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Author (down) Zentall, T.R. doi  openurl
  Title Timing, memory for intervals, and memory for untimed stimuli: the role of instructional ambiguity Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Behavioural processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 70 Issue 3 Pages 209-222  
  Keywords Animals; *Attention; Columbidae; *Discrimination Learning; *Memory, Short-Term; Practice (Psychology); Reinforcement Schedule; *Retention (Psychology); *Time Perception  
  Abstract Theories of animal timing have had to account for findings that the memory for the duration of a timed interval appears to be dramatically shorted within a short time of its termination. This finding has led to the subjective shortening hypothesis and it has been proposed to account for the poor memory that animals appear to have for the initial portion of a timed interval when a gap is inserted in the to-be-timed signal. It has also been proposed to account for the poor memory for a relatively long interval that has been discriminated from a shorter interval. I suggest here a simpler account in which ambiguity between the gap or retention interval and the intertrial interval results in resetting the clock, rather than forgetting the interval. The ambiguity hypothesis, together with a signal salience mechanism that determines how quickly the clock is reset at the start of the intertrial interval can account for the results of the reported timing experiments that have used the peak procedure. Furthermore, instructional ambiguity rather than memory loss may account for the results of many animal memory experiments that do not involve memory for time.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 202B Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA. zentall@uky.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16095851 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 222  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R. doi  openurl
  Title Selective and divided attention in animals Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Behavioural processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 69 Issue 1 Pages 1-15  
  Keywords Animals; *Attention; *Behavior, Animal; *Discrimination (Psychology); *Field Dependence-Independence; *Psychological Theory  
  Abstract This article reviews some of the research on attentional processes in animals. In the traditional approach to selective attention, it is proposed that in addition to specific response attachments, animals also learn something about the dimension along which the stimuli fall (e.g., hue, brightness, or line orientation). More recently, there has been an attempt to find animal analogs to methodologies originally applied to research with humans. One line of research has been directed to the question of whether animals can locate a target among distracters faster if they are prepared for the presentation of the target (search image and priming). In the study of search image, the target is typically a food item and the cue consists of previous trials on which the same target is presented. In research on priming effects, the cue is typically different from the target but is a good predictor of its occurrence. The study of preattentive processes shows that perceptually, certain stimuli stand out from distracters better than others, depending not only on characteristics of the target relative to the distracters, but also on relations among the distracters. Research on divided attention is examined with the goal of determining whether an animal can process two elements of a compound sample with the same efficiency as one. Taken together, the reviewed research indicates that animals are capable of centrally (not just peripherally) attending to selective aspects of a stimulus display.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 202B Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA. Zentall@uky.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15795066 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 224  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R. doi  openurl
  Title Configural/holistic processing or differential element versus compound similarity Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 141-142  
  Keywords Animals; *Chickens; Conditioning, Classical; *Discrimination Learning; Female; *Pattern Recognition, Visual; Photic Stimulation; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract Before accepting a configural or holistic account of visual perception, one should be sure that an analytic (elemental) account does not provide an equal or better explanation of the results. I suggest that when one forms a compound of a color and a line orientation with one element previously trained as an S+ and the other as an S-, the resulting transfer found will depend on the relative salience of the two elements, and most important, the similarity of the compound to each of the training stimuli. Thus, if a line orientation is placed on a colored background (a separable compound), it will appear more like the colored field used in training, and color will control responding. However, if the line itself is colored (an integral compound), the compound will appear more like the line used in training, and line orientation will control responding. Not only does this account do a better job of explaining the data but it is simpler and it is testable.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA. zentall@uky.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15449103 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 229  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R. openurl 
  Title Action imitation in birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Learning & behavior : a Psychonomic Society publication Abbreviated Journal Learn Behav  
  Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 15-23  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; *Birds; *Imitative Behavior; Imprinting (Psychology); *Learning; Motivation; Psychological Theory; *Social Environment; *Social Facilitation; Vocalization, Animal  
  Abstract Action imitation, once thought to be a behavior almost exclusively limited to humans and the great apes, surprisingly also has been found in a number of bird species. Because imitation has been viewed by some psychologists as a form of intelligent behavior, there has been interest in how it is distributed among animal species. Although the mechanisms responsible for action imitation are not clear, we are now at least beginning to understand the conditions under which it occurs. In this article, I try to identify and differentiate the various forms of socially influenced behavior (species-typical social reactions, social effects on motivation, social effects on perception, socially influenced learning, and action imitation) and explain why it is important to differentiate imitation from other forms of social influence. I also examine some of the variables that appear to be involved in the occurrence of imitation. Finally, I speculate about why a number of bird species, but few mammal species, appear to imitate.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA. zentall@uky.edu  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1543-4494 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15161137 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 230  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R. doi  openurl
  Title Support for a theory of memory for event duration must distinguish between test-trial ambiguity and actual memory loss Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior Abbreviated Journal J Exp Anal Behav  
  Volume 72 Issue 3 Pages 467-472  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Columbidae; Conditioning, Operant/physiology; Discrimination Learning/physiology; Memory/*physiology; *Psychological Theory; Time Factors; Time Perception/physiology  
  Abstract Staddon and Higa's (1999) trace-strength theory of timing and memory for event duration can account for pigeons' bias to “choose short” when retention intervals are introduced and to “choose long” when, following training with a fixed retention interval, retention intervals are shortened. However, it does not account for the failure of pigeons to choose short when the intertrial interval is distinct from the retention interval. That finding suggests that stimulus generalization (or ambiguity) between the intertrial interval and the retention interval may result in an effect that has been attributed to memory loss. Such artifacts must be eliminated before a theory of memory for event duration can be adequately tested.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506, USA. zentall@pop.uky.edu  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-5002 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10605105 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 251  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R url  doi
openurl 
  Title Imitation In Animals: Evidence, Function, And Mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Cybernetics and Systems Abbreviated Journal Cybern Syst  
  Volume 32 Issue Pages 53-96  
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  Abstract The terms sociallearning and social influence have been used descriptively and theoretically to characterize a broad range of animal behavior from physical antipredatory adaptations such as eye spots, which are totally under genetic control, to the human capacity for the exaggeration of individual characteristics, known as caricature, which are largely under cognitive control. In the present review, the various forms of social influence and social learning are identified and distinghished from imitation, a term that generally has been reserved for behavioral matching that cannot be accounted for using simpler specifically predisposed, motivational, or learning mechanisms. It is suggested that much of the ambiguity in the literature concerning the various forms of social learning can be attributed to the distinction between the function of a behavior and the mechanisms responsible for its occurrence. Finally, the various mechanisms that have been proposed to account for imitative learning are presented and an attempt is made to evaluate them.  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 747  
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Author (down) Zentall, S.S.; Zentall, T.R.; Barack, R.C. openurl 
  Title Distraction as a function of within-task stimulation for hyperactive and normal children Type Journal Article
  Year 1978 Publication Journal of learning disabilities Abbreviated Journal J Learn Disabil  
  Volume 11 Issue 9 Pages 540-548  
  Keywords *Attention; Child; Child, Preschool; Color Perception; Female; Humans; Hyperkinesis/*psychology; Male; Motor Skills; *Task Performance and Analysis; Visual Perception  
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  ISSN 0022-2194 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:731119 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 270  
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Author (down) Zentall, S.S.; Zentall, T.R. openurl 
  Title Hyperactivity ratings: statistical regression provides an insufficient explanation of practice effects Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Journal of pediatric psychology Abbreviated Journal J Pediatr Psychol  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 393-396  
  Keywords Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*diagnosis; Child; Humans; Male; *Practice (Psychology); *Statistics  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0146-8693 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:3772683 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 261  
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Author (down) Zentall, S.S.; Zentall, T.R. openurl 
  Title Optimal stimulation: a model of disordered activity and performance in normal and deviant children Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Psychological bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 94 Issue 3 Pages 446-471  
  Keywords *Arousal; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*psychology; Autistic Disorder/*psychology; Behavior Therapy; Child; Humans  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0033-2909 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:6657825 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 264  
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Author (down) Zentall, S.S.; Zentall, T.R. openurl 
  Title Activity and task performance of hyperactive children as a function of environmental stimulation Type Journal Article
  Year 1976 Publication Journal of consulting and clinical psychology Abbreviated Journal J Consult Clin Psychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 693-697  
  Keywords Achievement; Acoustic Stimulation; *Arousal; Auditory Perception; Child; Humans; Hyperkinesis/*etiology; Photic Stimulation; Visual Perception  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-006X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:965541 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 272  
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