||The isomerization of horse-heart ferricytochrome c caused by varying pH was kinetically studied by using circular dichroism (CD) and optical absorption stopped-flow techniques. In the pH range of 7--13, the existence of the three different forms of ferricytochrome c (pH less than 10, pH 10--12, and pH greater than 12) was indicated from the statistical difference CD spectra. On the basis of analyses of the stopped-flow traces in the near-ultraviolet and Soret wavelength regions, the isomerization of ferricytochrome c from neutral form to the above three alkaline forms was interpreted as follows (1) below pH 10, the replacement of the intrinsic ligand of methionine residue by lysine residue occurs; (2) between pH 10 and 12, the uncoupling of the polypeptide chain from close proximity of the heme group occurs first, followed by the interconversion of the intrinsic ligands; and (3) above pH 12, hydroxide form of ferricytochrome c is formed, though the replacement of the intrinsic ligand by extrinsic ligands may occur via different routes from those below pH 12. The CD changes at 288 nm and in the Soret region caused by the pH-jump (down) from pH 6.0 to 1.6 were compared with the appearance of the 620-nm absorption band ascribed to the formation of the high-spin form of ferricytochrome c. Both CD and absorption changes indicated that the isomerization at pH 1.6 consisted of two processes: one proceeded within the dead-time (about 2 ms) of the stopped-flow apparatus and the other proceeded at a determinable rate with the apparatus. On the basis of these results, the isomerization of ferricytochrome c at pH 1.6 was explained as follows: (1) the transition from the low-spin form to the high-spin forms occurs within about 2 ms, the dead-time of the stopped-flow apparatus; and (2) the polypeptide chain is unfolded after the formation of the high-spin form.