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Author (up) Cregier, S.; Holmes, O. pdf  openurl
  Title The Welfare of Horses During Transport Type Conference Article
  Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Abstract Standard horse trailers, adapted from dead-weight delivery wagons, were never intended to carry live weight. Horse magazines and scientific, veterinary, animal behaviour, and engineering journals indicate the consequences: scrambling, trailer sway, equipment damage, loss of tow vehicle control, jack knifing, rollovers, and injuries to horses, handlers, and rescuers. The standard horse trailer cannot meet motor vehicle regulations requiring trailers to halt within 9 metres (30 feet) at 32 kilometres (20 miles) per hour without jack knifing. Equipment intended to protect the horse in transit adds to travel hazards. University of Guelph Ontario Veterinary Clinic surgeons report that head, throat, chest, shattered shoulder blades, butt bar or chain injuries to hocks and legs, and pastern injuries, in that order, are common. Internal, back, and hindquarter injuries also result due to the horse“s forced high-headed, wider hindleg stance or falling during transport. The horse”s sacroiliac joint, not intended to be weight bearing, is easily dislocated by pathologists. This is why for centuries horsemen have released tension from horses“ backs and necks by ”showing them the way to the ground.“ It was Italian cavalryman Federico Caprilli”s forward seat which removed strain on the horse“s hindquarters and freed its head to balance. More demanding jumps, slides and races were possible. Today, only two horse transport designs allow the horse to balance automatically and naturally during transit. Strain on the horse”s hindquarters is removed. These transports, adapted to equine behavioural needs, meet Office International des Epizooties (OIE) standards for handler and horse safety and welfare, and automotive safety. Japanese and U.S. studies on performance horses transported according to OIE standards have indicated that these horses have a competitive advantage. Applying these standards allows a horseman to complete a journey with the same horse that began it.  
  Address University of Prince Edward Island  
  Corporate Author Cregier, S. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008  
  Notes Invited speaker IESM 2008 Fullpaper Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4455  
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