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Author (up) Takahashi, T.; Kasashima, Y.; Eto, D.; Mukai, K.; Hiraga, A. openurl 
  Title Effect of uphill exercise on equine superficial digital flexor tendon forces at trot and canter Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 36 Pages 435-439  
  Keywords Animals; Biomechanics; Exercise Test/veterinary; Female; Forelimb/physiology; Hoof and Claw/physiology; Horses/*physiology; Male; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*methods/*physiology; Tarsal Joints/*physiology; Tarsus, Animal; Tendon Injuries/etiology/prevention & control/veterinary; Time Factors  
  Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: One cause of overstrain injury to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in horses is the force loaded on the SDFT during repeated running. Therefore, decreasing this force may reduce SDFT injury. It has been reported that strain on the SDFT decreases with a toe-wedge shoe. Uphill courses are used for training of racehorses, and the angle of hoof-sole to the horizon during uphill running is similar to that of the toe-wedge shoe. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of uphill exercise on the force on the SDFT during trotting and cantering. METHODS: Arthroscopically implantable force probes (AIFP) were implanted into the SDFT of the left or right forelimb of 7 Thoroughbred horses and AIFP output recorded during trotting and cantering on a treadmill inclined at slopes of 0, 3 or 8%, and then 0% again. Superficial digital flexor tendon force was calculated as a relative value, with the amplitude of AIFP output voltage at initial 0% slope equal to 100. RESULTS: Out of 14 sets of experiments, AIFP data were analysed successfully in 9 at the trot, in 3 at the canter in the trailing forelimb on a slope of 3 and 8%, and in 2 at the canter in the leading forelimb on a slope of 3%. Increasing the incline from 0-8% tended to decrease peak force in the SDFT at the trot, and in the trailing forelimb at the canter. However, force in the SDFT was unchanged in the leading forelimb at the canter on the 3% incline. CONCLUSIONS: The force in the SDFT trotting or cantering uphill is unchanged or lower than that loaded at the same speed on a flat surface. Because at similar speeds the workload for uphill exercise is greater than on the flat, uphill running increases exercise intensity without increasing force in the SDFT. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Uphill exercise may reduce the risk of SDFT injury as both running speed and SDFT force are decreased on an incline as compared to the flat, even when exercise intensity is the same. Further study is needed to confirm these findings at canter in a larger population of horses.  
  Address Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 321-4 Tokami-cho, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 320-0856, Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17402462 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4005  
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