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Author (up) Archer M, openurl 
  Title Preliminary studies on the palatability of grasses, legumes and herbs to horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1971 Publication Vet Rec Abbreviated Journal Vet Rec  
  Volume 89 Issue Pages 236-240  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 898  
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Author (up) Argue, C.K.; Clayton, H.M. openurl 
  Title A preliminary study of transitions between the walk and trot in dressage horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Acta Anatomica Abbreviated Journal Acta Anat (Basel)  
  Volume 146 Issue 2-3 Pages 179-182  
  Keywords Animals; Forelimb/physiology; Gait/*physiology; Hindlimb/physiology; Horses/*physiology; Locomotion/physiology; *Physical Conditioning, Animal  
  Abstract The object of this study was to determine the limb support sequence during the transitions from walk to trot and from trot to walk in dressage horses under saddle and to test the null hypothesis that the limb support sequence during the transitions is not related to the level of training. Sixteen dressage horses training at novice to FEI Grand Prix level were videotaped performing an average of 9 transitions each from walk to trot and from trot to walk. The 30-Hz videotapes were viewed in slow motion, and based on the limb support sequence the transitions were categorized into two types. In type 1 transitions there were no intermediate steps between the walk and trot sequences. Type 2 transitions were characterized by intermediate steps, including a single support phase. The Kendall rank-order correlation coefficient showed that a higher level of training was positively associated with an increased percentage of type 1 transitions for both walk-to-trot transitions (p < or = 0.05) and trot-to-walk transitions (p < or = 0.01). No significant preference for initiating or completing the trot on the left or right diagonal was found using the binomial test for individual horses and the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test for the group.  
  Address Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada  
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  ISSN 0001-5180 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:8470463 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3752  
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Author (up) Arlettaz, R.; Patthey, P.; Baltic, M.; Leu, T.; Schaub, M.; Palme, R.; Jenni-Eiermann, S. doi  openurl
  Title Spreading free-riding snow sports represent a novel serious threat for wildlife Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 274 Issue 1614 Pages 1219-1224  
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  Abstract Stress generated by humans on wildlife by continuous development of outdoor recreational activities is of increasing concern for biodiversity conservation. Human disturbance often adds to other negative impact factors affecting the dynamics of vulnerable populations. It is not known to which extent the rapidly spreading free-riding snow sports actually elicit detrimental stress (allostatic overload) upon wildlife, nor what the potential associated fitness and survival costs are. Using a non-invasive technique, we evaluated the physiological stress response induced by free-riding snow sports on a declining bird species of Alpine ecosystems. The results of a field experiment in which radiomonitored black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) were actively flushed from their snow burrows once a day during four consecutive days showed an increase in the concentration of faecal stress hormone (corticosterone) metabolites after disturbance. A large-scale comparative analysis across the southwestern Swiss Alps indicated that birds had higher levels of these metabolites in human-disturbed versus undisturbed habitats. Disturbance by snow sport free-riders appears to elevate stress, which potentially represents a new serious threat for wildlife. The fitness and survival costs of allostatic adjustments have yet to be estimated.  
  Address Zoological Institute, Division of Conservation Biology, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. raphael.arlettaz@nat.unibe.ch  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17341459 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4075  
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Author (up) Arluke, A. doi  openurl
  Title The use of dogs in medical and veterinary training: understanding and approaching student uneasiness Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science : JAAWS Abbreviated Journal J Appl Anim Welf Sci  
  Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 197-204  
  Keywords *Animal Experimentation; Animals; *Animals, Laboratory; Cadaver; Comprehension; Dogs; Education, Veterinary/*ethics/*methods; Humans; Massachusetts; Schools, Veterinary; Students, Medical/*psychology; Biomedical and Behavioral Research  
  Abstract  
  Address Tajen Institute of Technology, Taiwan. a.arluke@neu.edu  
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  ISSN 1088-8705 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15498727; KIE: KIE Bib: animal experimentation Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2755  
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Author (up) Arnold Gw, G.A. url  doi
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  Title Ethogram of agonistic behaviour for thoroughbred horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Applied Animal Ethology Abbreviated Journal Appl. Animal. Ethol.  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 5-25  
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  Abstract Social interactions between individual horses were observed in two herds each comprising a stallion and a number of mares. In one herd, the animals were observed whilst grazing and resting; in the other, nearest neighbours were recorded when the animals were grazing, and social interactions were noted when the animals were feeding on hay.

In both herds, the horses showed marked preferences for the company of specific individuals when they were grazing. In one herd, the associations were mainly between individuals that had been associated prior to being put in the herd. In the other herd, this was not the case. A new statistic was produced for testing for specific company preference. In both herds, the stallion was dominant over all mares and never received any aggression.

The complete social hierarchy could not be determined for the herd which was observed only when grazing because social contact was restricted to that within groups or pairs that associated together. In the herd to which hay was fed, a non-linear hierarchy existed. Statistics were produced to quantify both the general level of dominance of a horse and its specific dominance or subordination to every other horse. It is suggested that these statistics, and one for quantifying the general aggressiveness of a horse, could be widely used.

A principal component analysis allowed the horses to be characterised socially according to aggressiveness, their attitude to other horses and their attractiveness to other horses.
 
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 899  
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Author (up) Arnold, K.; Zuberbuhler, K. doi  openurl
  Title Language evolution: semantic combinations in primate calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 441 Issue 7091 Pages 303  
  Keywords Animal Migration; Animals; Eagles/physiology; *Evolution; Female; Haplorhini/*physiology; Male; Predatory Behavior; *Semantics; *Vocalization, Animal  
  Abstract Syntax sets human language apart from other natural communication systems, although its evolutionary origins are obscure. Here we show that free-ranging putty-nosed monkeys combine two vocalizations into different call sequences that are linked to specific external events, such as the presence of a predator and the imminent movement of the group. Our findings indicate that non-human primates can combine calls into higher-order sequences that have a particular meaning.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9JP, UK  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16710411 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 354  
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Author (up) Arnold, W.; Ruf, T.; Kuntz, R. doi  openurl
  Title Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) II. Energy expenditure Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication The Journal of experimental biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 209 Issue Pt 22 Pages 4566-4573  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild/*physiology; Body Temperature; Body Temperature Regulation; Eating; *Energy Metabolism; Female; Heart Rate; Horses/*physiology; Male; Motor Activity; Pregnancy; Reproduction; *Seasons  
  Abstract Many large mammals show pronounced seasonal fluctuations of metabolic rate (MR). It has been argued, based on studies in ruminants, that this variation merely results from different levels of locomotor activity (LA), and heat increment of feeding (HI). However, a recent study in red deer (Cervus elaphus) identified a previously unknown mechanism in ungulates--nocturnal hypometabolism--that contributed significantly to reduced energy expenditure, mainly during late winter. The relative contribution of these different mechanisms to seasonal adjustments of MR is still unknown, however. Therefore, in the study presented here we quantified for the first time the independent contribution of thermoregulation, LA and HI to heart rate (f(H)) as a measure of MR in a free-roaming large ungulate, the Przewalski horse or Takhi (Equus ferus przewalskii Poljakow). f(H) varied periodically throughout the year with a twofold increase from a mean of 44 beats min(-1) during December and January to a spring peak of 89 beats min(-1) at the beginning of May. LA increased from 23% per day during December and January to a mean level of 53% per day during May, and declined again thereafter. Daily mean subcutaneous body temperature (T(s)) declined continuously during winter and reached a nadir at the beginning of April (annual range was 5.8 degrees C), well after the annual low of air temperature and LA. Lower T(s) during winter contributed considerably to the reduction in f(H). In addition to thermoregulation, f(H) was affected by reproduction, LA, HI and unexplained seasonal variation, presumably reflecting to some degree changes in organ mass. The observed phase relations of seasonal changes indicate that energy expenditure was not a consequence of energy uptake but is under endogenous control, preparing the organism well in advance of seasonal energetic demands.  
  Address Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1, 1160 Vienna, Austria. walter.arnold@vu-wien.ac.at  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:17079726 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1782  
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Author (up) Aronson, L. openurl 
  Title Animal behavior case of the month. Aggression directed toward other horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Vet Med Assoc  
  Volume 213 Issue 3 Pages 358-359  
  Keywords *Aggression; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Follow-Up Studies; Horse Diseases/*diagnosis/drug therapy/psychology; Horses/*psychology; Housing, Animal; Hypothyroidism/diagnosis/drug therapy/*veterinary; Male; Physical Examination/veterinary; Thyroxine/blood/therapeutic use  
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  Address Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-1488 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:9702222 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 1935  
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Author (up) Art, T.; Lekeux, P. doi  openurl
  Title Exercise-induced physiological adjustments to stressful conditions in sports horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Livestock Production Science Abbreviated Journal Adaptability of sport horses to stressful conditions  
  Volume 92 Issue 2 Pages 101-111  
  Keywords Horse; Exercise; Stress  
  Abstract Among athletic/sports animals, the horse has a unique ability to increase its oxygen uptake by a factor of 60 during heavy exercise. This is achieved by physiological adaptations of all the links in the oxygen chain. Ventilation is increased by a factor of 30. Since the horse is a compulsory nasal breather, this hyperpnea necessitates high transmural pressure changes, which may be responsible for the dynamic collapse of the airways. Blood flow is increased by a factor of 10. Since the left ventricle is not very compliant, this increase necessitates a high filling pressure in the pulmonary circulation, which may induce capillary stress failure and exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Lastly, oxygen transport is improved by splenic contraction which increases haemoglobinemia by 50%. Sports horses frequently suffer from several problems, which are related either to endogenous or exogenous stresses experienced during their career. These stresses, caused by the use of the horse as a competition animal, may lead to several medical problems. At a systemic level, endogenous stresses include hyperkaliemia, lactacidemia, and hyperthermia; oxidative stress may induce problems at a general, and/or a pulmonary level. External factors, e.g. poor quality of inspired air, transport, hot and humid ambient conditions, and microbiological agents, may also induce abnormal body attacks, and lead to health problems.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3667  
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Author (up) Arthur, D.; Levin, E. doi  openurl
  Title Spatial and non-spatial visual discrimination learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio) Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 125-131  
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  Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) provide an excellent model for assessment of molecular processes of neurodevelopment. To determine the functional importance of molecular events during neurodevelopment, we have developed methods for assessing learning in zebrafish in a three-chambered fish tank. In the first study, simple escape response was assessed. Zebrafish tested with a moving net learned to escape to another chamber more rapidly over the six sessions of training than the fish with the still net which did not learn. Upon reversal of the contingencies, the fish switched to the inactive net rapidly learned to suppress the escape response and fish formerly in the inactive net condition learned to avoid the moving net. In the second study, spatial discrimination learning was assessed. Zebrafish were trained on a right-left position discrimination to avoid the active net. Zebrafish showed significant improvement in escape responses over six sessions of training with three trials per session. In the third study, red-blue non-spatial discrimination learning was assessed. There was a significant improvement over the first six training sessions. With the reversal of contingencies, there was a significant decline of performance. With continued training, the fish again significantly improved avoidance. These studies found an effective motivational stimulus and procedure for studying escape behavior in zebrafish; a procedure whereby zebrafish would learn both spatial and non-spatial discrimination. These methods are being developed to help determine the functional importance of molecular events during zebrafish neurodevelopment.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3372  
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