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Author (up) Akins, C.K.; Klein, E.D.; Zentall, T.R.
Title Imitative learning in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using the bidirectional control procedure Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Animal learning & behavior Abbreviated Journal Anim Learn Behav
Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 275-281
Keywords Animals; Attention; Behavior, Animal; Coturnix; *Discrimination Learning; *Imitative Behavior; Male; Smell
Abstract In the bidirectional control procedure, observers are exposed to a conspecific demonstrator responding to a manipulandum in one of two directions (e.g., left vs. right). This procedure controls for socially mediated effects (the mere presence of a conspecific) and stimulus enhancement (attention drawn to a manipulandum by its movement), and it has the added advantage of being symmetrical (the two different responses are similar in topography). Imitative learning is demonstrated when the observers make the response in the direction that they observed it being made. Recently, however, it has been suggested that when such evidence is found with a predominantly olfactory animal, such as the rat, it may result artifactually from odor cues left on one side of the manipulandum by the demonstrator. In the present experiment, we found that Japanese quail, for which odor cues are not likely to play a role, also showed significant correspondence between the direction in which the demonstrator and the observer push a screen to gain access to reward. Furthermore, control quail that observed the screen move, when the movement of the screen was not produced by the demonstrator, did not show similar correspondence between the direction of screen movement observed and that performed by the observer. Thus, with the appropriate control, the bidirectional procedure appears to be useful for studying imitation in avian species.
Address University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0044, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0090-4996 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12391793 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 239
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Author (up) Akins, C.K.; Zentall, T.R.
Title Imitative learning in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using the two-action method Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983) Abbreviated Journal J Comp Psychol
Volume 110 Issue 3 Pages 316-320
Keywords Animals; Appetitive Behavior; *Attention; *Coturnix; *Imitative Behavior; Male; *Motivation; Transfer (Psychology)
Abstract The study of imitative learning in animals has suffered from the presence of a number of confounding motivational and attentional factors (e.g., social facilitation and stimulus enhancement). The two-action method avoids these problems by exposing observers to demonstrators performing a response (e.g., operating a treadle) using 1 of 2 distinctive topographies (e.g., by pecking or by stepping). Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) observers exposed to conspecific demonstrators showed a high correlation between the topography of the response they observed and the response they performed. These data provide strong evidence for the existence of true imitative learning in an active, precocious bird under conditions that control for alternative accounts.
Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506-0044, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0735-7036 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:8858851 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 254
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Author (up) Albentosa, M.J.; Kjaer, J.B.; Nicol, C.J.
Title Strain and age differences in behaviour, fear response and pecking tendency in laying hens Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci
Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 333-344
Keywords Age Factors; Aggression/*physiology; Animal Husbandry; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Breeding; Chickens/genetics/*physiology; Fear/*physiology; Feathers/*injuries; Female; Housing, Animal; Population Density; Social Behavior
Abstract 1. Behaviours associated with a high or low tendency to feather peck could be used as predictors of feather pecking behaviour in selective breeding programmes. This study investigated how strain and age at testing influenced responses in behavioural tests. 2. Four layer-type strains (ISA Brown, Columbian Blacktail, Ixworth and a high feather pecking (HP) and a low feather pecking (LP) line of White Leghorn) were reared in 6 same-strain/line pens of 8 birds from one day old. Birds in half the pens were given an open field test, a novel object test and a test with loose feather bundles between 4 and 12 weeks of age and a tonic immobility (TI) test at 13 weeks of age. All pens were tested with fixed feather bundles at 26 weeks, and undisturbed behaviour in the home pens was videoed at 1 and 27 weeks of age. Daily records of plumage damage were used as an indicator of feather pecking activity in the home pens. 3. Strain did not influence novel object test, open field test or loose feather test behaviour, although age effects in all three tests indicated a reduction in fearfulness and/or an increase in exploratory behaviour with increasing age. 4. White Leghorns showed longer TI durations than the other strains but less pecking at fixed feather bundles than ISA Browns and Columbian Blacktails. 5. There were few associations between behaviour in the 5 different tests, indicating that birds did not have overall behavioural traits that were consistent across different contexts. This suggests hens cannot easily be categorised into different behavioural 'types', based on their test responses and casts doubt on the usefulness of tests as predictors of feather pecking.
Address Centre for Behavioural Biology, Division of Farm Animal Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, England. MAlbentosa@lincoln.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:13677322 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 80
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Author (up) Albers, P.C.H.; de Vries, H.
Title Elo-rating as a tool in the sequential estimation of dominance strengths Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 61 Issue 2 Pages 489-495
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 858
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Author (up) Albiach-Serrano, A.; Guillen-Salazar, F.; Call, J.
Title Mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus lunulatus) solve the reverse contingency task without a modified procedure Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Problem solving often relies on generating new responses while inhibiting others, particularly prepotent ones. A paradigm to study inhibitory abilities is the reverse contingency task (Boysen and Berntson in J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 21:82-86, 1995), in which two different quantities of food are offered to an individual who receives the array he did not choose. Therefore, mastery of the task demands selecting the smaller quantity to obtain the larger one. Several non-human primates have been tested in the reverse contingency task. To date, only great apes and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have succeeded in the original task, with no need of procedural modifications as the large-or-none contingency, correction trials or symbolic stimuli substituting for actual food quantities. Here, four mangabeys were presented with two stimulus arrays of one and four raisins in the context of the reverse contingency task. Three of them learned to perform the task well above chance without a modified procedure. They also reached above-chance performance when presented with two stimulus arrays of zero and four raisins, despite the initial difficulty of choosing a null quantity. After a period of 7-10 months, in which the animals were not tested on any task, all three subjects continued to perform well, even when presented with novel quantity pairs.
Address Unidad de Etologia y Bienestar Animal, Universidad Cardenal Herrera, 46113, Moncada (Valencia), Spain, analse@alumni.uv.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17318622 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2418
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Author (up) Albright, J.; Sun, X.; Houpt, K.
Title Does cribbing behavior in horses vary with dietary taste or direct gastric stimuli? Type Journal Article
Year Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl Anim Behav Sci
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Horse; Stereotypy; Cribbing; Diet
Abstract Abstract Concentrated feed diets have been shown to drastically increase the rate of the cribbing, an oral stereotypy in horses, but the specific component causing the rise has not been identified. Furthermore, the mechanism through which feed affects cribbing has not been explored. In the first experiment of this study, we quantified the latency to crib and number of cribs in 15 min after the horses tasted various grain, sugar, and artificial sweetener solutions. Undiluted grain stimulated the most cribs (P < 0.01) compared with all other solutions, and shortest latency to crib, although this was significantly higher only when compared with diluted grain (P = 0.03). In Experiment 2, latency to crib and number of cribs in 15 min after the grain and sugar solutions were administered via nasograstric tube were also evaluated. There were no statistical differences among cribbing responses to grain, fructose, and water administered directly to the stomach although grain stimulated cribbing behavior more quickly than 10% fructose (P = 0.03) and 100% tap water (P = 0.04). These results confirm that highly palatable diets, possibly mediated through the opioid and dopaminergic systems, are one of the most potent inducers of cribbing behavior. The highly palatable taste remains the probable “cribogenic” factor of concentrated diet, although gastric and post-gastric effects cannot be excluded.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6123
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Author (up) Albright, J.D.; Mohammed, H.O.; Heleski, C.R.; Wickens, C.L.; Houpt, K.A.
Title Crib-biting in US horses: Breed predispositions and owner perceptions of aetiology Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal
Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 455-458
Keywords HORSE; BEHAVIOUR; CRIB-BITING; BREED PREVALENCE; LEARNING
Abstract Reasons for performing study: Crib-biting is an equine stereotypy that may result in diseases such as colic. Certain breeds and management factors have been associated.

Objectives: To determine: breed prevalence of crib-biting in US horses; the likelihood that one horse learns to crib-bite from another; and owner perceptions of causal factors.

Methods: An initial postal survey queried the number and breed of crib-biting horses and if a horse began after being exposed to a horse with this habit. In a follow-up survey, a volunteer subset of owners was asked the number of affected and nonaffected horses of each breed and the extent of conspecific contact. The likelihood of crib-biting given breed and extent of contact was quantified using odds ratio (OR) and significance of the association was assessed using the Chi-squared test.

Results: Overall prevalence was 4.4%. Thoroughbreds were the breed most affected (13.3%). Approximately half of owners believed environmental factors predominantly cause the condition (54.4%) and crib-biting is learned by observation (48.8%). However, only 1.0% of horses became affected after being exposed to a crib-biter. The majority (86%) of horses was turned out in the same pasture with other horses and extent of contact with conspecifics was not statistically related to risk.

Conclusion: This is the first study to report breed prevalence for crib-biting in US horses. Thoroughbreds were the breed more likely to be affected. More owners believed either environmental conditions were a predominant cause or a combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the behaviour. Only a small number of horses reportedly began to crib-bite after being exposed to an affected individual, but approximately half of owners considered it to be a learned behaviour; most owners did not isolate affected horses.

Potential relevance: Genetic predisposition, not just intensive management conditions and surroundings, may be a factor in the high crib-biting prevalence in some breeds, and warrants further investigation. Little evidence exists to suggest horses learn the behaviour from other horses, and isolation may cause unnecessary stress.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5010
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Author (up) Aldridge, B.; Lescun, T.; Radcliffe, J.S.
Title Recent Molecular Advances in Equine Nutrition – from Test Tube to Practice Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Molecular Biology, Equine, Gut
Abstract The use of molecular techniques has increased our understanding of biological systems; in particular how genes and proteins operate within a cell or organ in response to various stimuli. These techniques can be used to study modes of action or mechanisms in disease states, or in response to applied management or nutritional changes. While applied and basic research are often conducted independent of one another, the real advantages to the equine industry will come from the use of molecular techniques to address applied challenges and/or opportunities within the industry. Therefore, the overall goal of our research has been to use basic and molecular tools to investigate modes of action resulting from changes in nutrition or management. We investigated active nutrient transport capacities of the small and large intestine, the effects of feed withdrawal on intestinal transporter gene expression and function, as well as other measurements pertaining to gut health (gut barrier function and gastrointestinal morphology). This novel and thorough approach to characterize sectional differences (fore- and hind- gut) of nutrient absorption has resulted in quantitative measures of active transport capacity for glucose, phosphorus, glutamine, lysine, and di-peptides in the horse. This research demonstrates that by-products of fermentation in the cecum such as microbial proteins and hydrolyzed phytate phosphorus, can be absorbed in the colon. Previously unidentified in the hindgut of the horse, we reported the expression of the di-and tri-peptide transporter, PepT1, as well as the neutral amino acid transporter, ASCT2, and transport of their substrates. We observed that nutrient transporters for glucose (SGLT1), glutamine (ASCT2) and for di-peptides (PepT1) can be regulated by diet, implying biological relevance to feeding management strategies. Feed withdrawal in horses pre- or post-surgery, prior to or during horse shows, during transport, or for other management reason is common. It is therefore important to understand how the removals of nutrients impacts gut health and/or disease susceptibility. The use of molecular techniques has provided a basis for the roles of certain core nutrients during times of feed withdrawal. For example, nutrients such as glutamine play a major role in proliferation and repair in the gut, serve as a major energy substrate, and may provide a means of assessing nutritional stress in the gut. Recent data concludes that following a feed withdrawal, the need for glutamine increases up to 116% in the proximal jejunum, and the gene expression of its transporter (ASCT2) increases by 78%. Additional studies utilizing molecular techniques to address nutritional challenges in the horse include how hormone loss due to ovariectomization impacts the homeostatic regulation of calcium and phosphorus in the horse. To improve nutrition and feeding management practices in horses, knowledge regarding how and where nutrients are absorbed, utilized and regulated under varying physiologic stressors (disease, exercise, reproductive status, etc.) is needed. The integration of applied and basic research facilitates a better and more complete understanding of mechanisms underlying common health and nutritional challenges facing the equine industry.
Address
Corporate Author Aldridge, B. Thesis
Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.;
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5575
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Author (up) Alexander, B.K.; Bowers, J.M.
Title Social organization of a troop of Japanese monkeys in a two-acre enclosure Type Journal Article
Year 1969 Publication Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology Abbreviated Journal Folia Primatol (Basel)
Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 230-242
Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Haplorhini; Leadership; *Social Behavior
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0015-5713 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:4976202 Approved no
Call Number Serial 2055
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Author (up) Alexander, D.J.
Title Ecological aspects of influenza A viruses in animals and their relationship to human influenza: a review Type Journal Article
Year 1982 Publication Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Abbreviated Journal J R Soc Med
Volume 75 Issue 10 Pages 799-811
Keywords Animals; *Animals, Domestic; Bird Diseases/transmission; Birds; Disease Outbreaks; Ecology; Horse Diseases/transmission; Horses; Humans; Influenza A virus/genetics/isolation & purification; Influenza, Human/microbiology/*transmission/veterinary; Swine; Swine Diseases/transmission; Zoonoses/transmission
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0141-0768 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:6752410 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2689
Permanent link to this record