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Author (up) Abbruzzetti, S.; Crema, E.; Masino, L.; Vecli, A.; Viappiani, C.; Small, J.R.; Libertini, L.J.; Small, E.W.
Title Fast events in protein folding: structural volume changes accompanying the early events in the N-->I transition of apomyoglobin induced by ultrafast pH jump Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Biophysical Journal Abbreviated Journal Biophys J
Volume 78 Issue 1 Pages 405-415
Keywords Animals; Apoproteins/*chemistry; Horses; *Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; Models, Molecular; Myoglobin/*chemistry; Protein Conformation; *Protein Folding; Protein Structure, Secondary; Spectrometry, Fluorescence
Abstract Ultrafast, laser-induced pH jump with time-resolved photoacoustic detection has been used to investigate the early protonation steps leading to the formation of the compact acid intermediate (I) of apomyoglobin (ApoMb). When ApoMb is in its native state (N) at pH 7.0, rapid acidification induced by a laser pulse leads to two parallel protonation processes. One reaction can be attributed to the binding of protons to the imidazole rings of His24 and His119. Reaction with imidazole leads to an unusually large contraction of -82 +/- 3 ml/mol, an enthalpy change of 8 +/- 1 kcal/mol, and an apparent bimolecular rate constant of (0.77 +/- 0.03) x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1). Our experiments evidence a rate-limiting step for this process at high ApoMb concentrations, characterized by a value of (0. 60 +/- 0.07) x 10(6) s(-1). The second protonation reaction at pH 7. 0 can be attributed to neutralization of carboxylate groups and is accompanied by an apparent expansion of 3.4 +/- 0.2 ml/mol, occurring with an apparent bimolecular rate constant of (1.25 +/- 0.02) x 10(11) M(-1) s(-1), and a reaction enthalpy of about 2 kcal/mol. The activation energy for the processes associated with the protonation of His24 and His119 is 16.2 +/- 0.9 kcal/mol, whereas that for the neutralization of carboxylates is 9.2 +/- 0.9 kcal/mol. At pH 4.5 ApoMb is in a partially unfolded state (I) and rapid acidification experiments evidence only the process assigned to carboxylate protonation. The unusually large contraction and the high energetic barrier observed at pH 7.0 for the protonation of the His residues suggests that the formation of the compact acid intermediate involves a rate-limiting step after protonation.
Address Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma, Italia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3495 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:10620304 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3792
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Author (up) Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Sinibaldi, F.; Santucci, R.
Title Kinetics of histidine dissociation from the heme Fe(III) in N-fragment (residues 1-56) of cytochrome c Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication The Protein Journal Abbreviated Journal Protein J
Volume 23 Issue 8 Pages 519-527
Keywords Animals; Cytochromes c/*chemistry; Enzyme Activation; Histidine/*chemistry; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; Lasers; Ligands; Peptide Mapping; Photolysis; Spectrophotometry
Abstract We have here investigated the dissociation kinetics of the His side chains axially ligated to the heme-iron in the ferric (1-56 residues) N-fragment of horse cyt c. The ligand deligation induced by acidic pH-jump occurs as a biexponential process with different pre-exponential factors, consistent with a structural heterogeneity in solution and the presence of two differently coordinated species. In analogy with GuHCl-denatured cyt c, our data indicate the presence in solution of two ferric forms of the N-fragment characterized by bis-His coordination, as summarized in the following scheme: His18-Fe(III)-His26 <==> His18-Fe(III)-His33. We have found that the pre-exponential factors depend on the extent of the pH-jump. This may be correlated with the different pKa values shown by His26 and His33; due to steric factors, His26 binds to the heme-Fe(III) less strongly than His33, as recently shown by studies on denatured cyt c. Interestingly, the two lifetimes are affected by temperature but not by the extent of the pH-jump. The lower pKa for the deligation reaction required the use of an improved laser pH-jump setup, capable of inducing changes in H+ concentration as large as 1 mM after the end of the laser pulse. For the ferric N-fragment, close activation entropy values have been determined for the two histidines coordinated to the iron; this result significantly differs from that for GuHCl-denatured cyt c, where largely different values of activation entropy were calculated. This underlines the role played by the missing segment (residues 57-104) peptide chain in discriminating deligation of the “nonnative” His from the sixth coordination position of the metal.
Address Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 7/A 43100 Parma, Italy
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1572-3887 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:15648974 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3770
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Author (up) Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Small, J.R.; Libertini, L.J.; Small, E.W.
Title Kinetics of histidine deligation from the heme in GuHCl-unfolded Fe(III) cytochrome C studied by a laser-induced pH-jump technique Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of the American Chemical Society Abbreviated Journal J Am Chem Soc
Volume 123 Issue 27 Pages 6649-6653
Keywords Animals; *Bacterial Proteins; Cytochrome c Group/*chemistry; Guanidine/*chemistry; Heme/*chemistry; Histidine/*chemistry; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; *Lasers; Ligands; Protein Folding
Abstract We have developed an instrumental setup that uses transient absorption to monitor protein folding/unfolding processes following a laser-induced, ultrafast release of protons from o-nitrobenzaldehyde. The resulting increase in [H(+)], which can be more than 100 microM, is complete within a few nanoseconds. The increase in [H(+)] lowers the pH of the solution from neutrality to approximately 4 at the highest laser pulse energy used. Protein structural rearrangements can be followed by transient absorption, with kinetic monitoring over a broad time range (approximately 10 ns to 500 ms). Using this pH-jump/transient absorption technique, we have examined the dissociation kinetics of non-native axial heme ligands (either histidine His26 or His33) in GuHCl-unfolded Fe(III) cytochrome c (cyt c). Deligation of the non-native ligands following the acidic pH-jump occurs as a biexponential process with different pre-exponential factors. The pre-exponential factors markedly depend on the extent of the pH-jump, as expected from differences in the pK(a) values of His26 and His33. The two lifetimes were found to depend on temperature but were not functions of either the magnitude of the pH-jump or the pre-pulse pH of the solution. The activation energies of the deligation processes support the suggestion that GuHCl-unfolded cyt c structures with non-native histidine axial ligands represent kinetic traps in unfolding.
Address Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, 43100 Parma, Italy
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0002-7863 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:11439052 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3788
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Author (up) Aberle, K. S.
Title Untersuchung der Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse, Inzucht und genetischen Distanzen bei den deutschen Kaltblutpferderassen Type Manuscript
Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Hannover Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5185
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Author (up) Aberle, K.S.; Hamann, H.; Drögemüller, C.; Distl, O.
Title Genetic diversity in German draught horse breeds compared with a group of primitive, riding and wild horses by means of microsatellite DNA markers Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Animal Genetics Abbreviated Journal Anim. Gen.
Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 270-277
Keywords diversity; endangered breeds; genetic variation; horse; microsatellite
Abstract Summary We compared the genetic diversity and distance among six German draught horse breeds to wild (Przewalski's Horse), primitive (Icelandic Horse, Sorraia Horse, Exmoor Pony) or riding horse breeds (Hanoverian Warmblood, Arabian) by means of genotypic information from 30 microsatellite loci. The draught horse breeds included the South German Coldblood, Rhenish German Draught Horse, Mecklenburg Coldblood, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood, Black Forest Horse and Schleswig Draught Horse. Despite large differences in population sizes, the average observed heterozygosity (Ho) differed little among the heavy horse breeds (0.64–0.71), but was considerably lower than in the Hanoverian Warmblood or Icelandic Horse population. The mean number of alleles (NA) decreased more markedly with declining population sizes of German draught horse breeds (5.2–6.3) but did not reach the values of Hanoverian Warmblood (NA = 6.7). The coefficient of differentiation among the heavy horse breeds showed 11.6% of the diversity between the heavy horse breeds, as opposed to 21.2% between the other horse populations. The differentiation test revealed highly significant genetic differences among all draught horse breeds except the Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldbloods. The Schleswig Draught Horse was the most distinct draught horse breed. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a clear distinction among the German draught horse breeds and even among breeds with a very short history of divergence like Rhenish German Draught Horse and its East German subpopulations Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldblood.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Blackwell Science Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1365-2052 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5184
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Author (up) Abeyesinghe, S.M.; Nicol, C.J.; Hartnell, S.J.; Wathes, C.M.
Title Can domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, show self-control? Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 70 Issue 1 Pages 1-11
Keywords
Abstract An important aspect of cognition is whether animals live exclusively in the present or can anticipate the future. Defined as self-control, the ability to choose a large, remote reinforcer over a small, proximate reinforcer available at the same frequency has been examined in a number of species, often proving difficult to demonstrate. We investigated self-control for food in domestic fowl using a standard two-key operant task and an equivalent two-choice return maze (TCRM) task. When hens chose between a 2-s delay to a 3-s feed access (impulsive) and a 6-s delay to a 7-s feed access (self-control), they appeared unable to discriminate in the TCRM but were impulsive in the operant task. We explored reasons for not choosing self-control in the operant task, first by examining the relation between feed access time and actual feed intake. A second operant experiment examined whether failure to show self-control could be attributed to an inability to combine the delay and access (quantity) reward information associated with choices to reach overall predictions of value. New hens chose between a 2-s delay to a 3-s feed access (impulsive) and either a 22-s delay to a 22-s feed access (standard self-control) or a 6-s delay to a 22-s feed access (jackpot self-control). While hens were impulsive in the standard condition, they showed significant and pronounced self-control in the jackpot condition, eliminating the possibility of an absolute cognitive constraint. Impulsive behaviour can instead be explained by temporal discounting: perceived depreciation of reward value as a function of the uncertainty associated with delay. Implications for welfare are discussed.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2897
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Author (up) Abeyesinghe, S.M.; Nicol, C.J.; Wathes. C.M.; Randall, J.M.
Title Development of a raceway method to assess aversion of domestic fowl to concurrent stressors Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.
Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 175-194
Keywords previous termConcurrent stressors; Aversion; Domestic fowlnext term; Transport; Vibration; Hyperthermia
Abstract The requirement for assessing the effects of stressor combinations in improving the welfare of animals has not been widely recognised. Knowledge of the effects of concurrent stressors is needed to improve environments such as transport, where animals are presented with many simultaneous challenges. However, no method for measuring the effects of different stressors with a common unit is currently available. A locomotor passive avoidance method was developed as a common currency measure of the aversion of domestic fowl to concurrent stressors, using vibrational and thermal stressors as an exemplar. Juvenile fowl, fasted overnight, were trained to run a raceway into a goal-box for small food rewards (FR1). When running consistently, the reinforcement schedule was superimposed with a FR5 treatment schedule (60 min confinement in the goal-box with either a control of no other stressors [N] or concurrent vibration and thermal stressors [VT]). Subsequent latency to return to the goal-box was recorded as a measure of aversion. The factors affecting bird response were addressed in a series of experiments to optimise the method and clarify interpretation of results. Pre-feeding (20% ration 2 h prior to testing) did not affect response, but increasing the number of treatment presentations facilitated learning and increased method sensitivity. Treatment responses were consistent across experiments; overall VT was avoided (P<0.001), but N was not. However, there was large individual variation in response to VT. A final experiment indicated that, given a visual discriminatory cue, birds were capable of learning the required association between entering the goal-box and receiving the treatment, suggesting that the delay responses were due to aversion rather than the immediate impact of treatment on ability to respond. Further work is required to test the singular stressors, but the method retains common currency potential for assessing aversion to multiple stressors.
Address Bio-Engineering Division, Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, MK45 4HS, Bedford, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:11738510 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 85
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Author (up) Abramson, J.Z.; Hernández-Lloreda, V.; Call, J.; Colmenares, F.
Title Experimental evidence for action imitation in killer whales (Orcinus orca) Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal Animal Cognition
Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 11-22
Keywords Social learning; Imitation; ‘Do-as-other-does’ test; Animal culture; Killer whales
Abstract Comparative experimental studies of imitative learning have focused mainly on primates and birds. However, cetaceans are promising candidates to display imitative learning as they have evolved in socioecological settings that have selected for large brains, complex sociality, and coordinated predatory tactics. Here we tested imitative learning in killer whales, Orcinus orca. We used a ‘do-as-other-does’ paradigm in which 3 subjects witnessed a conspecific demonstrator’s performance that included 15 familiar and 4 novel behaviours. The three subjects (1) learned the copy command signal ‘Do that’ very quickly, that is, 20 trials on average; (2) copied 100 % of the demonstrator’s familiar and novel actions; (3) achieved full matches in the first attempt for 8–13 familiar behaviours (out of 15) and for the 2 novel behaviours (out of 2) in one subject; and (4) took no longer than 8 trials to accurately copy any familiar behaviour, and no longer than 16 trials to copy any novel behaviour. This study provides experimental evidence for body imitation, including production imitation, in killer whales that is comparable to that observed in dolphins tested under similar conditions. These findings suggest that imitative learning may underpin some of the group-specific traditions reported in killer whales in the field.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5695
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Author (up) Acuna, B.D.; Sanes, J.N.; Donoghue, J.P.
Title Cognitive mechanisms of transitive inference Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation cerebrale Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res
Volume 146 Issue 1 Pages 1-10
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Attention/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Learning/physiology; Linear Models; Male; Photic Stimulation; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology
Abstract We examined how the brain organizes interrelated facts during learning and how the facts are subsequently manipulated in a transitive inference (TI) paradigm (e.g., if A<B and B<C, then A<C). This task determined features such as learned facts and behavioral goals, but the learned facts could be organized in any of several ways. For example, if one learns a list by operating on paired items, the pairs may be stored individually as separate facts and reaction time (RT) should decrease with learning. Alternatively, the pairs may be stored as a single, unified list, which may yield a different RT pattern. We characterized RT patterns that occurred as participants learned, by trial and error, the predetermined order of 11 shapes. The task goal was to choose the shape occurring closer to the end of the list, and feedback about correctness was provided during this phase. RT increased even as its variance decreased during learning, suggesting that the learnt knowledge became progressively unified into a single representation, requiring more time to manipulate as participants acquired relational knowledge. After learning, non-adjacent (NA) list items were presented to examine how participants reasoned in a TI task. The task goal also required choosing from each presented pair the item occurring closer to the list end, but without feedback. Participants could solve the TI problems by applying formal logic to the previously learnt pairs of adjacent items; alternatively, they could manipulate a single, unified representation of the list. Shorter RT occurred for NA pairs having more intervening items, supporting the hypothesis that humans employ unified mental representations during TI. The response pattern does not support mental logic solutions of applying inference rules sequentially, which would predict longer RT with more intervening items. We conclude that the brain organizes information in such a way that reflects the relations among the items, even if the facts were learned in an arbitrary order, and that this representation is subsequently used to make inferences.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Box 1953, Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12192572 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 602
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Author (up) Adachi, I.; Kuwahata, H.; Fujita, K.
Title Dogs recall their owner's face upon hearing the owner's voice Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 17-21
Keywords Cross-modal representation – Natural concepts – Dogs
Abstract Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;We tested whether dogs have a cross-modal representation of human individuals. We presented domestic dogs with a photo of either the owner's or a stranger's face on the LCD monitor after playing back a voice of one of those persons. A voice and a face matched in half of the trials (Congruent condition) and mismatched in the other half (Incongruent condition). If our subjects activate visual images of the voice, their expectation would be contradicted in Incongruent condition. It would result in the subjects` longer looking times in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. Our subject dogs looked longer at the visual stimulus in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. This suggests that dogs actively generate their internal representation of the owner's face when they hear the owner calling them. This is the first demonstration that nonhuman animals do not merely associate auditory and visual stimuli but also actively generate a visual image from auditory information. Furthermore, our subject also looked at the visual stimulus longer in Incongruent condition in which the owner's face followed an unfamiliar person's voice than in Congruent condition in which the owner's face followed the owner's voice. Generating a particular visual image in response to an unfamiliar voice should be difficult, and any expected images from the voice ought to be more obscure or less well defined than that of the owners. However, our subjects looked longer at the owner's face in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. This may indicate that dogs may have predicted that it should not be the owner when they heard the unfamiliar person's voice.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 4222
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