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Author (up) Crosby, M.B.; Svenson, J.L.; Zhang, J.; Nicol, C.J.; Gonzalez, F.J.; Gilkeson, G.S. doi  openurl
  Title Peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is not necessary for synthetic PPARgamma agonist inhibition of inducible nitric-oxide synthase and nitric oxide Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics Abbreviated Journal J Pharmacol Exp Ther  
  Volume 312 Issue 1 Pages 69-76  
  Keywords Animals; Cell Line; Gene Expression/drug effects; Macrophages/drug effects/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Nitric Oxide/*metabolism; Nitric Oxide Synthase/*metabolism; Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; PPAR delta/metabolism; PPAR gamma/*agonists/deficiency; Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology  
  Abstract Peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonists inhibit inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6. Because of these effects, synthetic PPARgamma agonists, including thiazolidinediones, are being studied for their impact on inflammatory disease. The anti-inflammatory concentrations of synthetic PPARgamma agonists range from 10 to 50 microM, whereas their binding affinity for PPARgamma is in the nanomolar range. The specificity of synthetic PPARgamma agonists for PPARgamma at the concentrations necessary for anti-inflammatory effects is thus in question. We report that PPARgamma is not necessary for the inhibition of iNOS by synthetic PPARgamma agonists. RAW 264.7 macrophages possess little PPARgamma, yet lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)gamma-induced iNOS was inhibited by synthetic PPARgamma agonists at 20 microM. Endogenous PPARgamma was inhibited by the transfection of a dominant-negative PPARgamma construct into murine mesangial cells. In the transfected cells, synthetic PPARgamma agonists inhibited iNOS production at 10 microM, similar to nontransfected cells. Using cells from PPARgamma Cre/lox conditional knockout mice, baseline and LPS/IFNgamma-induced nitric oxide levels were higher in macrophages lacking PPARgamma versus controls. However, synthetic PPARgamma agonists inhibited iNOS at 10 microM in the PPARgamma-deficient cells, similar to macrophages from wild-type mice. These results indicate that PPARgamma is not necessary for inhibition of iNOS expression by synthetic PPARgamma agonists at concentrations over 10 microM. Intrinsic PPARgamma function, in the absence of synthetic agonists, however, may play a role in inflammatory modulation.  
  Address Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3565 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15356214 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 73  
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