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Author (up) Asa, C.S.; Goldfoot, D.A.; Garcia, M.C.; Ginther, O.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sexual behavior in ovariectomized and seasonally anovulatory pony mares (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Hormones and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Horm Behav  
  Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 46-54  
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  Abstract Ten ovariectomized (OVEX) and ten intact, but seasonally anovulatory (ANOV), pony mares were observed for sexual activity with five stallions, using a “harem group” social testing paradigm (two OVEX and two ANOV mares plus one stallion per group) for 15 consecutive daily tests lasting 20 min each. All mares in both conditions showed proceptive behavior in at least one test, all mares but one were mounted, and 14 of 20 mares received ejaculations. No statistical differences were found between the two conditions for any measure of proceptivity, copulatory activity, or days in estrus. The quality of estrus was judged to be equivalent to that displayed by periovulatory mares during their initial and terminal days of estrus, but less intense than that seen near ovulation. Mares in both groups were in estrus during approximately 60-70% of the tests and only 3 of the 20 mares were sexually refractory for more than five consecutive tests. Thus, the typical 2-week phase of sexual refractoriness seen in intact diestrous mares was absent in OVEX and ANOV mares, suggesting that the ovary plays a major role in actively suppressing estrous responses during the luteal phase of the cycle.  
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  ISSN 0018-506x ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5361  
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Author (up) Asa, C.S.; Goldfoot, D.A.; Ginther, O.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sociosexual behavior and the ovulatory cycle of ponies (Equus caballus) observed in harem groups Type Journal Article
  Year 1979 Publication Hormones and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Horm Behav  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 49-65  
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  Abstract Observations of sociosexual behavior of adult ponies, made on two harem groups (each comprised of one vasectomized male and three females), were correlated with follicular development and ovulation for a total of 15 cycles (minimum of 2 cycles per female). Mean cycle length (interovulatory interval) was found to be 19.7 days, with behavioral estrus lasting 7-8 days (5.5 days preovulatory; 2.3 days postovulatory). Estrous females typically showed increased frequencies of approaching and following the stallion, urinating, presenting, clitoral winking, and tail raising. Approaching and following the stallion appeared earlier and persisted longer than other estrous responses. Deviations from the modal estrous pattern included cycles with subestrus, continual estrus, behavioral estrus in the absence of ovulation, and displays of female mounting. Dominance tests revealed that a mare's status was unaffected by the phases of the estrous cycle. The presence of more than one estrous female affected the copulatory performance of both stallions, most notably in reduced latencies to first mount, intromission, and ejaculation, in spite of differences between the stallions in sexual vigor. Each stallion usually selected the dominant mare for copulation when there were multiple estrous females present, but mounts were not displayed exclusively to one female per test. The social testing situation made apparent the importance of use of space in sociosexual communication in this species, particularly in avoidance of the stallion by diestrous mares and standing alone or in proximity to him by estrous mares.  
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  ISSN 0018-506x ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5363  
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Author (up) Ash, C.; Chin, G.; Pennisi, E.; Sugden, A. doi  openurl
  Title Living in Societies Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 317 Issue 5843 Pages 1337-  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4246  
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Author (up) Assersohn, C.; Whiten, A.; Kiwede, Z.T.; Tinka, J.; Karamagi, J. doi  openurl
  Title Use of leaves to inspect ectoparasites in wild chimpanzees: a third cultural variant? Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Primates Abbreviated Journal Primates  
  Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 255-258  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild/physiology; Ape Diseases/*parasitology; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology/*veterinary; Female; Grooming/*physiology; Male; Pan troglodytes/*physiology; *Plant Leaves; Protozoa/*isolation & purification; Uganda  
  Abstract We report 26 cases of using leaves as tools with which wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda, appeared to inspect objects removed during grooming. Careful removal of potential ectoparasites and delicate lip or manual placement on leaves followed by intense visual examination characterised this behaviour. It appears to be done to judge whether either ingestion or discarding is most appropriate, the former occurring in most cases. This behaviour may represent a third variant of ectoparasite handling, different from those described at Tai and Gombe, yet sharing features with the latter. These two East African techniques may thus have evolved from leaf grooming.  
  Address Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9JU, Fife, UK  
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  ISSN 0032-8332 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15179558 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 733  
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Author (up) Astié, A.A.; Kacelnik, A.; Reboreda, J.C. doi  openurl
  Title Sexual differences in memory in shiny cowbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 77-82  
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  Abstract Avian brood parasites depend on other species, the hosts, to raise their offspring. During the breeding season, parasitic cowbirds (Molothrus sp.) search for potential host nests to which they return for laying a few days after first locating them. Parasitic cowbirds have a larger hippocampus/telencephalon volume than non-parasitic species; this volume is larger in the sex involved in nest searching (females) and it is also larger in the breeding than in the non-breeding season. In nature, female shiny cowbirds Molothrus bonariensis search for nests without the male's assistance. Here we test whether, in association with these neuroanatomical and behavioural differences, shiny cowbirds display sexual differences in a memory task in the laboratory. We used a task consisting of finding food whose location was indicated either by the appearance or the location of a covering disk. Females learnt to retrieve food faster than males when food was associated with appearance cues, but we found no sexual differences when food was associated with a specific location. Our results are consistent with the view that parasitism and its neuroanatomical correlates affect performance in memory tasks, but the effects we found were not in the expected direction, emphasising that the nature of avian hippocampal function and its sexual differences are not yet understood.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3158  
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Author (up) Atock, M.A.; Williams, R.B. openurl 
  Title Welfare of competition horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) Abbreviated Journal Rev Sci Tech  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 217-232  
  Keywords *Animal Welfare; Animals; Doping in Sports; Ethics; Heat; Horses/*physiology; Housing, Animal/standards; Humidity; International Cooperation; Sports/*standards; Transportation/standards; Veterinary Medicine  
  Abstract In the large majority of cases and circumstances, horses benefit from their association with man. However, abuse of horses can occur, due to neglect or through the pressures of competition. The welfare of all animals, including competition horses, has become increasingly topical over the past ten years. Equestrian sport is coming under closer public scrutiny due to reports of apparent abuse. The bodies responsible for regulating these sports strenuously endeavour to protect the welfare of horses which compete under their rules and regulations. The Federation Equestre Internationale (FEI: International Equestrian Federation) is the sole authority for all international events in dressage, show-jumping, three-day event, driving, endurance riding and vaulting. The FEI rules illustrate the ways in which the welfare of competing horses is safeguarded.  
  Address Federation Equestre Internationale, Lausanne, Switzerland  
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  ISSN 0253-1933 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:8173097 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3747  
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Author (up) Atwill, E.R.; Mohammed, H.O.; Lopez, J.W. openurl 
  Title Evaluation of travel and use as a risk factor for seropositivity to Ehrlichia risticii in horses of New York state Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication American Journal of Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal Am J Vet Res  
  Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 272-277  
  Keywords Animals; Cross-Sectional Studies; Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology/*veterinary; Female; *Horse Diseases; Horses; Male; New York/epidemiology; Probability; Random Allocation; Risk Factors; *Travel  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES--To determine whether mean annual frequency and destination of equine travel was associated with exposure to Ehrlichia risticii and whether these associations were modified by horses' place of residence. DESIGN--Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE POPULATION--511 equine operations containing 2,587 horses were visited in New York state from a target population of 39,000 operations. PROCEDURE--Each horse was tested for serum antibodies against E risticii, using indirect fluorescent antibody. Information on the horse's travel history, farm's management practices, and surrounding ecology was obtained by personal interview and resource maps. Statistical analyses were performed on 2 cohorts of animals: all horses enrolled in the study and horses born on the property or that resided at least 4 years on the farm. Three county-based risk regions (RR) were identified by use of cluster analysis. RESULTS--Mean seroprevalence for each of the 3 RR was 2.4 (low risk), 8.5 (moderate risk), and 18.5% (high risk) for cohort 1 and 2.5, 8.0, and 18.4% for cohort 2. Among cohorts 1 and 2, pleasure riding and breeding trips were associated with exposure to E risticii, but horse residence (low, moderate, or high RR) was an effect modifier for these associations. Among cohort 1 and stratifying the analysis according to the RR for the travel destination, trail riding at low RR and trail riding at high RR were associated with exposure. Among cohort 2 and stratifying the analysis according to the RR for the travel destination, breeding trips were associated with exposure, and strong effect modification was present for horse residence (low, moderate, or high RR). CONCLUSIONS--Only certain types of travel to specific RR were associated with higher risk of exposure to E risticii. In many instances, travel was not associated, or was associated, with a reduced risk of exposure.  
  Address Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA  
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  ISSN 0002-9645 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:8669754 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2658  
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Author (up) Aureli, F.; Cords, M.; van Schaik, C.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Conflict resolution following aggression in gregarious animals: a predictive framework Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 325-343  
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  Abstract Knowledge of how animals manage their conflicts is critical for understanding the dynamics of social systems. During the last two decades research on gregarious animals, especially primates, has focused on the mechanisms of conflict management, mainly on friendly postconflict reunions (also called `reconciliation') in which former opponents exchange affiliative behaviour soon after an aggressive conflict. Our aim in this paper is to present a framework in which the costs and benefits of friendly postconflict reunions, both for each individual opponent and for their mutual relationship, are used to predict the patterning of postconflict resolution mechanisms in other gregarious animals. The framework predicts the occurrence of postconflict reunions in species that live in stable social units, have individualized relationships, and experience postconflict hostility, but especially in those in which intragroup aggression disrupts valuable relationships. The critical issue is whether aggressive conflicts occur between cooperative partners and whether the level of aggression is sufficient to jeopardize the benefits associated with such valuable relationships. We conclude by proposing four research priorities to evaluate the role of friendly reunions in negotiating relationships and the way they are themselves influenced by asymmetries in partner value and biological market effects. Copyright 2002 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 299  
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Author (up) Aureli, F.; Cossolino, R.; Cordischi, C.; Scucchi, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Kin-oriented redirection among Japanese macaques: an expression of a revenge system? Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 283-291  
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  Abstract The ability to recognize the close associates of other group members may permit the display of redirected aggression against the relatives of the former aggressor. However, the dominance structure and the kin-based alliance system of macaque society are expected not to favour the occurrence of this kin-oriented redirection. Nevertheless, within 1 h of being the victim of an attack, Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, were more likely to attack the former aggressor's kin than without such a conflict. The conditions under which the victim redirected against the former aggressor's kin were investigated. This kin-oriented redirection did not occur preferentially either after conflicts between individuals with unstable and/or uncertain dominance relationships or after conflicts with individuals that were unlikely to intervene in favour of their kin. Victims redirected against individuals that were younger than the former aggressor and often subordinate to the victim. They also redirected in an opportunistic way by joining polyadic interactions against the former aggressor's kin. The possibility that this kin-oriented redirection may have a long-term function in changing the aggressive attitude of the aggressor towards the victim is also discussed. In addition, the victim's kin also displayed a form of kin-oriented redirection. They were more likely to attack the kin of an individual after it had attacked their own kin.  
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  Notes 10.1016/0003-3472(92)90034-7 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4867  
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Author (up) Aureli, F.; de Waal, F.B. doi  openurl
  Title Inhibition of social behavior in chimpanzees under high-density conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication American journal of primatology Abbreviated Journal Am. J. Primatol.  
  Volume 41 Issue 3 Pages 213-228  
  Keywords Aggression/*psychology; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Crowding; Female; Male; Pan troglodytes/*psychology; Population Density; *Social Environment; Stress, Psychological  
  Abstract This is the first study to investigate the short-term effects of high population density on captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Subjects of the study were 45 chimpanzees living in five different groups at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center. The groups were observed under two conditions: 1) when they had access to both the indoor and outdoor sections of their enclosures; 2) during cold days when they were locked into the indoor runs, which reduced the available space by more than half. Under the high-density condition, allogrooming and submissive greetings decreased, but juvenile play increased. Remarkably, the rate of various forms of agonistic behavior, such as aggression, bluff charge, bluff display, and hooting, occurred less frequently under the high-density condition. This general decrease in adult social activity, including agonistic behavior, can be interpreted as an inhibition strategy to reduce opportunities for conflict when interindividual distances are reduced. This strategy is probably effective only in the short run, however. Behavioral indicators of anxiety, such as rough scratching and yawning, showed elevated rates, suggesting increased social tension under the high-density condition.  
  Address Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0275-2565 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:9057966 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 203  
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