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Author (up) Anderson, M.K.; Friend, T.H.; Evans, J.W.; Bushong, D.M.
Title Behavioral assessment of horses in therapeutic riding programs Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 11-24
Keywords Horses; Therapeutic riding; Temperament; Cortisol; Catecholamines
Abstract A behavioral assessment of horses who were being used and not used in therapeutic riding programs was conducted to help determine useful methods of selecting horses for use in therapeutic riding programs. A total of 103 horses (76 horses from five therapeutic riding centers and 27 non-therapeutic riding horses from four sites) were used. Temperament survey for each horse were completed by three riding instructors at each therapeutic riding center or by the individual most knowledgeable about the horse at the other sites. Twenty personality traits from the survey were used to quantify temperament. Concentrations of plasma cortisol, norepinephrine and epinephrine were also measured in each horse. A reactivity test was then conducted which involved introducing three novel stimuli: a walking and vocalizing toy pig placed on a cardboard surface in front of the horse for 20 s; popping a balloon near the horse's flank area; and suddenly opening an umbrella and holding it open in front of the horse for 20 s. Reactions (expressions, vocalizations and movement) to each of the stimuli were scored and used to calculate an average reactivity score for each horse. The therapeutic riding instructors did not often agree on the temperament of their center's horses. The personality trait ratings made by the therapeutic riding instructors at each center were on average significantly correlated (P<0.01, r>0.52) for only 37.8% of the horses for any two instructors and 7.8% for three instructors. No significant correlations were found between temperament, reactivity, and the hormone concentrations (r<0.19), but regression analysis indicated a possibility of predicting temperament from the reactivity score and hormone concentrations (P<0.08). There was also a tendency for relationships between extremes in temperament (desirable vs. undesirable) and the hormone concentrations (P<0.09), and between extremes in reactivity (low vs. high) and the hormone concentrations (P=0.08). The difference in ratings among riding instructors indicates a need for more collaboration between instructors when evaluating horse temperament. This study also indicates that it was very difficult to objectively determine the suitability of horses for therapeutic riding programs regarding their temperament and reactivity, probably because other traits (e.g., smoothness of gait) are also considered very important.
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ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4812
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Author (up) Anderson, T.M.; McIlwraith, C.W.; Douay, P.
Title The role of conformation in musculoskeletal problems in the racing Thoroughbred Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J
Volume 36 Issue 7 Pages 571-575
Keywords Animals; Carpus, Animal/anatomy & histology/physiology; Horse Diseases/etiology/*pathology/surgery; Horses/*anatomy & histology/injuries/physiology; Likelihood Functions; Logistic Models; Muscle, Skeletal/*anatomy & histology/pathology; Musculoskeletal Diseases/pathology/surgery/*veterinary; Tarsus, Animal/anatomy & histology/physiology; Treatment Outcome
Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The relationship of conformation to future potential injury is a standard approach in practise but, at present, is largely based on subjective observations. OBJECTIVE: To measure conformation in 3-year-old Thoroughbreds and objectively test its relationship with the occurrence of musculoskeletal problems. METHODS: Conformation measurements were taken from photographs using specific reference points marked on the horses and processed on the computer. Clinical observations were recorded for each horse on a regular basis. Stepwise (forward) logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the binary response of the clinical outcomes probability and the conformation variables by the method of maximum likelihood. RESULTS: Clinical outcomes significantly (P<0.05) associated with conformational variables included effusion of the front fetlock, effusion of the right carpus, effusion of the carpus, effusion of the hind fetlock, fracture of the left or right carpus, right front fetlock problem and hind fetlock problem. CONCLUSIONS: Offset knees (offset ratio) contributed to fetlock problems. Long pasterns increased the odds of a fracture in the front limb. An increase in the carpal angle as viewed from the front (carpal valgus) may serve as a protective mechanism, as the odds for a carpal fracture and carpal effusion decreased with an increase in the carpal angle. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: This study demonstrates relationships between conformation and musculoskeletal disease in the racehorse. The information may be useful in selection and management of the racing Thoroughbred.
Address Colorado State University, Equine Science and Equine Orthopaedic Research Programs, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:15581320 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3697
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Author (up) Anderson, W.D.; Summers, C.H.
Title Neuroendocrine Mechanisms, Stress Coping Strategies, and Social Dominance: Comparative Lessons about Leadership Potential Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Abbreviated Journal Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci
Volume 614 Issue 1 Pages 102-130
Keywords social dominance – authoritarian – Five Factor Model – neurochemistry – neurotransmitters – leadership
Abstract The authors examine dominance and subordination in the social psychology, political science, and biology literatures. Using Summers and Winberg (2006) as a guide, the authors suggest that extreme dominance or subordination phenotypes--including social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism--are determined by an organism's genetic predispositions, motivations, stress responses, and long-term hormone release and uptake states. The authors offer hypotheses about the likely neurochemical profiles for each of these extreme dominance and subordination phenotypes and suggest two designs that begin to test these hypotheses.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4699
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Author (up) Andersson, M.
Title Producers and Scroungers Type Miscellaneous
Year 1984 Publication Abbreviated Journal
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4879
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Author (up) Andersson, P.; Kvassman, J.; Lindstrom, A.; Olden, B.; Pettersson, G.
Title Effect of NADH on the pKa of zinc-bound water in liver alcohol dehydrogenase Type Journal Article
Year 1981 Publication European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS Abbreviated Journal Eur J Biochem
Volume 113 Issue 3 Pages 425-433
Keywords Alcohol Oxidoreductases/*metabolism; Aldehydes/metabolism; Animals; Binding Sites; Cinnamates/metabolism; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; Ligands; Liver/*metabolism; NAD/*metabolism; Water/metabolism; Zinc/metabolism
Abstract Equilibrium constants for coenzyme binding to liver alcohol dehydrogenase have been determined over the pH range 10--12 by pH-jump stop-flow techniques. The binding of NADH or NAD+ requires the protonated form of an ionizing group (distinct from zinc-bound water) with a pKa of 10.4. Complex formation with NADH exhibits an additional dependence on the protonation state of an ionizing group with a pKa of 11.2. The binding of trans-N,N-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to the enzyme . NADH complex is prevented by ionization of the latter group. It is concluded from these results that the pKa-11.2-dependence of NADH binding most likely derives from ionization of the water molecule bound at the catalytic zinc ion of the enzyme subunit. The pKa value of 11.2 thus assigned to zinc-bound water in the enzyme . NADH complex appears to be typical for an aquo ligand in the inner-sphere ligand field provided by the zinc-binding amino acid residues in liver alcohol dehydrogenase. This means that the pKa of metal-bound water in zinc-containing enzymes can be assumed to correlate primarily with the number of negatively charged protein ligands coordinated by the active-site zinc ion.
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ISSN 0014-2956 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:7011796 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3810
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Author (up) Andrew, R.J.
Title Changes in visual responsiveness following intercollicular lesions and their effects on avoidance and attack Type Journal Article
Year 1974 Publication Brain, Behavior and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Brain Behav Evol
Volume 10 Issue 4-5 Pages 400-424
Keywords Animals; Chickens; Humans; Male; Mutism; Superior Colliculi/*physiology; Tectum Mesencephali; Testosterone; Visual Fields; Vocalization, Animal
Abstract In the normal chick, conspicuous visual stimuli induce targetting and pecking together, with vocalization. All three are abolished by lesion of the intercollicular area (ICo) or of connections passing through its medial margin. After such lesions, chicks also cease to treat significant visual stimuli as if they were startling and exciting, and may delay response as a result. However, they are still able to recognise, orient accurately to, and respond appropriately to, a variety of complex visual stimuli (e.g. food grains, copulation object). In addition, they are little affected by strange surroundings. Lesion evidence suggests the mammalian subcollicular area to have similar functions to the ICo and to be homologous with it. A route (present in bird), which is well-known in mammals for its association with threat, defense and escape evoked by strange and frightening objects (amygdala-diencephalic periventricular system-central mesencephalic grey, A-DPS-CMG) is stimuli via the 2 ICo (subcollicular area). Two different mechanisms may be involved caudal to the ICo. One consists of tectal afferents which might modulate the evocation of targetting, pecking and other responses via the tectum. The other is the predorsal system of tectal efferents which may mediate such responses. Classical syndromes of tameness and unresponsiveness produced by various interruptions of the A-DPS-CMG route may depend on interruption of connections to these midbrain mechanisms. Attack is depressed by ICo lesions as one aspect of reduced responsiveness to conspicuous and startling visual stimuli. Avoidance, which is apparently mediated by a separate system, much as in Anura, is facilitated.
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ISSN 0006-8977 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:1169102 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4626
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Author (up) Andrew, R.J.; Osorio, D.; Budaev, S.
Title Light during embryonic development modulates patterns of lateralization strongly and similarly in both zebrafish and chick Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Phil. Trans. Biol. Sci.
Volume 364 Issue 1519 Pages 983-989
Keywords
Abstract Some aspects of lateralization are widespread. This is clear for the association between left-eye (LE) use and readiness to respond intensely to releasing stimuli presented by others, which has been found in representatives of all major groups of tetrapods and in fishes. In the chick, this behavioural asymmetry is linked developmentally to greater ability to sustain response against distracting stimuli with right-eye (RE) use, in that both reverse with the reversal of the normal RE exposure to light. In the zebrafish, the same two asymmetries (normally) have similar associations with the LE and the RE, and both also reverse together (owing to epithalamic reversal). Here, we show that light exposure early in development is needed in zebrafish to generate both asymmetries. Dark development largely abolishes both the enhanced abilities, confirming their linkage. Resemblance to the chick is increased by the survival in the chick, after dark development, of higher ability to assess familiarity of complex stimuli when using the LE. A somewhat similar ability survives in dark-developed zebrafish. Here, LE use causes lesser reliance on a single recent experience than on longer term past experience in the assessment of novelty. Such resemblances between a fish and a bird suggest that we should look not only for resemblances between different groups of vertebrates in the most common overall pattern of lateralization, but also for possible resemblances in the nature of inter-individual variation and in the way in which it is generated during development.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5370
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Author (up) Andrews, F.M.; Ralston, S.L.; Sommardahl, C.S.; Maykuth, P.L.; Green, E.M.; White, S.L.; Williamson, L.H.; Holmes, C.A.; Geiser, D.R.
Title Weight, water, and cation losses in horses competing in a three-day event Type Journal Article
Year 1994 Publication Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Vet Med Assoc
Volume 205 Issue 5 Pages 721-724
Keywords Animals; Body Water/*metabolism; Body Weight/*physiology; Exertion/*physiology; Female; Horses/blood/*metabolism; Male; Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology; Physical Endurance/physiology; Potassium/*blood; Sodium/*blood
Abstract Body weight of 48 horses competing in a 3-day event was measured the day before the event (baseline), following the dressage phase of the event (day 1), after the endurance phases of the event (day 2), and 18 to 24 hours after the endurance phases (day 3). Plasma sodium and potassium concentrations were measured the evening before, immediately after, and 10 minutes after the endurance phases. Total body water, water loss, and net exchangeable cation loss were then calculated. Body weight and total body water were significantly decreased, compared with baseline values, at all times during the event, and significant water loss was detected. The largest changes were recorded after the endurance phases of the event. Water deficits were still detected 18 to 24 hours after the endurance phases of the event. Mean plasma sodium concentration was significantly increased immediately after the endurance phases of the event, compared with concentration measured the evening before, and remained increased after the 10-minute recovery period, presumably because of dehydration. Mean plasma potassium concentration was significantly increased immediately after the endurance phases of the event, compared with concentration measured the evening before, but was not increased after the 10-minute recovery period.
Address Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37901-1071
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-1488 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:7989242 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3745
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Author (up) ANDREWS, R.C.
Title The mongolian wild ass Type Journal Article
Year 1933 Publication Natural History Abbreviated Journal Natural History
Volume 33 Issue Pages 3-16
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Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 640
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Author (up) ANGLE M, et al
Title Androgenes in feral stallions Type Conference Volume
Year 1979 Publication Symposium on the Ecology and Behavior of wild and feral Equids Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 31-38
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Publisher Place of Publication Laramie Editor
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Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 641
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