||The feeding behavior of 16 adult female rhesus monkeys living in three captive social groups was observed. Estimates of relative food intake, feeding rate, and location of feeding in relation to food sources were compared between females of different dominance ranks. Higher-ranking females had greater access to feeding sites and were supplanted or threatened less frequently while feeding than subordinates. However, no consistent differences in estimates of total intake were found between females of high and females of low rank. The effects of dominance on feeding behavior were most pronounced in the group receiving the least food relative to estimates of overall group nutritional requirements. Higher-ranking females, both over the long term and during the study period, tended to produce more surviving offspring. The effects of dominance on reproductive performance appeared to be less related to food intake than to competitive and aggressive interactions, potentially resulting in higher levels of stress for subordinates.