||Abstract. Social and spatial mechanisms of feeding competition among adult female olive baboons were studied in two free-ranging groups, one foraging for natural foods, and one that was being provisioned. Similar behavioural processes were found to underlie rank-related differences in food intake in the two situations. Dominance rank of females in the naturally foraging group was positively correlated with the rate at which other animals were supplanted from feeding sites, the ratio of supplants of others to supplants received, and the number of near neighbours while feeding on clumped foods. It is unlikely that the latter result was due to rank-related differences in matriline size, because no significant correlations between rank and neighbour density were found for non-feeding activities. Step-wise regression analysis indicated that both number of neighbours and the supplant ratio explained significant proportions of inter-individual variance in daily food intake, though only the supplant ratio contributed significantly to feeding rate. High-ranking females also had priority of access to feeding sites within trees, and competition was most intense for foods that were spatially clumped. Similarly, in the provisioned group, rank was correlated with the rate at which supplants were received, and with spatial indices estimating centrality and the area of unoccupied space around an individual. Over 99% of the inter-individual variance in feeding rate was explained in a step-wise regression with supplant rates and spatial indices as independent variables. It is concluded that both active supplanting and individuals' spatial positions within the group mediate rank-related differences in food intake.