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Author (down) Zervanos Sm, K.R. openurl 
  Title Seasonal home ranges and activity patterns of feral assateague island ponies Type Conference Volume
  Year 1979 Publication Symposium on the Ecology and Behavior of wild and feral Equids, Laramie Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 3-14  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1753  
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Author (down) Zenzinger, S. url  doi
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  Title Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur optischen Kommunikation bei im Zoo gehaltenen Schabracken- und Flachlandtapiren (Tapirus indicus und Tapirus terrestris) Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Der Zoologische Garten Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 79 Issue 4-5 Pages 162-174  
  Keywords Tapirus indicus; Tapirus terrestris; communication; optical stimuli; posters; white ear rims; key stimulus  
  Abstract Until now, unlike their relatives, rhinos and horses tapirs have received considerably less attention in studies about communication. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to test which stimuli contain optical information for tapirs. For this purpose, the reactions of tapirs on optical stimuli (posters with edited tapir silhouettes) were examined. Research visits took place at the zoos of Berlin, Dortmund, Heidelberg, Munich, Nuremberg and Osnabrück during the year 2006. A total of 23 individuals, thereof 8 (5.3) Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and 15 (5.10) Lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) attended the experiment. The results of the optical test with variously intense edited tapir silhouettes speak for the importance of the white ear rims as a family specific key stimulus. But that effect could not be amplified by adding a greater extent of white to the silhouette. Tapirs of both species reacted most strongly to the normal tapir silhouette followed by a silhouette without proboscis.  
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  ISSN 0044-5169 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5321  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R; Hogan, D.E. doi  openurl
  Title Key pecking in pigeons produced by pairing keylight with inaccessible grain Type Journal Article
  Year 1975 Publication Abbreviated Journal J Exp Anal Behav  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 199-206  
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  Abstract In Experiment I, keylight was paired with inaccessible grain delivery (under two conditions of keylight intensity) to determine if autoshaping would occur in the absence of primary reinforcement. In Experiment II, the procedure was repeated with accessible grain, for comparison. In Experiment III, the procedures were repeated with explicitly unpaired presentations of keylight and either inaccessible or accessible grain. The results indicated that key pecking occurred as quickly in the presence of keylight pairings with inaccessible grain as with accessible grain, though (except for one bird) key pecking was not maintained with inaccessible grain. Furthermore, compared to the dim keylight, the bright keylight greatly suppressed key pecking when paired with inaccessible grain, and reduced the rate of key pecking when paired with accessible grain. Little key pecking occurred in groups exposed to explicitly unpaired presentations of keylight (whether bright or dim) and grain (whether accessible or inaccessible). When the birds in Experiment III were retested with explicitly paired presentations of keylight and grain, little key pecking was observed, suggesting suppressive effects of prior explicitly unpaired presentations. It is suggested that the effects of key-brightness manipulation were produced by the association of grain with cues other than the response key, or by distraction produced by partial illumination of the grain hopper.  
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  ISSN 0022-5002 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16811840 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 273  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R.;Hogan, D.E.. doi  openurl
  Title Same/different concept learning in the pigeon: the effect of negative instances and prior adaptation to transfer stimuli Type Journal Article
  Year 1978 Publication Abbreviated Journal J Exp Anal Behav  
  Volume 30 Issue 2 Pages 177-186  
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  Abstract Pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample or oddity-from-sample task with shapes (circle and plus). Half of each group was exposed to “negative instance” trials i.e., for matching birds, neither comparison key matched the sample, and for oddity birds both comparison keys matched the sample. When all birds were transferred to a new task involving colors (red and green), nonshifted birds (transferred from matching to matching, or oddity to oddity) performed significantly better than shifted birds (transferred from matching to oddity, or oddity to matching), but only if they had experienced negative instances of the training concept. When all birds were exposed to negative instances of the transfer task and then transferred to a new color task (yellow and blue), dramatic transfer effects were observed. The effect of pre-exposure to the yellow and blue colors, in order to reduce transfer-stimulus novelty, had a minor effect on transfer.  
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  ISSN 0022-5002 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16812097 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 271  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R.; Weaver, J.E.; Clement, T.S. openurl 
  Title Pigeons group time intervals according to their relative duration Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychonomic bulletin & review Abbreviated Journal Psychon Bull Rev  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 113-117  
  Keywords Animals; Columbidae; *Discrimination (Psychology); Reinforcement (Psychology); Time Factors; Time Perception  
  Abstract In the present research, we asked whether pigeons tended to judge time intervals not only in terms of their absolute value but also relative to a duration from which they must be discriminated (i.e., longer or shorter). Pigeons were trained on two independent temporal discriminations. In one discrimination, sample durations of 2 and 8 sec were associated with, for example, red and green hue comparisons, respectively, and in the other discrimination, sample durations of 4 and 16 sec were associated with vertical and horizontal line comparisons, respectively. If pigeons are trained on a temporal discrimination and tested with intermediate durations, the subjective midpoint typically occurs close to the geometric mean of the two trained values. The 4- and 8-sec values were selected to be the geometric mean of the two values in the other discrimination. When a 4-sec test sample was presented with the comparisons from the 2- and 8-sec discrimination, the pigeons preferred the comparison associated with the shorter sample. Similarly, when an 8-sec test sample was presented with the comparisons from the 4- and 16-sec discrimination, the pigeons preferred the comparison associated with the longer sample. Thus, a relative grouping effect was found. That is, durations that should have produced indifferent choice were influenced by their relative durations (shorter than or longer than the alternative) during training.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0044, USA. zentall@pop.uky.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1069-9384 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15116995 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 231  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R.; Sherburne, L.M.; Roper, K.L.; Kraemer, P.J. openurl 
  Title Value transfer in a simultaneous discrimination appears to result from within-event pavlovian conditioning Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes Abbreviated Journal J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process  
  Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 68-75  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Columbidae; *Conditioning, Classical; *Discrimination Learning; Female; Male; *Reinforcement (Psychology)  
  Abstract When pigeons acquire a simple simultaneous discrimination, some of the value acquired by the S+ transfers to the S-. The mechanism underlying this transfer of value was examined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, pigeons trained on two simultaneous discriminations (A + B- and C +/- D-) showed a preference for B over D. This preference was reduced, however, following the devaluation of A. In Experiment 2, when after the same original training, value was given to D, the pigeons' preference for C did not significantly increase. In Experiment 3, when both discriminations involved partial reinforcement (S +/-), A + C- training resulted in a preference for B over D, whereas B + D- training resulted in a preference for A over C. Thus, simultaneous discrimination training appears to result in bidirectional within-event conditioning involving the S+ and S-.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky Lexington 40506, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0097-7403 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:8568497 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 255  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R.; Sherburne, L.M. openurl 
  Title Role of differential sample responding in the differential outcomes effect involving delayed matching by pigeons Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes Abbreviated Journal J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process  
  Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 390-401  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Choice Behavior; *Columbidae; *Discrimination Learning; Feeding Behavior; Task Performance and Analysis  
  Abstract The role of differential sample responding in the differential outcomes effect was examined. In Experiment 1, we trained pigeons on a one-to-many matching task with differential sample responding required. Differential outcomes were associated with samples and comparisons, with comparisons only, or with neither samples nor comparisons. Slopes of delay functions for trials with pecked versus nonpecked samples suggested use of a single-code-default strategy in the nondifferential-outcomes group but not in the differential-outcomes groups. In Experiment 2, differential sample responding and differential outcomes were manipulated independently. Again, there were significant differences in the relative slopes of the delay functions. Results suggest that differential outcomes exert their effect independently of differential sample responding.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0097-7403 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7964521 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 257  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R.; Sherburne, L.M. openurl 
  Title Transfer of value from S+ to S- in a simultaneous discrimination Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes Abbreviated Journal J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process  
  Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 176-183  
  Keywords Animals; *Appetitive Behavior; Attention; Color Perception; Columbidae; *Discrimination Learning; Female; Male; Motivation; Orientation; Pattern Recognition, Visual; *Problem Solving; *Reinforcement Schedule; *Transfer (Psychology)  
  Abstract Value transfer theory has been proposed to account for transitive inference effects (L. V. Fersen, C. D. L. Wynne, J. D. Delius, & J. E. R. Staddon, 1991), in which following training on 4 simultaneous discriminations (A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, D+E-) pigeons show a preference for B over D. According to this theory, some of the value of reinforcement acquired by each S+ transfers to the S-. In the transitive inference experiment, C (associated with both reward and nonreward) can transfer less value to D than A (associated only with reward) can transfer to B. Support for value transfer theory was demonstrated in 2 experiments in which an S- presented in the context of a stimulus to which responses were always reinforced (S+) was preferred over an S- presented in the context of a stimulus to which responses were sometimes reinforced (S +/-).  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0097-7403 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:8189186 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 258  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R.; Roper, K.L.; Sherburne, L.M. doi  openurl
  Title Most directed forgetting in pigeons can be attributed to the absence of reinforcement on forget trials during training or to other procedural artifacts Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior Abbreviated Journal J Exp Anal Behav  
  Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 127-137  
  Keywords Animals; *Attention; Color Perception; Columbidae; Cues; *Discrimination Learning; *Mental Recall; Motivation; Pattern Recognition, Visual; *Reinforcement Schedule; Retention (Psychology)  
  Abstract In research on directed forgetting in pigeons using delayed matching procedures, remember cues, presented in the delay interval between sample and comparisons, have been followed by comparisons (i.e., a memory test), whereas forget cues have been followed by one of a number of different sample-independent events. The source of directed forgetting in delayed matching to sample in pigeons was examined in a 2 x 2 design by independently manipulating whether or not forget-cue trials in training ended with reinforcement and whether or not forget-cue trials in training included a simultaneous discrimination (involving stimuli other than those used in the matching task). Results were consistent with the hypothesis that reinforced responding following forget cues is sufficient to eliminate performance deficits on forget-cue probe trials. Only when reinforcement was omitted on forget-cue trials in training (whether a discrimination was required or not) was there a decrement in accuracy on forget-cue probe trials. When reinforcement is present, however, the pattern of responding established during and following a forget cue in training may also play a role in the directed forgetting effect. These findings support the view that much of the evidence for directed forgetting using matching procedures may result from motivational and behavioral artifacts rather than the loss of memory.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-5002 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7714447 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 256  
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R.; Riley, D.A. openurl 
  Title Selective attention in animal discrimination learning Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication The Journal of general psychology Abbreviated Journal J Gen Psychol  
  Volume 127 Issue 1 Pages 45-66  
  Keywords Animals; Attention/*physiology; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Conditioning (Psychology)/physiology; Cues; Discrimination Learning/*physiology; Generalization, Response; Rats  
  Abstract The traditional approach to the study of selective attention in animal discrimination learning has been to ask if animals are capable of the central selective processing of stimuli, such that certain aspects of the discriminative stimuli are partially or wholly ignored while their relationships to each other, or other relevant stimuli, are processed. A notable characteristic of this research has been that procedures involve the acquisition of discriminations, and the issue of concern is whether learning is selectively determined by the stimulus dimension defined by the discriminative stimuli. Although there is support for this kind of selective attention, in many cases, simpler nonattentional accounts are sufficient to explain the results. An alternative approach involves procedures more similar to those used in human information-processing research. When selective attention is studied in humans, it generally involves the steady state performance of tasks for which there is limited time allowed for stimulus input and a relatively large amount of relevant information to be processed; thus, attention must be selective or divided. When this approach is applied to animals and alternative accounts have been ruled out, stronger evidence for selective or divided attention in animals has been found. Similar processes are thought to be involved when animals search more natural environments for targets. Finally, an attempt is made to distinguish these top-down attentional processes from more automatic preattentional processes that have been studied in humans and other animals.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506, USA. Zentall@pop.uky.edu  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-1309 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10695951 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 250  
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