|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author (up) Agrillo, C.; Dadda, M.; Bisazza, A.
Title Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 63-70
Keywords Animals; Cognition; *Cyprinodontiformes; *Discrimination Learning; Female; Male; Mathematics; *Pattern Recognition, Visual
Abstract The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (<4) precisely, and one for quantifying large numbers approximately. We investigated the ability to discriminate among different numerosities, in a distantly related species, the mosquitofish, by using the spontaneous choice of a gravid female to join large groups of females as protection from a sexually harassing male. In one experiment, we found that females were able to discriminate between two shoals with a 1:2 numerosity ratio (2 vs. 4, 4 vs. 8 and 8 vs. 16 fish) but failed to discriminate a 2:3 ratio (8 vs. 12 fish). In the second experiment, we studied the ability to discriminate between shoals that differed by one element; females were able to select the larger shoal when the paired numbers were 2 vs. 3 or 3 vs. 4 but not 4 vs. 5 or 5 vs. 6. Our study indicates that numerical abilities in fish are comparable with those of other non-verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.
Address Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, via Venezia 8, 35131, Padova, Italy. christian.agrillo@unipd.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16868736 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 339
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Asgari, Z.
Title Facial expressions of the Caspian pony to its own picture, mirror and a combination of these two Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Abnormal behaviors of the horses are among the most important problems, in the ridding clubs. Digestive and somatic abnormal behaviors are the two most important abnormal behaviors in the horses, with the loneliness and boredom the two most important causes of these abnormal behaviors. Many study showed that spending times ( increasing the exercise and training time) would stop such abnormal behaviors. The man power scarcity is the important reason many ridding clubs face and this is the reason why the abnormal behavior are mostly observed in such clubs.
Current study is the first report regarding facial expressions of the Caspian Pony to different objects. Totally 10 Caspian ponies were used in this study. The pictures were taken both in the calm and in the furious (nervous) situation The ponyís pictures were the alternatives we used in this research to combat the man power scarcity!. We also used mirror to compare the expressions of the ponies to the pictures and mirror. The results of this study showed that the ponies showed more attention to the picture in calm position when compared with the picture in nervous position. In the box with the mirror and the picture (in calm position) in it, the ponies paid much more attention to the mirror than the picture.
We conclude that despite of resistant of ponies for leaving outdoor and entering to indoor (paddock to box), installing mirror can prevent (almost completely) the horseís boredom and loneliness, a very cheap (but not wise! alternative for manpower). The results of this research were applicable and were suggested to many ridding clubs with the horses with stereotypic behaviors, received almost completely positive results.
Address
Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5877
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Pishkar, J.; Anisi, T.; Babayee, B.
Title Verbal expressions of the horses to the pain Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract For communicating with the environment (other horses, foals, owner, etc.), horses have to use different methods. In contrast with the human, for whom talking is the most important way of communication, the horses canít talk. In the years 1990s and before, the imagination was such that the infants do not express verbally to the pain either (like horses).
To communicate, horses use their body language. Vocalization (if not the body language), seems to be the most important way of communication in horses, though it seems they use the same tone when exposing to different events.
In this study which was performed in collaboration with the electronic institute of Sharif technical university (the top most technical university of the country), totally 25 horses were used. The horses were exposed to different events (hunger, pain, loneliness, mating, parturition and separation of the 1-2 weeks old foals from their dams). The verbal expressions of the horses were studied using spectrogram.
The results of this study showed that there were significant differences between the spectrograph of the voices of the horses, exposed to hunger, and the separation of the foals from dams. This was the same (no significant differences) when horses were exposed to loneliness, separation and hunger. There were no significant differences between the verbal expressions of the horses while exposed to mating, parturition.
One of the most important reasons why the horses do not have verbal expressions when exposing to the pain, might be the absence of the part of the brain, responsible for the pain interpretation. Morse research has to be performed to prove this.
Address
Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis
Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5890
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Pishkar, J.; Bahmen, M.
Title Comparisons of behavioral and physiological state in Caspian pony before and after stress Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Behavioral scores (BS) offer an non-invasive, objective and easy to use way of assessing welfare in horses. Their development has, however, largely focused on behavioral reactions to stressful events (often induced), and so far no use of physiological measures has been made to underpin and validate the behavioral measures in the Caspian ponies. This study aimed to develop a physiologically validated scale of behavioral indicators of stress for the purpose of welfare logically validated scale of behavioral and physiological data assessment in the stabled Caspian ponies. To achieve this , behavioral and physiological data were collected from 16 Caspian ponies that underwent routine husbandry procedures. The ponies were divided into two groups, a control and a treatment group (8 each). The ponies in the treatment group took part in a 700 meter race. Analysis of the behavioral data were undertaken by a panel of equestrian industry professionals. Physiological measures (salivary and serum cortisol level) were significantly correlated with the behavioral scores confirming that the scores were meaningful and reflected the physiological stress. The scores offer an easy to use tool for rapid, reliable non-invasive welfare assessment in Caspian ponies, and reduce the need for potentially invasive physiological measures.
Address
Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis
Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5891
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ahmadinejad, M.
Title Promotion of stud management using equine applied science programs Mohsen A. Nejad University of applied science and technology, Tehran, Iran Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords stud; management; applied science; program
Abstract The University of Applied Science and Technology (UAST) was founded in 1992, with the objective to promote the technical as well as the scientific knowledge of the job holders, mainly those who are working as low-skilled or semi-skilled laborers in different sectors of the economy. With a growing importance of the equestrian sports and horse husbandry, there is an increasing need for well-trained professionals in the equine sector. The need for specific equine university programs has been questioned occasionally; however, neither university programs in the equine veterinary medicine (focusing on diseased horses) nor animal science (focusing on food-producing farm animals) meet the broad requirements of today's equine industry. So far four programs in the equine sector has been approved in the UAST; an associate diploma program in the horse husbandry, an associate diploma program in the equine coaching, a bachelor program (2 + 2 years course) in the horse husbandry and a post graduate program in the horse physiotherapy and massage at master level (Msc. program). The main specifications of the applied science programs are ; the abilities of the applicants and their attainable jobs are pre-planned before starting the program ( each applicant will be aware of what abilities he/she would earn and what jobs he/she would attain after graduating from such scientific and applied programs). The first academic program in the equine science and management in Iran was established in 1998 by the UAST. The 2 year associate diploma program (74 credit points) includes sciences, anatomy, physiology, genetics, nutrition, horse behavior, economics, marketing, management, horse disease and disorders, basics of shoeing and basics of ridding. In 2004 when more than 200 students were graduated in this program a two years course (a 2 + 2 bachelor program) was established. In this program almost all subject taught at the previous program were taught, but at advance level. Courses are provided by the partner higher education centers affiliated to the UAST and approved by the Iranian Equestrian Federation and by the lecturers from practice and ridding clubs. Lectures and seminars are complemented by a scientific thesis and placements in the equine industry. Out of 400-500 applicants each year, 60 students are selected (to study in two higher education centers) on the basis of their previous activities, a written test and interviews. The majority of the students enter the program with previous experience of working with the horses and about 35% of the students enter the program directly after leaving secondary school. More than 50% of the graduates enter into the subsequent BSc. program in horse husbandry. Other 50% graduates (almost those with previous experience) return to the horse husbandry business and works as stud managers or management assistants in ridding clubs. In conclusion, graduates of the University of Applied Science and Technology programs follow a wide-range of professional and academic activities within the equine industry as well as equine medicine (graduates of the UAST's master program in the horse physiotherapy). This spectrum is by far more extensive than the sector covered by merely academic training. With practical experience obtained on the job, adequately qualified graduates will more and more obtain leading positions. KW -
Address
Corporate Author Ahmadinejad, M. Thesis
Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5500
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ahmadinejad, M.
Title Influence of Sex and Age on Color discrimination in caspian Pony Type Conference Article
Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Although an early and influential review led to the often-cited conclusion that color discrimination is rare among mammals, more recent findings suggest that it is actually widespread. According to jacobes, all non-nocturnal mammalian species that have adequately exmined show some color vision capacity. Data on the presence and characteristics and the influence of sex and age on color vision in the horse, remain spares and non in Caspian pony. Eight Caspian ponies were presented with a series of two-choice color vs. grey discrimination problems. One mare pony was eliminated due to traumatic injury to her eye. Experiments were performed in a box of 3 * 3 meter containing a wall with two translucent panels that were illuminated from behind by light projected through color or grey filters to provide the discriminative stimuli. Ponies were first adopted to the stall (box) with two panels in it and then learned to push one of the panels in order to receive the food rewards behind positive stimuli in an achromatic light-dark discrimination task. The ponies were then tested on their abilities to discriminate between grey and four individual colors; red; 617nm, yellow; 581nm, green; 538nm and blue 470 nm. The answer to the question \“do the ponies see color\” was yes but sex and age had no influence on the color discrimination of the ponies .
Address
Corporate Author Ahmadinejad, M. Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008
Notes Talk 15 min IESM 2008 Approved yes
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4501
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ahmadinejad, M., Tavakoli, S.
Title Common injuries in athletic horses in TehranĎs riding clubs Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Various forms of intensive sport activities places stresses on the musculoskeletal system of the horse while involve in any forms of the activity (race &/or training). The musculoskeletal system of the horse has an inherent ability to adapt to the demands of high speed exercise, though if a threshold in adaptive capacity is exceeded, then some forms of damages to the structures of the musculoskeletal system may result. In case, if the insult (race &/or training) continued, it may worsen the repair and adaptation process and put the horse at risk of more serious musculoskeletal injury.

The result of this research describe the finding of the study performed in different breeds of horses involved in various types of activity in Tehranís riding clubs, concentrating on the types of injuries observed in those horses. The study was then focused on the types of injuries observed in various activities (events) horses involved in.

Totally 400 horses took part in various activities during race season (March – September) in Tehranís riding clubs, out of which 26 horses injured, in most of which musculoskeletal system of the fore limbs were involved.
From the sexual aspect of the study the percentages of the stallions were more (54%) when compared to the mares (46%). In this study the relation between the sex, breed, age and the weight of the horses with anatomical site of the injury, outcome of the injury, climate and the type of the event (jumping, polo etc.) were studied and compare with each other.
Bibliography:

Hill AE, Stover SM, Gardner IA, Kane AJ, Whitcomb MB, Emerson AG, 2001. Risk factors for and outcomes non catastrophic suspensory apparatus injury in Thoroughbred race horse. J.A.V.M.A. 218, 1136-44

Johnson BJ 1993. A look at race horse breakdowns. J.Eq.Vet.Scie. 13, 129-32

Morse SJ. 1999. A longitudinal study of racing thoroughbreds; performance during the first year of racing. Aust.Vet.J. 77, 105-12

Peloso JG, Mundy GD, Cohen ND. 1994. Prevalence of, and factors associated with, musculoskeletal racing injuries of thoroughbreds. J.A.V.M.A. 204, 620-6
Address
Corporate Author Ahmadinejad, M. Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor Krueger, K.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference IESM 2012
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5495
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ahrendt, L.P.; Christensen, J.W.; Ladewig, J.
Title The ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through social observation Type Abstract
Year 2012 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 139 Issue 1 Pages 105-113
Keywords Horse; Social learning; Social interaction; Instrumental task; Investigative behaviour; Aggression
Abstract The ability of horses to learn through social observation may ease the implementation of new management systems, because the use of automatic feeders etc. by naive horses could be facilitated by observation of experienced horses. However, previous studies found no documentation for observational learning abilities in horses. This study aimed to investigate the ability of horses to learn an instrumental task from a familiar conspecific when social interaction was allowed during the demonstration. Two similar experiments were performed. In the first experiment, Observer horses (n=11) participated in ten successive demonstrations, where a trained Demonstrator opened an operant device by pushing a sliding lid aside with the muzzle in order to obtain a food reward. Immediately after the demonstrations the Observer horses were given the opportunity to operate the device alone. Control horses (n=11) were aware that the device contained food but were presented to the operant device without demonstration of the task. The learning criterion was at least two openings. Accomplishment of and latency to accomplish the learning criterion, and investigative behaviour towards the operant device were recorded. Five Observers and one Control, out of the eleven horses in each treatment group, accomplished the learning criterion. Even though this presents a high odds ratio (OR) in favour of the Observer treatment (OR=7.6), there was no significant difference between the treatment groups (P=0.15). Analysis of investigative behaviour showed, however, that the demonstrations increased the motivation of the Observer horses to investigate the device. Subsequently, a similar experiment was performed in a practical setting with 44 test horses (mixed age, gender and breed). We used the same operant device and the same number and type of demonstrations, although the horses were held on a loose rope to minimise aggression. In this second experiment, six of 23 Observer horses and five of 21 Control horses learned the instrumental task, representing no influence of the demonstration. Thus, this study did not demonstrate an ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through observation.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ S0168-1591(12)00087-1 Serial 5773
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ajie, B.C.; Pintor, L.M.; Watters, J.; Kerby, J.L.; Hammond, J.I.; Sih, A.
Title A framework for determining the fitness consequences of antipredator behavior Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol.
Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 267-270
Keywords
Abstract Behavioral ecologists have long been interested in understanding the adaptive value of antipredator behavior (Sih 1987Go; Lima and Dill 1990Go; Lima 1998Go). A recent review by Lind and Cresswell (2005)Go, however, noted some important difficulties with quantifying the fitness consequences of antipredator behaviors. In essence, Lind and Cresswell suggest that most studies do not provide strong evidence on the adaptive value of antipredator behavior because they do not consider 1) trade-offs between antipredator and reproductive performance, 2) the abilities of organisms to avoid fitness losses associated with constraints on focal traits by employing behavioral alternatives (behavioral compensation), and 3) the effects of behavioral defenses at different stages of the predation sequence. The authors rightfully assert that an understanding of these issues can only be accomplished by measuring multiple traits and fitness components (i.e., survival and reproduction). Nevertheless, the question of how to integrate such data into
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes 10.1093/beheco/arl064 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4087
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) AKELEY, CE
Title The wild Ass of Somaliland Type Book Chapter
Year 1914 Publication American Museum Journal Abbreviated Journal Amer Mus J
Volume 14 Issue Pages 113-117
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved yes
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 107
Permanent link to this record