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Author (down) Zlatanova, D.; Ahmed, A.; Valasseva, A.; Genov, P. openurl 
  Title Adaptive Diet Strategy of the Wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Europe: a Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication ACTA ZOOLOGICA BULGARICA Abbreviated Journal Acta zool. bulg.  
  Volume 66 Issue 4 Pages 439-452  
  Keywords Wolf, Canis lupus, prey, adaptive strategy  
  Abstract The diet strategy of the wolf in Europe is reviewed on the basis of 74 basic and 14 additional literature
sources. The comparative analysis reveals clear dependence on the latitude (and, therefore, on the changing
environmental conditions) correlated with the wild ungulate abundance and diversity. Following a
geographic pattern, the wolf is specialised on different species of ungulates: moose and reindeer in Scandinavia,
red deer in Central and Eastern Europe and wild boar in Southern Europe. Where this large prey
is taken, the roe deer is hunted with almost the same frequency in every region. The wolf diet in Europe
shows two ecological adaptations formed by a complex of variables: 1. Wolves living in natural habitats
with abundance of wild ungulates feed mainly on wild prey. 2. In highly anthropogenic habitats, with low
abundance of wild prey, wolves feed on livestock (where husbandry of domestic animals is available) and
take also a lot of plant food, smaller prey (hares and rodents) and garbage food. The frequency of occurrence
of wild ungulates in the diet of wolves in North Europe varies from 54.0% in Belarus to 132.7% in
Poland, while that of livestock is in the range from 0.4% in Norway to 74.9% in Belarus. In South Europe,
the frequency of occurrence of wild prey varies from 0% in Italy and Spain to 136.0% in Italy, while of domestic
ungulates ranges between 0% and 100% in Spain. The low density or lack of wild prey triggers the
switch of the wolf diet to livestock, plant food (32.2-85% in Italy) or even garbage (up to 41.5% in Italy).
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6388  
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Author (down) Zimmermann, W.; Zimmermann, M. pdf  openurl
  Title Operation unterm Kranichhimmel Type Conference Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Auf dem herbstlichen Zug in den Süden rasten bis zu 80 000 Kraniche im Hortobágy Nationalpark im Osten Ungarns. Das einst von Wildtieren besiedelte Gebiet ist heute eine Kulturlandschaft aus Feldern und Weiden, wo seltene Haustierrassen wie Zackelschaf, Graurind und Noniuspferde grasen, die von Hirten mit ihren Hunden gehütet werden. Die noch erhaltenen Steppengebiete zeichnen sich durch eine große Vielfalt in Flora und Fauna aus. Sie sollen möglichst wenig betreten werden, damit vor allem die bodenbrütenden Vögel, wie z.B. die seltene Großtrappe nicht gestört werden. Deshalb wurde die Kernzone – das Pentezug-Gebiet (2400 ha) – mit Przewalskipferden und „Auerochsen“ zur natürlichen Beweidung besetzt. Bereits in den ersten Jahren fiel es auf, dass das Rind deutlich schlechter an die kalte Jahreszeit angepasst ist als das Wildpferd. Deshalb wurden beide Arten besendert, um Körpertemperatur und Herzschlagfrequenz zu messen. Außerdem sollten Gras- und Kotanalysen Aufschluss über die Unterschiede in der Futterverwertbarkeit liefern.

Der Film zeigt die chirurgische Arbeit im Feld und vermittelt einen Eindruck über die Funktion der Sender. Außerdem werden die neuen Bemühungen vorgestellt, aus dem Heckrind eine robuste Rinderrasse zu züchten, die dem Auerochsen noch ähnlicher sieht.

Ein Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, die klimatischen Grenzen zu erkennen, in denen die „Auerochsen“ einen Winter ohne Zufütterung überleben können. Diese Rinderrasse wird verstärkt zur Beweidung in Naturschutzgebieten eingesetzt, ihren Bedürfnissen wird aber nicht immer Rechnung getragen.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Zimmermann, W.; Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.  
  Language Deutsch Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Public Day Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5572  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Zimen, E. openurl 
  Title Social dynamics of the wolf pack Type Book Chapter
  Year 1975 Publication The wild canids Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 336-362  
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  Publisher Van Nostrand Reinhold Place of Publication New York Editor Fox, M.W.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5231  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Ziegler, W.H. openurl 
  Title [Endocrinological studies in arterial hypertension. Search for phaeochromocytoma] Type Journal Article
  Year 1976 Publication Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift Abbreviated Journal Schweiz Med Wochenschr  
  Volume 106 Issue 34 Pages 1148-1150  
  Keywords Angiography; Blood Volume; Catecholamines/urine; Glucagon/diagnostic use; Histamine/diagnostic use; Humans; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Hypertension/*etiology; Methods; Pheochromocytoma/*complications/diagnosis; Tyramine/diagnostic use  
  Abstract Elevated urinary catecholamines and their metabolites are the only findings which confirm the presence of pheochromocytoma. This examination is of particular interest if carried out in urine produced after spontaneous hypertensive episodes. Pharmacologic tests when carried out under standard conditions have proven to be a reliable aid in cases of suspected pheochromocytoma. Roentgenographic studies, determination of local plasma catecholamine concentrations and blood volume control should be undertaken in these patients before surgical procedure.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language German Summary Language Original Title Endokrinologische Untersuchungen bei arterieller Hypertonie. Suche nach Phaochromozytom  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-7672 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12561 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4047  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Ziccardi F, openurl 
  Title The african wild ass: Part I Type Journal Article
  Year 1970 Publication Abbreviated Journal Afr Wild Life  
  Volume 24 Issue Pages 202-208  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1757  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Ziccardi F, openurl 
  Title The african wild ass: Part II Type Journal Article
  Year 1970 Publication Abbreviated Journal Afr Wild Life  
  Volume 24 Issue Pages 287-292  
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  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1758  
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Author (down) Zhou, W.-X.; Sornette, D.; Hill, R.A.; Dunbar, R.I.M. doi  openurl
  Title Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 272 Issue 1561 Pages 439-444  
  Keywords Anthropology, Cultural; *Group Structure; Humans; *Models, Biological; *Social Behavior; *Social Environment  
  Abstract The 'social brain hypothesis' for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes, suggesting that there is a cognitive constraint on group size that depends, in some way, on the volume of neural material available for processing and synthesizing information on social relationships. More recently, work on both human and non-human primates has suggested that social groups are often hierarchically structured. We combine data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study. Using fractal analysis, we identify, with high statistical confidence, a discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to three: rather than a single or a continuous spectrum of group sizes, humans spontaneously form groups of preferred sizes organized in a geometrical series approximating 3-5, 9-15, 30-45, etc. Such discrete scale invariance could be related to that identified in signatures of herding behaviour in financial markets and might reflect a hierarchical processing of social nearness by human brains.  
  Address State Key Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15734699 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 549  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Zharkikh, T.L.; Andersen, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behaviour of Bachelor Males of the Przewalski Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) at the Reserve Askania Nova Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Der Zoologische Garten Abbreviated Journal Zoologische Garten  
  Volume 78 Issue 5-6 Pages 282-299  
  Keywords Equid; Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii); Bachelor group; Social behaviour  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate social relationships between Przewalski horses at a high density in a bachelor group housed in a 3.5-ha enclosure. The group consisted of 16 males aged 5 to 16. Behavioural data were collected during 18 days, total 216 h. Fifteen minute focal animal sampling was used; each horse was observed three times a day for a total of 45 min. The occurrence of 25 behaviours was recorded, and group spacing behaviour was studied using nearest neighbour recordings. The group divided into four subgroups; this supports earlier findings of bachelor groups (n>=10) dividing into two or more subgroups if they included several males aged >5 years. The total frequency of social interactions was 14.6±1.1 h-1. Although the density of the group in this study was higher than in other zoos, the males interacted agonistically only 3.6 h-1. The most frequently observed social behaviour categories were friendly interactions. This study shows possibilities to use some investigative behaviours (marking, flehmen, olfactory investigation, etc.) as indicators of social status of animals in a group.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0044-5169 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5098  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Zhao, C.J.; Qin, Y.H.; Lee, X.H.; Wu, C. doi  openurl
  Title Molecular and cytogenetic paternity testing of a male offspring of a hinny Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie Abbreviated Journal J Anim Breed Genet  
  Volume 123 Issue 6 Pages 403-405  
  Keywords Animals; Cytogenetic Analysis; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics; Equidae/*genetics; Female; Horses/genetics; Hybridization, Genetic; Male; Microsatellite Repeats; Pedigree; Protamines/genetics; Sexual Behavior, Animal  
  Abstract An alleged male foal of a female mule, whose sire and grandparents were unknown, was identified for its pedigree. Parentage testing was conducted by comparing polymorphism of 12 microsatellite DNA sites and mitochondrial D-loop sequences of the male foal and the female mule. Both the sequence analysis of species-specific DNA fragments and a cytogenetic analysis were performed to identify the species of the foal and its parents. The results showed that the alleged female mule is actually a hinny, and the male foal, which possesses 62 chromosomes, qualifies as an offspring of the female hinny and a jack donkey.  
  Address Equine Center, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0931-2668 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17177697 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1846  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Zhang, Y.; Cao, Q.S.; Rubenstein, D.I.; Zang, S.; Songer, M.; Leimgruber, P.; Chu, H.; Cao, J.; Li, K.; Hu, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Water Use Patterns of Sympatric Przewalski's Horse and Khulan: Interspecific Comparison Reveals Niche Differences Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 10 Issue 7 Pages e0132094  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Acquiring water is essential for all animals, but doing so is most challenging for desert-living animals. Recently Przewalski's horse has been reintroduced to the desert area in China where the last wild surviving member of the species was seen before it vanished from China in the1960s. Its reintroduction placed it within the range of a close evolutionary relative, the con-generic Khulan. Determining whether or not these two species experience competition and whether or not such competition was responsible for the extinction of Przewalski's horses in the wild over 50 years ago, requires identifying the fundamental and realized niches of both species. We remotely monitored the presence of both species at a variety of water points during the dry season in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Przewalski's horses drank twice per day mostly during daylight hours at low salinity water sources while Khulans drank mostly at night usually at high salinity water points or those far from human residences. Spatial and temporal differences in water use enables coexistence, but suggest that Przewalski's horses also restrict the actions of Khulan. Such differences in both the fundamental and realized niches were associated with differences in physiological tolerances for saline water and human activity as well as differences in aggression and dominance.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6377  
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