning in 4 litters of Miniature Dachshund puppies, 21, 28, 38, and 60 days old at the beginning of the experiment. In one side of a duplicate cage, one puppy of a litter, the demonstrator, learned to pull in a food cart on a runner by means of a ribbon, while another puppy, the observer, watched from an adjacent compartment, separated by a wire screen. Observational learning was demonstrated by the saving in time for the 1st trial when the observer was given the same problem to solve. Maturation, particularly the development of visual function and motor coordination, set a lower age limit for the emergence of observational learning.  
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  ISSN 0012-1630 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:863122 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5186  
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Author (up) Adolphs, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cognitive neuroscience of human social behaviour Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Reviews. Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Neurosci  
  Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 165-178  
  Keywords Cognition; Emotions; Humans; Models, Psychological; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract We are an intensely social species--it has been argued that our social nature defines what makes us human, what makes us conscious or what gave us our large brains. As a new field, the social brain sciences are probing the neural underpinnings of social behaviour and have produced a banquet of data that are both tantalizing and deeply puzzling. We are finding new links between emotion and reason, between action and perception, and between representations of other people and ourselves. No less important are the links that are also being established across disciplines to understand social behaviour, as neuroscientists, social psychologists, anthropologists, ethologists and philosophers forge new collaborations.  
  Address Deparment of Neurology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ralph-adolphs@uiowa.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-003X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12612630 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4706  
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Author (up) Aerts, J.-M.; Gebruers, F.; Van Camp, E.; Berckmans, D. doi  openurl
  Title Controlling horse heart rate as a basis for training improvement Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Computers and Electronics in Agriculture Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 78-84  
  Keywords Heart rate; Horse; Model predictive control; Transfer function model  
  Abstract Equine training methods, and consequently, performance times have improved little since the last decades. With advances in measuring signals on-line by means of several new technologies and analytical procedures, and processing these signals immediately with strong and compact processors, it may be possible to develop new training methods. In this research, the objective was to explore the possibilities of using modern model-based algorithms to control the heart rate of horses (bpm) on-line by means of the control input running speed (km/h). Forty-five experiments with five horses and four riders were carried out to generate measurements of physiological status during running. The dynamical characteristics of each horse were quantified using linear discrete transfer function models. The dynamic response of heart rate to step changes in running speed were accurately described. In 90% of the cases, a first-order model gave the best fit. For 69% of the models, the r2 was higher than 0.90 and for 34% of the models, the r2 was even higher than 0.95. In a next step, the model-based algorithm was evaluated by controlling cardiac responses of two horses (horses 2 and 4) to a pre-defined trajectory. The model parameters were kept constant. On average, the error between the defined target trajectory in heart rate and the actual controlled heart rate ranged between 0.2 and 1.4 bpm for the whole target heart rate trajectory. During the steady-state part of the trajectory the average error was maximum 1.1 bpm. In the transient from one steady-state heart rate to another level, the error could increase on average up to 5 bpm. In the future, the combination of on-line measured bioresponses with real-time analysis can be used for adjusting the work load of the horse, during training, directly to the immediate needs of horse (welfare) and trainer (performance).  
  Address Division Measure, Model and Manage Bioresponses (M3-BIORES), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4555  
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Author (up) Agrillo, C.; Dadda, M.; Bisazza, A. doi  openurl
  Title Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 63-70  
  Keywords Animals; Cognition; *Cyprinodontiformes; *Discrimination Learning; Female; Male; Mathematics; *Pattern Recognition, Visual  
  Abstract The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (<4) precisely, and one for quantifying large numbers approximately. We investigated the ability to discriminate among different numerosities, in a distantly related species, the mosquitofish, by using the spontaneous choice of a gravid female to join large groups of females as protection from a sexually harassing male. In one experiment, we found that females were able to discriminate between two shoals with a 1:2 numerosity ratio (2 vs. 4, 4 vs. 8 and 8 vs. 16 fish) but failed to discriminate a 2:3 ratio (8 vs. 12 fish). In the second experiment, we studied the ability to discriminate between shoals that differed by one element; females were able to select the larger shoal when the paired numbers were 2 vs. 3 or 3 vs. 4 but not 4 vs. 5 or 5 vs. 6. Our study indicates that numerical abilities in fish are comparable with those of other non-verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.  
  Address Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, via Venezia 8, 35131, Padova, Italy. christian.agrillo@unipd.it  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16868736 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 339  
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