||A total of 17 microsatellite deoxyribonucleic acid loci used routinely for horse parentage control were used to evaluate genetic diversity among normal Arabian horses and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) carrier Arabian horses (ArS) and normal Arab-Barb horses and SCID carrier Arab-Barb horses (ArbeS). On the basis of the genotype of 186 horses, mean allelic diversity was estimated as 6.82, 5.53, and 6.7059 in normal Arabian horses, ArS, and for both groups of Arab-Barb horses, respectively. Five specific alleles were observed in ArS and ArbeS, with one common with ArS at HMS6, whereas five alleles common between ArS and ArbeS had a high frequency. Expected and observed heterozygosity showed great heterogeneity in the population studied and were similar or higher when compared with other studies on Arabian horses. Coefficient of gene differentiation Gst of Nei associated with Nei's genetic distance and multivariate correspondence analysis indicated a possible differentiation between the studied populations when analyzed separately according to breed. Probability of assignment of a horse to a specific group was assessed using a full and partial Bayesian approach. In all, 80.6% of Arab horses and 78.2% of Arab-Barb horses were assigned properly with a partial Bayesian test, which provided better results than the full one. These findings will be useful for identification of SCID carrier horses by using the microsatellite deoxyribonucleic acid loci used routinely for horse parentage control in our laboratory.