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Author (up) Klingel, H . pdf  openurl
  Title Social Organisation of the Equids Type Conference Article
  Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Abstract Two distinct types of social organisation have evolved in the Equidae. Type 1: In Horse Equus przewalskii, Plains Zebra E. quagga and Mountain Zebra E. zebra the adults live in non-territorial, stable, one-male families and as single bachelors and in bachelor groups. Family stallions have the exclusive mating rights with the mares in their harems. These consist of up to 6 unrelated mares plus their offspring, totalling up to 20 members. Mares stay in their harems until death. Stallions' tenure is from age 5-6 years, i.e. when they succeed in controlling a harem, for close to life time, but are replaced when dead or incapacitated. Harems are stable even in the absence of a stallion, indicating voluntary membership. Adolescent mares leave their parental families to become members of another harem. In Plains Zebra the adolescent mares are abducted, during an oestrus, by suitors who fight the defending family stallion/father. Successful stallions are bachelors who start a family, or family stallions enlarging their harem. Young stallions leave their parental families voluntarily at age 2-3 years and join bachelor stallion groups from where the family stallions are recruited. An individualised dominance hierarchy excists with the stallion in the alpha position. It is based on individual knowledge and recognistion of the members. Type 2: In Grevy's Zebra E. grevyi, African Wild Ass E. africanus and Asiatic Wild Ass E. hemionus adult stallions monopolise territories in which they have the exclusive mating rights. Stallions are tolerant of any conspecifics entering their territory. Bachelor stallions behave subordinately – or fight for the possession of the territory which is a prerequisite for reproduction. Mares join up to form anonymous and unstable groups or herds. The only stable unit is of a mare and her offspring. In Grevy's Zebra mares with foal join preferentially conspecifics of the same soial status, as do mares without foal. Matings take place inside the territory. There is no lasting relationship of the mare with a particular stallion, and the mare may be mated by any stallion whose territory she is visiting. Territories measure up to 10 or more square kilometres, and tenure is for several years. Grevy Zebra territorial owners leave their territories for a few hours to visit a water hole, or for months when grazing and water conditions are below requirements, and re-occupy it upon return, unchallenged. Except for a few small populations, the extant equids live in semi-arid to arid regions where environmental conditions force them to migrate seasonally or opportunistically. The ranges of the various species overlap: Mountain Zebra and Plains Zebra in South Africa and Namibia, Plains Zebra and Grevy's Zebra in Kenya and Ethiopia, Grevy's Zebra and African Wild Ass in Ethiopia, Asiatic Wild Ass and Przewalski Horse in Mongolia andChina. Although, in the overlap zones, individuals of different species are using the same resources like water and grazing simultaneously and next to each other, they rarely make closer contacts. Infanticide has been recorded in captive situations.  
  Address Technische Universität Braunschweig  
  Corporate Author Klingel, H . Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008  
  Notes Invited speaker IESM 2008 Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4457  
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