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Author (up) Rutberg, A.T. url  doi
  Title Horse Fly Harassment and the Social Behavior of Feral Ponies Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal Ethology  
  Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 145-154  
  Abstract Abstract Horse flies (Tabanidae) on and around feral ponies in harem groups were counted at Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland, U.S.A., between June and August 1985. Harem stallions attracted the most flies; adult mares showed intermediate fly numbers, while few flies landed on foals under any circumstances. The use of thermal and chemical cues by flies selecting a host may have helped create this disparity. When flies were abundant, ponies reduced spacing within the group. Ponies in larger groups suffered from fewer flies than ponies in smaller groups. There was, however, no evidence that ponies merged into larger groups in response to fly harassment, suggesting that biting flies play little role in structuring pony social organization.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0179-1613 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.1987.tb00648.x Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6417  
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