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Author (up) Adamo, S.A.; Ehgoetz, K.; Sangster, C.; Whitehorne, I.
Title Signaling to the Enemy? Body Pattern Expression and Its Response to External Cues During Hunting in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda) Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Biol. Bull. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 210 Issue 3 Pages 192-200
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Abstract Abstract. Cuttlefish can rapidly alter their appearance by using neurally controlled chromatophore organs. This ability may provide a window into their cognitive capacity. We test whether the changes in body pattern that occur during hunting depend on context. If they do, then it may be possible to use these changes to study cephalopod cognition while the animal is engaged in ecologically relevant tasks. We found consistent individual differences in the tendency of cuttlefish to hunt with the first two arms raised. We also found that cuttlefish usually darken their skin after they seize a prey item. This darkening is observed regardless of the identity of the prey (fish, crab, or shrimp), prey context (buried in sand, in a bare tank, or on top of a rock pile), or the presence of a sudden stimulus. The sudden stimulus was created by presenting an overhead model bird to the cuttlefish. The model induced components of the Deimatic Display, which is a form of antipredator behavior, suggesting that the model was perceived as a potential threat. Passing Cloud displays and the Darkening of the arms were significantly reduced after exposure to the model bird. The effect of a potential predator on body pattern expression during hunting suggests it may be possible to use these changes as a sensitive indicator of ecologically relevant learning. N1 -
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2960
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Author (up) Adams, E.S.
Title Bayesian analysis of linear dominance hierarchies Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages 1191-1201
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Abstract Studies on social animals often seek to identify dominance hierarchies, in which individuals are ranked according to competitive abilities based on counts of wins and losses in pairwise encounters. I illustrate Bayesian approaches, based on the method of paired comparisons, for determining ranks and for estimating relationships between dominance ability and other attributes. Bayesian inference combines prior probability distributions for each unknown parameter with likelihood functions to produce the joint posterior probability distribution for the quantities of interest. In contrast to nonparametric techniques for inferring ranks, Bayesian models yield measures of certainty for each inference and allow rigorous estimates of correlations between ranks and covariates even when there is considerable uncertainty as to the ranks themselves. A possible objection to the Bayesian approach is that it appears to entail more restrictive assumptions than do simpler methods. However, simulations show that Bayesian inferences are more robust to deviations from these assumptions than are the results of nonparametric methods.
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Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 451
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Author (up) Addessi, E.; Visalberghi, E.
Title Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 297-303
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Abstract Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3382
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Author (up) Adler, L.L.; Adler, H.E.
Title Ontogeny of observational learning in the dog (Canis familiaris) Type Journal Article
Year 1977 Publication Developmental Psychobiology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychobiol
Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 267-271
Keywords Animals; Dogs/*physiology; Female; Learning/*physiology; Male; Vision, Ocular/physiology
Abstract A split-litter technique was used to test observational learning in 4 litters of Miniature Dachshund puppies, 21, 28, 38, and 60 days old at the beginning of the experiment. In one side of a duplicate cage, one puppy of a litter, the demonstrator, learned to pull in a food cart on a runner by means of a ribbon, while another puppy, the observer, watched from an adjacent compartment, separated by a wire screen. Observational learning was demonstrated by the saving in time for the 1st trial when the observer was given the same problem to solve. Maturation, particularly the development of visual function and motor coordination, set a lower age limit for the emergence of observational learning.
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ISSN 0012-1630 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:863122 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5186
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Author (up) Adolphs, R.
Title Cognitive neuroscience of human social behaviour Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Nature Reviews. Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Neurosci
Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 165-178
Keywords Cognition; Emotions; Humans; Models, Psychological; *Social Behavior
Abstract We are an intensely social species--it has been argued that our social nature defines what makes us human, what makes us conscious or what gave us our large brains. As a new field, the social brain sciences are probing the neural underpinnings of social behaviour and have produced a banquet of data that are both tantalizing and deeply puzzling. We are finding new links between emotion and reason, between action and perception, and between representations of other people and ourselves. No less important are the links that are also being established across disciplines to understand social behaviour, as neuroscientists, social psychologists, anthropologists, ethologists and philosophers forge new collaborations.
Address Deparment of Neurology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ralph-adolphs@uiowa.edu
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1471-003X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:12612630 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4706
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Author (up) Aerts, J.-M.; Gebruers, F.; Van Camp, E.; Berckmans, D.
Title Controlling horse heart rate as a basis for training improvement Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Computers and Electronics in Agriculture Abbreviated Journal
Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 78-84
Keywords Heart rate; Horse; Model predictive control; Transfer function model
Abstract Equine training methods, and consequently, performance times have improved little since the last decades. With advances in measuring signals on-line by means of several new technologies and analytical procedures, and processing these signals immediately with strong and compact processors, it may be possible to develop new training methods. In this research, the objective was to explore the possibilities of using modern model-based algorithms to control the heart rate of horses (bpm) on-line by means of the control input running speed (km/h). Forty-five experiments with five horses and four riders were carried out to generate measurements of physiological status during running. The dynamical characteristics of each horse were quantified using linear discrete transfer function models. The dynamic response of heart rate to step changes in running speed were accurately described. In 90% of the cases, a first-order model gave the best fit. For 69% of the models, the r2 was higher than 0.90 and for 34% of the models, the r2 was even higher than 0.95. In a next step, the model-based algorithm was evaluated by controlling cardiac responses of two horses (horses 2 and 4) to a pre-defined trajectory. The model parameters were kept constant. On average, the error between the defined target trajectory in heart rate and the actual controlled heart rate ranged between 0.2 and 1.4 bpm for the whole target heart rate trajectory. During the steady-state part of the trajectory the average error was maximum 1.1 bpm. In the transient from one steady-state heart rate to another level, the error could increase on average up to 5 bpm. In the future, the combination of on-line measured bioresponses with real-time analysis can be used for adjusting the work load of the horse, during training, directly to the immediate needs of horse (welfare) and trainer (performance).
Address Division Measure, Model and Manage Bioresponses (M3-BIORES), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4555
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Author (up) Agrillo, C.; Dadda, M.; Bisazza, A.
Title Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 63-70
Keywords Animals; Cognition; *Cyprinodontiformes; *Discrimination Learning; Female; Male; Mathematics; *Pattern Recognition, Visual
Abstract The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (<4) precisely, and one for quantifying large numbers approximately. We investigated the ability to discriminate among different numerosities, in a distantly related species, the mosquitofish, by using the spontaneous choice of a gravid female to join large groups of females as protection from a sexually harassing male. In one experiment, we found that females were able to discriminate between two shoals with a 1:2 numerosity ratio (2 vs. 4, 4 vs. 8 and 8 vs. 16 fish) but failed to discriminate a 2:3 ratio (8 vs. 12 fish). In the second experiment, we studied the ability to discriminate between shoals that differed by one element; females were able to select the larger shoal when the paired numbers were 2 vs. 3 or 3 vs. 4 but not 4 vs. 5 or 5 vs. 6. Our study indicates that numerical abilities in fish are comparable with those of other non-verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.
Address Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, via Venezia 8, 35131, Padova, Italy. christian.agrillo@unipd.it
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ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:16868736 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 339
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Author (up) Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Asgari, Z.
Title Facial expressions of the Caspian pony to its own picture, mirror and a combination of these two Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
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Abstract Abnormal behaviors of the horses are among the most important problems, in the ridding clubs. Digestive and somatic abnormal behaviors are the two most important abnormal behaviors in the horses, with the loneliness and boredom the two most important causes of these abnormal behaviors. Many study showed that spending times ( increasing the exercise and training time) would stop such abnormal behaviors. The man power scarcity is the important reason many ridding clubs face and this is the reason why the abnormal behavior are mostly observed in such clubs.
Current study is the first report regarding facial expressions of the Caspian Pony to different objects. Totally 10 Caspian ponies were used in this study. The pictures were taken both in the calm and in the furious (nervous) situation The ponyís pictures were the alternatives we used in this research to combat the man power scarcity!. We also used mirror to compare the expressions of the ponies to the pictures and mirror. The results of this study showed that the ponies showed more attention to the picture in calm position when compared with the picture in nervous position. In the box with the mirror and the picture (in calm position) in it, the ponies paid much more attention to the mirror than the picture.
We conclude that despite of resistant of ponies for leaving outdoor and entering to indoor (paddock to box), installing mirror can prevent (almost completely) the horseís boredom and loneliness, a very cheap (but not wise! alternative for manpower). The results of this research were applicable and were suggested to many ridding clubs with the horses with stereotypic behaviors, received almost completely positive results.
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Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5877
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Author (up) Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Pishkar, J.; Anisi, T.; Babayee, B.
Title Verbal expressions of the horses to the pain Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume Issue Pages
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Abstract For communicating with the environment (other horses, foals, owner, etc.), horses have to use different methods. In contrast with the human, for whom talking is the most important way of communication, the horses canít talk. In the years 1990s and before, the imagination was such that the infants do not express verbally to the pain either (like horses).
To communicate, horses use their body language. Vocalization (if not the body language), seems to be the most important way of communication in horses, though it seems they use the same tone when exposing to different events.
In this study which was performed in collaboration with the electronic institute of Sharif technical university (the top most technical university of the country), totally 25 horses were used. The horses were exposed to different events (hunger, pain, loneliness, mating, parturition and separation of the 1-2 weeks old foals from their dams). The verbal expressions of the horses were studied using spectrogram.
The results of this study showed that there were significant differences between the spectrograph of the voices of the horses, exposed to hunger, and the separation of the foals from dams. This was the same (no significant differences) when horses were exposed to loneliness, separation and hunger. There were no significant differences between the verbal expressions of the horses while exposed to mating, parturition.
One of the most important reasons why the horses do not have verbal expressions when exposing to the pain, might be the absence of the part of the brain, responsible for the pain interpretation. Morse research has to be performed to prove this.
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Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis
Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5890
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Author (up) Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Pishkar, J.; Bahmen, M.
Title Comparisons of behavioral and physiological state in Caspian pony before and after stress Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume Issue Pages
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Abstract Behavioral scores (BS) offer an non-invasive, objective and easy to use way of assessing welfare in horses. Their development has, however, largely focused on behavioral reactions to stressful events (often induced), and so far no use of physiological measures has been made to underpin and validate the behavioral measures in the Caspian ponies. This study aimed to develop a physiologically validated scale of behavioral indicators of stress for the purpose of welfare logically validated scale of behavioral and physiological data assessment in the stabled Caspian ponies. To achieve this , behavioral and physiological data were collected from 16 Caspian ponies that underwent routine husbandry procedures. The ponies were divided into two groups, a control and a treatment group (8 each). The ponies in the treatment group took part in a 700 meter race. Analysis of the behavioral data were undertaken by a panel of equestrian industry professionals. Physiological measures (salivary and serum cortisol level) were significantly correlated with the behavioral scores confirming that the scores were meaningful and reflected the physiological stress. The scores offer an easy to use tool for rapid, reliable non-invasive welfare assessment in Caspian ponies, and reduce the need for potentially invasive physiological measures.
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Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis
Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5891
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