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Author (up) Apfelbach, R.; Blanchard, C.D.; Blanchard, R.J.; Hayes, R.A.; McGregor, I.S. doi  openurl
  Title The effects of predator odors in mammalian prey species: A review of field and laboratory studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 29 Issue 8 Pages 1123-1144  
  Keywords Behavioral suppression; Defensive behavior; Endocrine effects; Neural effects; Predator odor; Small mammals  
  Abstract Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance and defense against predators. For many mammalian species this includes sensitivity towards predator-derived odors. The typical sources of such odors include predator skin and fur, urine, feces and anal gland secretions. Avoidance of predator odors has been observed in many mammalian prey species including rats, mice, voles, deer, rabbits, gophers, hedgehogs, possums and sheep. Field and laboratory studies show that predator odors have distinctive behavioral effects which include (1) inhibition of activity, (2) suppression of non-defensive behaviors such as foraging, feeding and grooming, and (3) shifts to habitats or secure locations where such odors are not present. The repellent effect of predator odors in the field may sometimes be of practical use in the protection of crops and natural resources, although not all attempts at this have been successful. The failure of some studies to obtain repellent effects with predator odors may relate to (1) mismatches between the predator odors and prey species employed, (2) strain and individual differences in sensitivity to predator odors, and (3) the use of predator odors that have low efficacy. In this regard, a small number of recent studies have suggested that skin and fur-derived predator odors may have a more profound lasting effect on prey species than those derived from urine or feces. Predator odors can have powerful effects on the endocrine system including a suppression of testosterone and increased levels of stress hormones such as corticosterone and ACTH. Inhibitory effects of predator odors on reproductive behavior have been demonstrated, and these are particularly prevalent in female rodent species. Pregnant female rodents exposed to predator odors may give birth to smaller litters while exposure to predator odors during early life can hinder normal development. Recent research is starting to uncover the neural circuitry activated by predator odors, leading to hypotheses about how such activation leads to observable effects on reproduction, foraging and feeding. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4565  
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Author (up) Apicella, C.L.; Marlowe, F.W.; Fowler, J.H.; Christakis, N.A. url  doi
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  Title Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 481 Issue 7382 Pages 497-501  
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  Publisher Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1038/nature10736 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5577  
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Author (up) Apple, J.K.; Kegley, E.B.; Galloway, D.L.; Wistuba, T.J.; Rakes, L.K. url  openurl
  Title Duration of restraint and isolation stress as a model to study the dark-cutting condition in cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 83 Issue 5 Pages 1202-1214  
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  Abstract Holstein steer calves (n = 32; 156 {+/-} 33.2 kg average BW) were used to evaluate the duration of restraint and isolation stress (RIS) on endocrine and blood metabolite status and the incidence of dark-cutting LM. Calves were blocked by BW and assigned randomly within blocks to one of four stressor treatments: unstressed controls (NS) or a single bout of RIS for 2, 4, or 6 h. Venous blood was collected via indwelling jugular catheters at 40, 20, and 0 min before stressor application and at 20-min intervals during RIS. Unstressed calves remained in their home stanchions and, except for blood sampling, were subjected to minimal handling and stress. Serum cortisol and plasma lactate concentrations were increased (P <0.01) during the first 20 min after RIS application, and remained elevated throughout the 6 h of RIS. Plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were greater (P <0.05) in RIS calves than in NS calves after 80 and 100 min of stressor application, respectively; however, RIS did not (P >0.80) affect plasma NEFA concentrations. Calves were slaughtered within 20 min of completion of RIS, and muscle samples were excised from right-side LM at 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after exsanguination for quantifying LM pH, and glycogen and lactate concentrations. The pH of the LM from calves subjected to 6 h of RIS exceeded 6.0, and was greater (P <0.05) at 24 and 48 h postmortem than the pH of NS calves or calves subjected to 2 or 4 h RIS. Muscle glycogen concentrations did not differ (P = 0.16; 25.58, 10.41, 13.80, and 14.41 {micro}mol/g of wet tissue weight for NS and 2-, 4-, and 6-h RIS, respectively), and LM lactate concentrations tended to be lower (P = 0.08) in calves subjected to 6 h of RIS. At 48 h after exsanguination, the LM from calves subjected to 6 h of RIS had more (P <0.05) bound and less (P <0.05) free moisture than did the LM from NS calves or calves subjected to 2 or 4 h of RIS. Additionally, the LM from RIS calves was darker (lower L* values; P <0.05) than the LM of NS calves. Visual color scores for the LM were greatest (P < 0.05) for calves subjected to 6 h of RIS and least (P <0.05) for NS calves. Subjecting lightweight Holstein calves to 6, 4, and 2 h of RIS resulted in six (75%), two (25%), and two (25%) carcasses characteristic of the dark-cutting condition, respectively. There were no dark-cutting carcasses produced from NS calves. Thus, RIS may be a reliable animal model with which to study the formation of the dark-cutting condition. N1 -  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2948  
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Author (up) Apple, J.K.; Kegley, E.B.; Galloway, D.L.; Wistuba, T.J.; Rakes, L.K.; Yancey, J.W.S. url  openurl
  Title Treadmill exercise is not an effective methodology for producing the dark-cutting condition in young cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 84 Issue 11 Pages 3079-3088  
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  Abstract Holstein steer calves (n = 25) were used to evaluate the effects of treadmill exercise (TME) on blood metabolite status and formation of dark-cutting beef. Calves were blocked by BW (156 {+/-} 33.2 kg) and assigned randomly within blocks to 1 of 5 TME treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design (4 or 8 km/h for a duration of 10 or 15 min) with a nonexercised control. Venous blood was collected via indwelling jugular catheters at 10, 2, and 0 min before TME and at 2-min intervals during exercise. Nonexercised steers were placed on the treadmill but stood still for 15 min. Serum cortisol levels, as well as plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and NEFA, were similar (P > 0.05) before TME. Serum cortisol concentrations were unaffected (P > 0.05) during the first 6 min of TME, but between 8 and 15 min of TME, cortisol concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in steers exercised at 8 km/h than those exercised at 4 km/h or controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Although TME did not affect (P > 0.05) plasma glucose levels, plasma lactate concentrations in steers exercised at 8 km/h increased (P < 0.05) sharply with the onset of the TME treatment and remained elevated compared with steers exercised at 4 km/h or unexercised controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Exercised steers had the lowest (P < 0.05) plasma NEFA concentrations during the first 6 min of TME compared with unexercised steers; however, NEFA concentrations were similar after 10 and 12 min of TME, and by the end of TME, steers exercised at 8 km/h had greater (P < 0.05) NEFA levels than nonexercised controls or steers exercised at 4 km/h (speed x time, P < 0.001). Even though muscle glycogen levels and pH decreased (P < 0.001) and muscle lactate concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with increasing time postmortem, neither treadmill speed nor TME duration altered postmortem LM metabolism. Consequently, there were no (P > 0.05) differences in the color, water-holding capacity, shear force, or incidences of dark-cutting carcasses associated with preslaughter TME. It is apparent that preslaughter TME, at the speeds and durations employed in this study, failed to alter antemortem or postmortem muscle metabolism and would not be a suitable animal model for studying the formation of the dark-cutting condition in ruminants.  
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  Notes 10.2527/jas.2006-137 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2947  
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Author (up) Appleby M. doi  openurl
  Title Consciousness, Cognition and Animal Welfare – J.K. Kirkwood, R.C. Hubrecht, S. Wickens, H. O'Leary, S. Oakley (Eds.), Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 2001, 251 pp., Paperback, Supplement to Volume 10 of Animal Welfare, 15/US$ 30, ISSN 0962-7286 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 77 Issue Pages 239-241  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3485  
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Author (up) Appleby, M. url  openurl
  Title Consciousness, Cognition and Animal Welfare: J.K. Kirkwood, R.C. Hubrecht, S. Wickens, H. O'Leary, S. Oakley (Eds.), Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 2001, 251 pp., Paperback, Supplement to Volume 10 of Animal Welfare, [pound sign]15/US$ 30, ISSN 0962-7286 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 239-241  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2905  
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Author (up) Appleby, M.C. url  doi
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  Title The probability of linearity in hierarchies Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 31 Issue 2 Pages 600-608  
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  Abstract The common practice of ranking a group of animals in the closest possible order to a linear dominance hierarchy assumes that dominance among those animals is generally transitive. In fact, analysis of groups in which dominance relationships are random shows that this method has a surprisingly high probability of producing an apparently linear or near-linear hierarchy by chance. As such, the existence of transitive dominance should be tested before it is used in ranking. A suitable statistical test is described here. Chance may also contribute to the linear appearance of hierarchies based on other factors.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4286  
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Author (up) Appleby, M.C. doi  openurl
  Title Social Rank and Food Access in Red Deer Stags Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Behaviour  
  Volume 74 Issue Pages 294-309  
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  Abstract The behaviour of a free-living group of male red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) on the Isle of Rhum, Scotland, was studied throughout the year to investigate the relations between social dominance and food access. The study is based on the collection of agonistic interactions between members of the study group outside the rutting season. Analysis of these confirmed that dyadic dominance relationships summate to a very clear agonistic hierarchy, while seasonal changes in frequency and type of interactions suggested that rank in the hierarchy may affect access to food through direct feeding interference. This would constitute a selective advantage of the acquisition of high rank. A behaviour pattern in which a stag displaces a subordinate and takes over his feeding-site is proposed as a mechanism of direct feeding interference. It occurs throughout the year, but with a frequency closely related to changes in food availability and quality. The proportion of such interactions that an individual wins is related to his rank, so advantages gained from this behaviour would primarily benefit high-ranking stags. These are likely to consist of improved body condition and winter survival. The importance of high rank in obtaining access to limited food was supported by the results of a simple experiment providing a small area of fertilized grass. Most of the grazing in the area was due to the highest-ranking stag present at any time.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4860  
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Author (up) Araba, B.D.; Crowell-Davis, S.L. doi  openurl
  Title Dominance relationships and aggression of foals (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 41 Issue 1-2 Pages 1-25  
  Keywords aggression; dominance; horse; Equus caballus  
  Abstract Studied a herd of 15 Belgian brood-mares and 10 foals. Specific aspects of social structure studied were dominance-subordinance relationships, preferred associates, social spacing, aggression rates, the frequency of aggressions administered down the dominance hierarchy, and interactive play bouts. The rank order of the foals, both before and after weaning, was positively correlated with the rank order of their dams. There was also a significant relationship between a foal's rank and its total aggression or aggression rate per subordinate post-weaning. Higher ranking foals had higher rates of aggression. Over 80% of threats were directed down the dominance hierachy. The play-rank order of the foals, scored by the number of times foal left a play bout, was not significantly correlated with the rank order as scored by agonistic interactions. -from Authors  
  Address Dept Anatomy and Radiology, Univ of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA  
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  ISSN 01681591 (Issn) ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 790  
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Author (up) Arakawa, H.; Arakawa, K.; Blanchard, D.C.; Blanchard, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A new test paradigm for social recognition evidenced by urinary scent marking behavior in C57BL/6J mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav. Brain. Res.  
  Volume 190 Issue 1 Pages 97-104  
  Keywords Social recognition; Urine marking; Familiarity; Context recognition; C57BL/6J mice  
  Abstract Olfaction is a major sensory element in intraspecies recognition and communication in mice. The present study investigated scent marking behaviors of males of the highly inbred C57BL/6J (C57) strain in order to evaluate the ability of these behaviors to provide clear and consistent measures of social familiarity and response to social signals. C57 males engage in scent marking when placed in a chamber with a wire mesh partition separating them from a conspecific. Male mice (C57 or outbred CD-1 mice) showed rapid habituation of scent marking (decreased marking over trials) with repeated exposure at 24-h intervals, to a stimulus animal of the C57 or CD-1 strains, or to an empty chamber. Subsequent exposure to a genetically different novel mouse (CD-1 after CD-1 exposure, or CD-1 after C57 exposure) or to a novel context (different shaped chamber) produced recovery of marking, while responses to a novel but genetically identical mouse (C57 after C57 exposure) or to the empty chamber did not. This finding demonstrated that male mice differentiate familiar and novel conspecifics as expressed by habituation and recovery of scent marking, but neither C57 or CD-1 mice can differentiate new vs. familiar C57 males; likely due to similarities in their odor patterns. The data also indicate that scent marking can differentiate novel from familiar contexts.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4639  
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