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Author (up) Ahmadinejad, M.
Title Promotion of stud management using equine applied science programs Mohsen A. Nejad University of applied science and technology, Tehran, Iran Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords stud; management; applied science; program
Abstract The University of Applied Science and Technology (UAST) was founded in 1992, with the objective to promote the technical as well as the scientific knowledge of the job holders, mainly those who are working as low-skilled or semi-skilled laborers in different sectors of the economy. With a growing importance of the equestrian sports and horse husbandry, there is an increasing need for well-trained professionals in the equine sector. The need for specific equine university programs has been questioned occasionally; however, neither university programs in the equine veterinary medicine (focusing on diseased horses) nor animal science (focusing on food-producing farm animals) meet the broad requirements of today's equine industry. So far four programs in the equine sector has been approved in the UAST; an associate diploma program in the horse husbandry, an associate diploma program in the equine coaching, a bachelor program (2 + 2 years course) in the horse husbandry and a post graduate program in the horse physiotherapy and massage at master level (Msc. program). The main specifications of the applied science programs are ; the abilities of the applicants and their attainable jobs are pre-planned before starting the program ( each applicant will be aware of what abilities he/she would earn and what jobs he/she would attain after graduating from such scientific and applied programs). The first academic program in the equine science and management in Iran was established in 1998 by the UAST. The 2 year associate diploma program (74 credit points) includes sciences, anatomy, physiology, genetics, nutrition, horse behavior, economics, marketing, management, horse disease and disorders, basics of shoeing and basics of ridding. In 2004 when more than 200 students were graduated in this program a two years course (a 2 + 2 bachelor program) was established. In this program almost all subject taught at the previous program were taught, but at advance level. Courses are provided by the partner higher education centers affiliated to the UAST and approved by the Iranian Equestrian Federation and by the lecturers from practice and ridding clubs. Lectures and seminars are complemented by a scientific thesis and placements in the equine industry. Out of 400-500 applicants each year, 60 students are selected (to study in two higher education centers) on the basis of their previous activities, a written test and interviews. The majority of the students enter the program with previous experience of working with the horses and about 35% of the students enter the program directly after leaving secondary school. More than 50% of the graduates enter into the subsequent BSc. program in horse husbandry. Other 50% graduates (almost those with previous experience) return to the horse husbandry business and works as stud managers or management assistants in ridding clubs. In conclusion, graduates of the University of Applied Science and Technology programs follow a wide-range of professional and academic activities within the equine industry as well as equine medicine (graduates of the UAST's master program in the horse physiotherapy). This spectrum is by far more extensive than the sector covered by merely academic training. With practical experience obtained on the job, adequately qualified graduates will more and more obtain leading positions. KW -
Address
Corporate Author Ahmadinejad, M. Thesis
Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5500
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Author (up) Ahmadinejad, M.
Title Influence of Sex and Age on Color discrimination in caspian Pony Type Conference Article
Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Although an early and influential review led to the often-cited conclusion that color discrimination is rare among mammals, more recent findings suggest that it is actually widespread. According to jacobes, all non-nocturnal mammalian species that have adequately exmined show some color vision capacity. Data on the presence and characteristics and the influence of sex and age on color vision in the horse, remain spares and non in Caspian pony. Eight Caspian ponies were presented with a series of two-choice color vs. grey discrimination problems. One mare pony was eliminated due to traumatic injury to her eye. Experiments were performed in a box of 3 * 3 meter containing a wall with two translucent panels that were illuminated from behind by light projected through color or grey filters to provide the discriminative stimuli. Ponies were first adopted to the stall (box) with two panels in it and then learned to push one of the panels in order to receive the food rewards behind positive stimuli in an achromatic light-dark discrimination task. The ponies were then tested on their abilities to discriminate between grey and four individual colors; red; 617nm, yellow; 581nm, green; 538nm and blue 470 nm. The answer to the question \“do the ponies see color\” was yes but sex and age had no influence on the color discrimination of the ponies .
Address
Corporate Author Ahmadinejad, M. Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008
Notes Talk 15 min IESM 2008 Approved yes
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4501
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Author (up) Ahmadinejad, M., Tavakoli, S.
Title Common injuries in athletic horses in TehranĎs riding clubs Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Various forms of intensive sport activities places stresses on the musculoskeletal system of the horse while involve in any forms of the activity (race &/or training). The musculoskeletal system of the horse has an inherent ability to adapt to the demands of high speed exercise, though if a threshold in adaptive capacity is exceeded, then some forms of damages to the structures of the musculoskeletal system may result. In case, if the insult (race &/or training) continued, it may worsen the repair and adaptation process and put the horse at risk of more serious musculoskeletal injury.

The result of this research describe the finding of the study performed in different breeds of horses involved in various types of activity in Tehranís riding clubs, concentrating on the types of injuries observed in those horses. The study was then focused on the types of injuries observed in various activities (events) horses involved in.

Totally 400 horses took part in various activities during race season (March – September) in Tehranís riding clubs, out of which 26 horses injured, in most of which musculoskeletal system of the fore limbs were involved.
From the sexual aspect of the study the percentages of the stallions were more (54%) when compared to the mares (46%). In this study the relation between the sex, breed, age and the weight of the horses with anatomical site of the injury, outcome of the injury, climate and the type of the event (jumping, polo etc.) were studied and compare with each other.
Bibliography:

Hill AE, Stover SM, Gardner IA, Kane AJ, Whitcomb MB, Emerson AG, 2001. Risk factors for and outcomes non catastrophic suspensory apparatus injury in Thoroughbred race horse. J.A.V.M.A. 218, 1136-44

Johnson BJ 1993. A look at race horse breakdowns. J.Eq.Vet.Scie. 13, 129-32

Morse SJ. 1999. A longitudinal study of racing thoroughbreds; performance during the first year of racing. Aust.Vet.J. 77, 105-12

Peloso JG, Mundy GD, Cohen ND. 1994. Prevalence of, and factors associated with, musculoskeletal racing injuries of thoroughbreds. J.A.V.M.A. 204, 620-6
Address
Corporate Author Ahmadinejad, M. Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor Krueger, K.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference IESM 2012
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5495
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Author (up) Ahrendt, L.P.; Christensen, J.W.; Ladewig, J.
Title The ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through social observation Type Abstract
Year 2012 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 139 Issue 1 Pages 105-113
Keywords Horse; Social learning; Social interaction; Instrumental task; Investigative behaviour; Aggression
Abstract The ability of horses to learn through social observation may ease the implementation of new management systems, because the use of automatic feeders etc. by naive horses could be facilitated by observation of experienced horses. However, previous studies found no documentation for observational learning abilities in horses. This study aimed to investigate the ability of horses to learn an instrumental task from a familiar conspecific when social interaction was allowed during the demonstration. Two similar experiments were performed. In the first experiment, Observer horses (n=11) participated in ten successive demonstrations, where a trained Demonstrator opened an operant device by pushing a sliding lid aside with the muzzle in order to obtain a food reward. Immediately after the demonstrations the Observer horses were given the opportunity to operate the device alone. Control horses (n=11) were aware that the device contained food but were presented to the operant device without demonstration of the task. The learning criterion was at least two openings. Accomplishment of and latency to accomplish the learning criterion, and investigative behaviour towards the operant device were recorded. Five Observers and one Control, out of the eleven horses in each treatment group, accomplished the learning criterion. Even though this presents a high odds ratio (OR) in favour of the Observer treatment (OR=7.6), there was no significant difference between the treatment groups (P=0.15). Analysis of investigative behaviour showed, however, that the demonstrations increased the motivation of the Observer horses to investigate the device. Subsequently, a similar experiment was performed in a practical setting with 44 test horses (mixed age, gender and breed). We used the same operant device and the same number and type of demonstrations, although the horses were held on a loose rope to minimise aggression. In this second experiment, six of 23 Observer horses and five of 21 Control horses learned the instrumental task, representing no influence of the demonstration. Thus, this study did not demonstrate an ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through observation.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ S0168-1591(12)00087-1 Serial 5773
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Author (up) Ajie, B.C.; Pintor, L.M.; Watters, J.; Kerby, J.L.; Hammond, J.I.; Sih, A.
Title A framework for determining the fitness consequences of antipredator behavior Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol.
Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 267-270
Keywords
Abstract Behavioral ecologists have long been interested in understanding the adaptive value of antipredator behavior (Sih 1987Go; Lima and Dill 1990Go; Lima 1998Go). A recent review by Lind and Cresswell (2005)Go, however, noted some important difficulties with quantifying the fitness consequences of antipredator behaviors. In essence, Lind and Cresswell suggest that most studies do not provide strong evidence on the adaptive value of antipredator behavior because they do not consider 1) trade-offs between antipredator and reproductive performance, 2) the abilities of organisms to avoid fitness losses associated with constraints on focal traits by employing behavioral alternatives (behavioral compensation), and 3) the effects of behavioral defenses at different stages of the predation sequence. The authors rightfully assert that an understanding of these issues can only be accomplished by measuring multiple traits and fitness components (i.e., survival and reproduction). Nevertheless, the question of how to integrate such data into
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes 10.1093/beheco/arl064 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4087
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Author (up) AKELEY, CE
Title The wild Ass of Somaliland Type Book Chapter
Year 1914 Publication American Museum Journal Abbreviated Journal Amer Mus J
Volume 14 Issue Pages 113-117
Keywords
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Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved yes
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 107
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Author (up) Akins, C.K.; Klein, E.D.; Zentall, T.R.
Title Imitative learning in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using the bidirectional control procedure Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Animal learning & behavior Abbreviated Journal Anim Learn Behav
Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 275-281
Keywords Animals; Attention; Behavior, Animal; Coturnix; *Discrimination Learning; *Imitative Behavior; Male; Smell
Abstract In the bidirectional control procedure, observers are exposed to a conspecific demonstrator responding to a manipulandum in one of two directions (e.g., left vs. right). This procedure controls for socially mediated effects (the mere presence of a conspecific) and stimulus enhancement (attention drawn to a manipulandum by its movement), and it has the added advantage of being symmetrical (the two different responses are similar in topography). Imitative learning is demonstrated when the observers make the response in the direction that they observed it being made. Recently, however, it has been suggested that when such evidence is found with a predominantly olfactory animal, such as the rat, it may result artifactually from odor cues left on one side of the manipulandum by the demonstrator. In the present experiment, we found that Japanese quail, for which odor cues are not likely to play a role, also showed significant correspondence between the direction in which the demonstrator and the observer push a screen to gain access to reward. Furthermore, control quail that observed the screen move, when the movement of the screen was not produced by the demonstrator, did not show similar correspondence between the direction of screen movement observed and that performed by the observer. Thus, with the appropriate control, the bidirectional procedure appears to be useful for studying imitation in avian species.
Address University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0044, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0090-4996 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12391793 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 239
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Author (up) Akins, C.K.; Zentall, T.R.
Title Imitative learning in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using the two-action method Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983) Abbreviated Journal J Comp Psychol
Volume 110 Issue 3 Pages 316-320
Keywords Animals; Appetitive Behavior; *Attention; *Coturnix; *Imitative Behavior; Male; *Motivation; Transfer (Psychology)
Abstract The study of imitative learning in animals has suffered from the presence of a number of confounding motivational and attentional factors (e.g., social facilitation and stimulus enhancement). The two-action method avoids these problems by exposing observers to demonstrators performing a response (e.g., operating a treadle) using 1 of 2 distinctive topographies (e.g., by pecking or by stepping). Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) observers exposed to conspecific demonstrators showed a high correlation between the topography of the response they observed and the response they performed. These data provide strong evidence for the existence of true imitative learning in an active, precocious bird under conditions that control for alternative accounts.
Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506-0044, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0735-7036 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:8858851 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 254
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Author (up) Albentosa, M.J.; Kjaer, J.B.; Nicol, C.J.
Title Strain and age differences in behaviour, fear response and pecking tendency in laying hens Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci
Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 333-344
Keywords Age Factors; Aggression/*physiology; Animal Husbandry; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Breeding; Chickens/genetics/*physiology; Fear/*physiology; Feathers/*injuries; Female; Housing, Animal; Population Density; Social Behavior
Abstract 1. Behaviours associated with a high or low tendency to feather peck could be used as predictors of feather pecking behaviour in selective breeding programmes. This study investigated how strain and age at testing influenced responses in behavioural tests. 2. Four layer-type strains (ISA Brown, Columbian Blacktail, Ixworth and a high feather pecking (HP) and a low feather pecking (LP) line of White Leghorn) were reared in 6 same-strain/line pens of 8 birds from one day old. Birds in half the pens were given an open field test, a novel object test and a test with loose feather bundles between 4 and 12 weeks of age and a tonic immobility (TI) test at 13 weeks of age. All pens were tested with fixed feather bundles at 26 weeks, and undisturbed behaviour in the home pens was videoed at 1 and 27 weeks of age. Daily records of plumage damage were used as an indicator of feather pecking activity in the home pens. 3. Strain did not influence novel object test, open field test or loose feather test behaviour, although age effects in all three tests indicated a reduction in fearfulness and/or an increase in exploratory behaviour with increasing age. 4. White Leghorns showed longer TI durations than the other strains but less pecking at fixed feather bundles than ISA Browns and Columbian Blacktails. 5. There were few associations between behaviour in the 5 different tests, indicating that birds did not have overall behavioural traits that were consistent across different contexts. This suggests hens cannot easily be categorised into different behavioural 'types', based on their test responses and casts doubt on the usefulness of tests as predictors of feather pecking.
Address Centre for Behavioural Biology, Division of Farm Animal Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, England. MAlbentosa@lincoln.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:13677322 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 80
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Author (up) Albers, P.C.H.; de Vries, H.
Title Elo-rating as a tool in the sequential estimation of dominance strengths Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 61 Issue 2 Pages 489-495
Keywords
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Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 858
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