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Author (up) Antonius. O., openurl 
  Title Beobachtungen an Einhufern in Schönbrunn. XVI. Das Damarazebra Type Journal Article
  Year 1940 Publication Zoologische Garten Abbreviated Journal Zool. Garten.  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 247-257  
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  Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 888  
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Author (up) Antonius. O., openurl 
  Title Zur Rückzüchtung des polnischen Wildpferdes. II Type Journal Article
  Year 1938 Publication Zoologische Garten Abbreviated Journal Zool. Garten.  
  Volume 10 Issue Pages 102-107  
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  Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 886  
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Author (up) Antonius. O., openurl 
  Title Über Herdenbildung und Paarungseigentümlichkeiten der Einhufer Type Journal Article
  Year 1937 Publication Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z. Tierpsychol.  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 259-289  
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  Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 882  
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Author (up) Antonius. O., openurl 
  Title Über Tiergarten-Exemplare von Equus zebra frederici Trouess Type Journal Article
  Year 1937 Publication Zoologische Garten Abbreviated Journal Zool. Garten.  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 145-149  
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  Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 883  
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Author (up) Antonius. O., openurl 
  Title Zur geographischen Verbreitung des Burchellzebras und des echten Quaggas Type Journal Article
  Year 1935 Publication Zoologische Garten Abbreviated Journal Zool. Garten.  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 1-7  
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  Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 880  
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Author (up) Antonius. O., openurl 
  Title Die Rückzüchtung des polnischen Wildpferdes Type Journal Article
  Year 1935 Publication Zoologische Garten Abbreviated Journal Zool. Garten.  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 190-200  
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  Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 881  
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Author (up) Apfelbach, R.; Blanchard, C.D.; Blanchard, R.J.; Hayes, R.A.; McGregor, I.S. doi  openurl
  Title The effects of predator odors in mammalian prey species: A review of field and laboratory studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 29 Issue 8 Pages 1123-1144  
  Keywords Behavioral suppression; Defensive behavior; Endocrine effects; Neural effects; Predator odor; Small mammals  
  Abstract Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance and defense against predators. For many mammalian species this includes sensitivity towards predator-derived odors. The typical sources of such odors include predator skin and fur, urine, feces and anal gland secretions. Avoidance of predator odors has been observed in many mammalian prey species including rats, mice, voles, deer, rabbits, gophers, hedgehogs, possums and sheep. Field and laboratory studies show that predator odors have distinctive behavioral effects which include (1) inhibition of activity, (2) suppression of non-defensive behaviors such as foraging, feeding and grooming, and (3) shifts to habitats or secure locations where such odors are not present. The repellent effect of predator odors in the field may sometimes be of practical use in the protection of crops and natural resources, although not all attempts at this have been successful. The failure of some studies to obtain repellent effects with predator odors may relate to (1) mismatches between the predator odors and prey species employed, (2) strain and individual differences in sensitivity to predator odors, and (3) the use of predator odors that have low efficacy. In this regard, a small number of recent studies have suggested that skin and fur-derived predator odors may have a more profound lasting effect on prey species than those derived from urine or feces. Predator odors can have powerful effects on the endocrine system including a suppression of testosterone and increased levels of stress hormones such as corticosterone and ACTH. Inhibitory effects of predator odors on reproductive behavior have been demonstrated, and these are particularly prevalent in female rodent species. Pregnant female rodents exposed to predator odors may give birth to smaller litters while exposure to predator odors during early life can hinder normal development. Recent research is starting to uncover the neural circuitry activated by predator odors, leading to hypotheses about how such activation leads to observable effects on reproduction, foraging and feeding. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4565  
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Author (up) Apicella, C.L.; Marlowe, F.W.; Fowler, J.H.; Christakis, N.A. url  doi
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  Title Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 481 Issue 7382 Pages 497-501  
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  Publisher Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Place of Publication Editor  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes 10.1038/nature10736 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5577  
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Author (up) Apple, J.K.; Kegley, E.B.; Galloway, D.L.; Wistuba, T.J.; Rakes, L.K. url  openurl
  Title Duration of restraint and isolation stress as a model to study the dark-cutting condition in cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 83 Issue 5 Pages 1202-1214  
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  Abstract Holstein steer calves (n = 32; 156 {+/-} 33.2 kg average BW) were used to evaluate the duration of restraint and isolation stress (RIS) on endocrine and blood metabolite status and the incidence of dark-cutting LM. Calves were blocked by BW and assigned randomly within blocks to one of four stressor treatments: unstressed controls (NS) or a single bout of RIS for 2, 4, or 6 h. Venous blood was collected via indwelling jugular catheters at 40, 20, and 0 min before stressor application and at 20-min intervals during RIS. Unstressed calves remained in their home stanchions and, except for blood sampling, were subjected to minimal handling and stress. Serum cortisol and plasma lactate concentrations were increased (P <0.01) during the first 20 min after RIS application, and remained elevated throughout the 6 h of RIS. Plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were greater (P <0.05) in RIS calves than in NS calves after 80 and 100 min of stressor application, respectively; however, RIS did not (P >0.80) affect plasma NEFA concentrations. Calves were slaughtered within 20 min of completion of RIS, and muscle samples were excised from right-side LM at 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after exsanguination for quantifying LM pH, and glycogen and lactate concentrations. The pH of the LM from calves subjected to 6 h of RIS exceeded 6.0, and was greater (P <0.05) at 24 and 48 h postmortem than the pH of NS calves or calves subjected to 2 or 4 h RIS. Muscle glycogen concentrations did not differ (P = 0.16; 25.58, 10.41, 13.80, and 14.41 {micro}mol/g of wet tissue weight for NS and 2-, 4-, and 6-h RIS, respectively), and LM lactate concentrations tended to be lower (P = 0.08) in calves subjected to 6 h of RIS. At 48 h after exsanguination, the LM from calves subjected to 6 h of RIS had more (P <0.05) bound and less (P <0.05) free moisture than did the LM from NS calves or calves subjected to 2 or 4 h of RIS. Additionally, the LM from RIS calves was darker (lower L* values; P <0.05) than the LM of NS calves. Visual color scores for the LM were greatest (P < 0.05) for calves subjected to 6 h of RIS and least (P <0.05) for NS calves. Subjecting lightweight Holstein calves to 6, 4, and 2 h of RIS resulted in six (75%), two (25%), and two (25%) carcasses characteristic of the dark-cutting condition, respectively. There were no dark-cutting carcasses produced from NS calves. Thus, RIS may be a reliable animal model with which to study the formation of the dark-cutting condition. N1 -  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2948  
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Author (up) Apple, J.K.; Kegley, E.B.; Galloway, D.L.; Wistuba, T.J.; Rakes, L.K.; Yancey, J.W.S. url  openurl
  Title Treadmill exercise is not an effective methodology for producing the dark-cutting condition in young cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 84 Issue 11 Pages 3079-3088  
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  Abstract Holstein steer calves (n = 25) were used to evaluate the effects of treadmill exercise (TME) on blood metabolite status and formation of dark-cutting beef. Calves were blocked by BW (156 {+/-} 33.2 kg) and assigned randomly within blocks to 1 of 5 TME treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design (4 or 8 km/h for a duration of 10 or 15 min) with a nonexercised control. Venous blood was collected via indwelling jugular catheters at 10, 2, and 0 min before TME and at 2-min intervals during exercise. Nonexercised steers were placed on the treadmill but stood still for 15 min. Serum cortisol levels, as well as plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and NEFA, were similar (P > 0.05) before TME. Serum cortisol concentrations were unaffected (P > 0.05) during the first 6 min of TME, but between 8 and 15 min of TME, cortisol concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in steers exercised at 8 km/h than those exercised at 4 km/h or controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Although TME did not affect (P > 0.05) plasma glucose levels, plasma lactate concentrations in steers exercised at 8 km/h increased (P < 0.05) sharply with the onset of the TME treatment and remained elevated compared with steers exercised at 4 km/h or unexercised controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Exercised steers had the lowest (P < 0.05) plasma NEFA concentrations during the first 6 min of TME compared with unexercised steers; however, NEFA concentrations were similar after 10 and 12 min of TME, and by the end of TME, steers exercised at 8 km/h had greater (P < 0.05) NEFA levels than nonexercised controls or steers exercised at 4 km/h (speed x time, P < 0.001). Even though muscle glycogen levels and pH decreased (P < 0.001) and muscle lactate concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with increasing time postmortem, neither treadmill speed nor TME duration altered postmortem LM metabolism. Consequently, there were no (P > 0.05) differences in the color, water-holding capacity, shear force, or incidences of dark-cutting carcasses associated with preslaughter TME. It is apparent that preslaughter TME, at the speeds and durations employed in this study, failed to alter antemortem or postmortem muscle metabolism and would not be a suitable animal model for studying the formation of the dark-cutting condition in ruminants.  
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  Notes 10.2527/jas.2006-137 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2947  
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