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Author (up) Apple, J.K.; Kegley, E.B.; Galloway, D.L.; Wistuba, T.J.; Rakes, L.K.; Yancey, J.W.S. url  openurl
  Title Treadmill exercise is not an effective methodology for producing the dark-cutting condition in young cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 84 Issue 11 Pages 3079-3088  
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  Abstract Holstein steer calves (n = 25) were used to evaluate the effects of treadmill exercise (TME) on blood metabolite status and formation of dark-cutting beef. Calves were blocked by BW (156 {+/-} 33.2 kg) and assigned randomly within blocks to 1 of 5 TME treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design (4 or 8 km/h for a duration of 10 or 15 min) with a nonexercised control. Venous blood was collected via indwelling jugular catheters at 10, 2, and 0 min before TME and at 2-min intervals during exercise. Nonexercised steers were placed on the treadmill but stood still for 15 min. Serum cortisol levels, as well as plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and NEFA, were similar (P > 0.05) before TME. Serum cortisol concentrations were unaffected (P > 0.05) during the first 6 min of TME, but between 8 and 15 min of TME, cortisol concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in steers exercised at 8 km/h than those exercised at 4 km/h or controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Although TME did not affect (P > 0.05) plasma glucose levels, plasma lactate concentrations in steers exercised at 8 km/h increased (P < 0.05) sharply with the onset of the TME treatment and remained elevated compared with steers exercised at 4 km/h or unexercised controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Exercised steers had the lowest (P < 0.05) plasma NEFA concentrations during the first 6 min of TME compared with unexercised steers; however, NEFA concentrations were similar after 10 and 12 min of TME, and by the end of TME, steers exercised at 8 km/h had greater (P < 0.05) NEFA levels than nonexercised controls or steers exercised at 4 km/h (speed x time, P < 0.001). Even though muscle glycogen levels and pH decreased (P < 0.001) and muscle lactate concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with increasing time postmortem, neither treadmill speed nor TME duration altered postmortem LM metabolism. Consequently, there were no (P > 0.05) differences in the color, water-holding capacity, shear force, or incidences of dark-cutting carcasses associated with preslaughter TME. It is apparent that preslaughter TME, at the speeds and durations employed in this study, failed to alter antemortem or postmortem muscle metabolism and would not be a suitable animal model for studying the formation of the dark-cutting condition in ruminants.  
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  Notes 10.2527/jas.2006-137 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2947  
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Author (up) Appleby M. doi  openurl
  Title Consciousness, Cognition and Animal Welfare – J.K. Kirkwood, R.C. Hubrecht, S. Wickens, H. O'Leary, S. Oakley (Eds.), Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 2001, 251 pp., Paperback, Supplement to Volume 10 of Animal Welfare, 15/US$ 30, ISSN 0962-7286 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 77 Issue Pages 239-241  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3485  
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Author (up) Appleby, M. url  openurl
  Title Consciousness, Cognition and Animal Welfare: J.K. Kirkwood, R.C. Hubrecht, S. Wickens, H. O'Leary, S. Oakley (Eds.), Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 2001, 251 pp., Paperback, Supplement to Volume 10 of Animal Welfare, [pound sign]15/US$ 30, ISSN 0962-7286 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 239-241  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2905  
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Author (up) Appleby, M.C. url  doi
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  Title The probability of linearity in hierarchies Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 31 Issue 2 Pages 600-608  
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  Abstract The common practice of ranking a group of animals in the closest possible order to a linear dominance hierarchy assumes that dominance among those animals is generally transitive. In fact, analysis of groups in which dominance relationships are random shows that this method has a surprisingly high probability of producing an apparently linear or near-linear hierarchy by chance. As such, the existence of transitive dominance should be tested before it is used in ranking. A suitable statistical test is described here. Chance may also contribute to the linear appearance of hierarchies based on other factors.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4286  
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Author (up) Appleby, M.C. doi  openurl
  Title Social Rank and Food Access in Red Deer Stags Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Behaviour  
  Volume 74 Issue Pages 294-309  
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  Abstract The behaviour of a free-living group of male red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) on the Isle of Rhum, Scotland, was studied throughout the year to investigate the relations between social dominance and food access. The study is based on the collection of agonistic interactions between members of the study group outside the rutting season. Analysis of these confirmed that dyadic dominance relationships summate to a very clear agonistic hierarchy, while seasonal changes in frequency and type of interactions suggested that rank in the hierarchy may affect access to food through direct feeding interference. This would constitute a selective advantage of the acquisition of high rank. A behaviour pattern in which a stag displaces a subordinate and takes over his feeding-site is proposed as a mechanism of direct feeding interference. It occurs throughout the year, but with a frequency closely related to changes in food availability and quality. The proportion of such interactions that an individual wins is related to his rank, so advantages gained from this behaviour would primarily benefit high-ranking stags. These are likely to consist of improved body condition and winter survival. The importance of high rank in obtaining access to limited food was supported by the results of a simple experiment providing a small area of fertilized grass. Most of the grazing in the area was due to the highest-ranking stag present at any time.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4860  
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Author (up) Araba, B.D.; Crowell-Davis, S.L. doi  openurl
  Title Dominance relationships and aggression of foals (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 41 Issue 1-2 Pages 1-25  
  Keywords aggression; dominance; horse; Equus caballus  
  Abstract Studied a herd of 15 Belgian brood-mares and 10 foals. Specific aspects of social structure studied were dominance-subordinance relationships, preferred associates, social spacing, aggression rates, the frequency of aggressions administered down the dominance hierarchy, and interactive play bouts. The rank order of the foals, both before and after weaning, was positively correlated with the rank order of their dams. There was also a significant relationship between a foal's rank and its total aggression or aggression rate per subordinate post-weaning. Higher ranking foals had higher rates of aggression. Over 80% of threats were directed down the dominance hierachy. The play-rank order of the foals, scored by the number of times foal left a play bout, was not significantly correlated with the rank order as scored by agonistic interactions. -from Authors  
  Address Dept Anatomy and Radiology, Univ of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA  
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  ISSN 01681591 (Issn) ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 790  
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Author (up) Arakawa, H.; Arakawa, K.; Blanchard, D.C.; Blanchard, R.J. url  doi
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  Title A new test paradigm for social recognition evidenced by urinary scent marking behavior in C57BL/6J mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav. Brain. Res.  
  Volume 190 Issue 1 Pages 97-104  
  Keywords Social recognition; Urine marking; Familiarity; Context recognition; C57BL/6J mice  
  Abstract Olfaction is a major sensory element in intraspecies recognition and communication in mice. The present study investigated scent marking behaviors of males of the highly inbred C57BL/6J (C57) strain in order to evaluate the ability of these behaviors to provide clear and consistent measures of social familiarity and response to social signals. C57 males engage in scent marking when placed in a chamber with a wire mesh partition separating them from a conspecific. Male mice (C57 or outbred CD-1 mice) showed rapid habituation of scent marking (decreased marking over trials) with repeated exposure at 24-h intervals, to a stimulus animal of the C57 or CD-1 strains, or to an empty chamber. Subsequent exposure to a genetically different novel mouse (CD-1 after CD-1 exposure, or CD-1 after C57 exposure) or to a novel context (different shaped chamber) produced recovery of marking, while responses to a novel but genetically identical mouse (C57 after C57 exposure) or to the empty chamber did not. This finding demonstrated that male mice differentiate familiar and novel conspecifics as expressed by habituation and recovery of scent marking, but neither C57 or CD-1 mice can differentiate new vs. familiar C57 males; likely due to similarities in their odor patterns. The data also indicate that scent marking can differentiate novel from familiar contexts.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4639  
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Author (up) Archer M, openurl 
  Title Preliminary studies on the palatability of grasses, legumes and herbs to horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1971 Publication Vet Rec Abbreviated Journal Vet Rec  
  Volume 89 Issue Pages 236-240  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 898  
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Author (up) Argue, C.K.; Clayton, H.M. openurl 
  Title A preliminary study of transitions between the walk and trot in dressage horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Acta Anatomica Abbreviated Journal Acta Anat (Basel)  
  Volume 146 Issue 2-3 Pages 179-182  
  Keywords Animals; Forelimb/physiology; Gait/*physiology; Hindlimb/physiology; Horses/*physiology; Locomotion/physiology; *Physical Conditioning, Animal  
  Abstract The object of this study was to determine the limb support sequence during the transitions from walk to trot and from trot to walk in dressage horses under saddle and to test the null hypothesis that the limb support sequence during the transitions is not related to the level of training. Sixteen dressage horses training at novice to FEI Grand Prix level were videotaped performing an average of 9 transitions each from walk to trot and from trot to walk. The 30-Hz videotapes were viewed in slow motion, and based on the limb support sequence the transitions were categorized into two types. In type 1 transitions there were no intermediate steps between the walk and trot sequences. Type 2 transitions were characterized by intermediate steps, including a single support phase. The Kendall rank-order correlation coefficient showed that a higher level of training was positively associated with an increased percentage of type 1 transitions for both walk-to-trot transitions (p < or = 0.05) and trot-to-walk transitions (p < or = 0.01). No significant preference for initiating or completing the trot on the left or right diagonal was found using the binomial test for individual horses and the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test for the group.  
  Address Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada  
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  ISSN 0001-5180 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:8470463 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3752  
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Author (up) Arlettaz, R.; Patthey, P.; Baltic, M.; Leu, T.; Schaub, M.; Palme, R.; Jenni-Eiermann, S. doi  openurl
  Title Spreading free-riding snow sports represent a novel serious threat for wildlife Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 274 Issue 1614 Pages 1219-1224  
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  Abstract Stress generated by humans on wildlife by continuous development of outdoor recreational activities is of increasing concern for biodiversity conservation. Human disturbance often adds to other negative impact factors affecting the dynamics of vulnerable populations. It is not known to which extent the rapidly spreading free-riding snow sports actually elicit detrimental stress (allostatic overload) upon wildlife, nor what the potential associated fitness and survival costs are. Using a non-invasive technique, we evaluated the physiological stress response induced by free-riding snow sports on a declining bird species of Alpine ecosystems. The results of a field experiment in which radiomonitored black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) were actively flushed from their snow burrows once a day during four consecutive days showed an increase in the concentration of faecal stress hormone (corticosterone) metabolites after disturbance. A large-scale comparative analysis across the southwestern Swiss Alps indicated that birds had higher levels of these metabolites in human-disturbed versus undisturbed habitats. Disturbance by snow sport free-riders appears to elevate stress, which potentially represents a new serious threat for wildlife. The fitness and survival costs of allostatic adjustments have yet to be estimated.  
  Address Zoological Institute, Division of Conservation Biology, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. raphael.arlettaz@nat.unibe.ch  
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  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:17341459 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4075  
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